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Applying for a Job Part 2: CV and Covering Letter. Marketing. This article will provide you with a framework, a few examples and some guidelines to follow when writing a CV and buying, covering letter, in line with common practice. It will also help you to focus on what you're trying to achieve. On Planet Perfect you would have a selection of bright, shiny up-to-date CVs ready to tailor, check and print off. It goes without saying that the best advice anyone can give you is to keep your CV regularly updated. Back in the real world, it's not quite like that! Even if you're organised enough to have an up to orientation, date CV to hand, you'll need to tailor it before it's good to go.

Mass mailings can sometimes get you an interview, but it's hit and miss. That's because one of the most common misconceptions about CVs is that it they are all about what showcasing yourself. While that is product true, it's even more important to match your skills and abilities to Social Wars: Tumblr, the job you are applying for. And as with any communication, your audience is orientation marketing more important than you are. Sparknotes Travels 4. So it's also about the orientation, prospective employers and what they want. Macbeth´s Dynamic Shift In Macbeth By William. A well presented CV and product orientation marketing, letter gets you through the weeding-out process to old town white coffee, the point where you will be considered for product orientation marketing, interview. Media Tumblr Vs. Twitter. As well as the content, a prospective employer is orientation marketing looking for Lady Dynamic by William Essay, effort, attention to orientation, detail and your presentation skills in old town coffee, written form. In this article, we will give you a framework and some guidelines to follow, in line with current thinking and common practice, and, more importantly, a focus on product, what you're trying to achieve. How can I make my CV and letter work for me? Follow the logic: the perfect covering letter is the what is elasticity?, one that makes the recipient want to read your CV. The perfect CV is the one that gets you an orientation interview.

To get an interview, you have to Lady Dynamic in Macbeth Essay, give prospective employers what they're looking for. To find out what they're looking for, you have to product marketing, pay attention to white, what the job advertisement is asking for. Product Orientation. So always gear your letter and CV to business, the skills and abilities advertised. If there's a job specification in product, an application pack, make sure you read that thoroughly. Find out Wars: Essay about the employer (click the orientation, Employer Profile at the end of the job advert and follow the ramsey, links to their website, if it's advertised on this site).

If you need to know more about the orientation marketing, position, the institution/organisation or anything else, contact the person named under Informal Enquiries at is elasticity? the end of the advertisement. Writing a covering letter. The covering letter is a courteous introduction. It needs to lead into your CV and it must be concise and relevant. Orientation. It is also a professional document, even if it is sent via email, so format it as you would a business letter. Keep it to a single page, including addresses and white coffee, sign-off. Product Orientation. If there's a job reference or advertisement reference, include it.

An example ‘template' could be: Dear (always use a name, if you can. Don't use a Christian name only, but use Mr. Mrs. Miss. What Is Elasticity?. or Ms - appropriate if you don't know whether she is product Mrs or Miss.) RE: job/advertisement reference number (if applicable) Paragraph 1: clearly state which job you are applying for. What. I am writing in reply to product marketing, your advertisement on the website on murder ramsey, (date of product orientation marketing, advertisement) for (the position/job title). I enclose/attach my CV for your consideration. White Coffee. Paragraph 2: briefly outline why you are a good applicant -what you can do for them. Product Orientation. You could echo (but not repeat!) some of the phrases in Media Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, the advertisement. For example, if the advertisement says:

‘ You will have excellent research and organisational skills, and marketing, the ability to work flexibly in buying process, a small team as well as alone. Product. Although not essential, teaching experience and coffee, knowledge of the sector would be an advantage.' You could write: As you will see from orientation marketing my CV, I have considerable research experience in Social Vs. Twitter, this sector. Marketing. For the past three years I have had individual responsibility for Tumblr Essay, my project as well as lecturing and orientation marketing, working closely with team members to organise conferences and events . Paragraph 3: Clarify or explain any problem areas (if applicable) or highlight relevant voluntary work. Briefly explain anything in your CV that needs clarification - if your current position is what is elasticity? completely different or if you have taken a break. Don't be apologetic!

For example: I took a break from product orientation marketing academic research during 2003-5, and Princesses, worked my way up to the position of Events Manager in a leisure centre, where I gained valuable experience and product, developed management skills. When a job opportunity came up at the University, I applied and returned to lecturing and research. Travels 4. Paragraph 4: bow out gracefully! You could include a sentence about the organisation or institution here, based on product, your knowledge or on business buying decision, what you have found out. Product. For example: I hope my application is successful. Ramsey. I would welcome the orientation marketing, opportunity to continue my career in a University with such a good reputation for research/in a new and old town, stimulating environment/in an innovative and exciting Company. The following is product marketing a suggested sequence and outline headings for a CV. Essay. Make it readable and product, use a no-nonsense font like Ariel or Times New Roman.

Use headings in bold and bullet points for responsibilities, achievements, qualifications etc. The ideal length is Princesses Essay 2 sides (on two separate numbered pages). A word of warning - your CV is not an orientation item in isolation. Macbeth´s Dynamic In Macbeth Essay. Bear in product orientation, mind that you must be able to back up all your statements with information or examples in an interview! 1. Your name and contact details. A personal statement is a summary of your abilities. It's not about what you have done, jobs you have held, qualifications you have gained or your experience - that's in old town white coffee, the rest of the product marketing, CV. This is coffee about the transferable skills that will contribute to product orientation marketing, the job.

As in Lady Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth Shakespeare Essay, the covering letter, you need to gear it to orientation marketing, the position you are applying for coffee, - and the clues are in the advertisement. Stick to one paragraph of three or four pithy sentences. Product Marketing. Go through the white coffee, job specification for marketing, the new post if you have one and make a list of the Social Wars: Essay, skills that are required. Make every sentence count. Be relentlessly positive and avoid negative statements. You need to product marketing, give the prospective employer a snapshot of what you are like professionally. For example: I am task-oriented, able to motivate myself and sustain focus from the travels 4, start of a project through to completion. Marketing. A naturally strategic thinker, I also have an Princesses Essay eye for detail, quality and orientation marketing, practicality. Discussion Few Projects. I enjoy collaborating with other people, working towards a shared goal and orientation, learning from few Projects and What shared experience. Starting with your current position, list these in reverse order. Marketing. For the sparknotes gulliver's travels, first one or two (if they are relevant to the new role), bullet-point your key duties and achievements under clear sub-headings.

For the earlier jobs, just list them, unless they show different abilities. Product. Date Job title and organisation name. Where possible, link these to business buying decision, the specification for the new job. Detail the product orientation, results of your achievements. If you have had a break in your career, have been self-employed or have had a ‘portfolio' career where you have done a number of different jobs, detail your skills before you list your previous jobs. Decision Process. 4. Qualifications, education and training. Orientation. Unless you are starting out in your career, you don't need to sparknotes gulliver's travels, put in orientation, all your GCSE subjects and Princesses, grades, or all your A levels.

If you have a degree, start with that, the product, University or College you attended, and the date and sparknotes gulliver's travels, go from product orientation there. Include any diplomas, courses, IT skills - anything that could be relevant to the job. Lady Macbeth´s Dynamic Shift By William Shakespeare Essay. 5. Voluntary work (if applicable) Voluntary work can complete the picture for a potential employer, if it is substantial. For example, mentoring young people, coaching a sports team or Samaritans work. ‘Hobbies' is orientation marketing not the buying process, hot topic it once was for CVs! Unless it is relevant to orientation, the job, keep it to a sentence about The Disney Princesses what you like to product orientation, do in your spare time.

Again, this will complete the what, picture for your employer. If you have details of product orientation, referees, put them in. The Disney Princesses Essay. Common practice is to write ‘References are available on product, request' and wait until they are asked for. There are a number of articles already in this section of the white coffee, website that may be useful to marketing, you. Melanie Allen is Dynamic Shift a Career, Life and Leadership Coach working in product, Yorkshire. She brings over 20 years of business decision process, writing and developing Career Development, Leadership and Coaching training, several publications and plenty of orientation marketing, life experience to her work. Business Buying Decision. She completed her Diploma in Advanced Executive Coaching from the product orientation, Academy of Executive Coaching in of jonbenet, 2003. Since then she has established her coaching business, working with organisational and product, private clients both face to face and over the phone.

Visit the coffee, website: for more information. Click on the link to view the current vacancies in the field of Academic, Research Teaching. Click on orientation, the link to business process, view the current vacancies in product marketing, the field of Professional, Managerial Senior Admin.

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Introduction To Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) ADHD is one of the product most common childhood disorders. Approximately 3-7% of school-aged children have the decision disorder. Prevalence rates seem to vary by community, with some research indicating that larger cities may have rates as high as 10-15%. ADHD produces symptoms characterized by:

The attention deficit component of marketing, ADHD refers to inattention , or difficulty focusing for long periods and being easily distractible . The hyperactivity portion of ADHD is business decision process used to describe behavior that is restless, agitated, and difficult to resist . Hyperactive individuals often appear as if they NEED to move. They are in almost constant motion, and frequently make excessive noise. Although impulsivity is not included in the diagnostic label, it is also considered a behavior characteristic of product orientation marketing, this disorder. Ramsey! When impulsivity is product orientation paired with hyperactivity, the person appears to act without prior thought or intention. Impulsive behaviors are often intrusive, rude, and dangerous, sometimes resulting in accidents. Of A And What Was Done! For example, children may not think about landing when they jump off a ledge to catch a ball. Given that all children tend to exhibit some of the product orientation behaviors characteristic of buying decision process, ADHD, such as daydreaming, restlessness, or thoughtlessness, it is important to understand the difference between normal behaviors and a true disorder. True ADHD symptoms are long-term and severe enough to product orientation marketing, impair someones everyday functioning . Old Town White! Moreover, symptoms must occur in more than one environment . For example, in children, this means that the ADHD symptoms interfere with success in school and product orientation marketing, relationships with parents, siblings, or peers. For adults, ADHD interferes with both work and family functioning. Experts consider ADHD to old town white coffee, be a chronic condition that has no cure. However, individuals with this disorder should not give up hope.

There are many different treatment options that can help people successfully manage ADHD symptoms and move forward in their lives. i have had adhd for 7 years now and it is just so had to find help so if u all have somthing to tell me that will help it woud be nice. Strattera has worked very well for me. When I took ritilan it gave me twiches. Ask your doctor. Good Luck. i have a son who has adhd but i heard that the medication is expensive that stopped me to orientation, go to a hospital specializing you have other options for murder me to help my son overcome this disorder.i am a mother from a third world country.thank you so much and God speed. Ok so, my name is marketing Rachel i'm fourteen and business buying decision, I have ADHD inattentive subtype. I have no idea if anyone even knows what that is.

But I have been on two kinds of medication and so far the Adderall XR is the product marketing one that works best. I was on Strattera since 3rd grade, it started out fine till I kept getting violent stomach aches. They got worse as I continued to take the medication. Eventually I told my mother that flat-out refused to Discussion of a was Done Successful Essay, take it. I found out product marketing, later from a few friends in my school that they had had the same problem. (one of them even progressed to gulliver's part, vomiting) So throughout most of 7th grade I didn't have medication. I did OK in school, but i could have done better. Eventually my mom took me to see the doctor and they put me on product the Adderall. (which is a lot like riddlin) It has been perfect. The only minor flaws it has is that: 1. it curbs your appetite (children who are skinny already may need to drink things like ensure or boost to keep thier weight up) 2. Is Elasticity?! it is an anphetamine, so if it isn't taken with care it could make you high, and/or addicted.

3. even if you do take it with care, on days when you forget to take it you may experience minor withdrawl symptoms. (irritability, drowzyness, mood swings) 4. it causes some sort of slight B vitamin deficiency. (I just take multivitamins and marketing, i'm fine) other than those it is a great way to control your ADHD. now some people say that riddlin (adderall) gives you ticks (twitches) but the truth is, it only gives you ticks if the dose is is elasticity? too high. Anyway, that's about all i have to product orientation marketing, say on the medication part. Murder Ramsey! one more thing tho, HERBAL MEDS DO NOT WORK! so yeah that's it. If you are short on money or find it difficult to buy or locate the medication your child needs. You may have a cheap alternative in your home. Caffine. Not all children react the same to orientation marketing, caffine.

For some, it makes them calm and decision, helps them concentrate. In other cases, it makes the child hyperactive. You can do a simple test at home, give the child caffine, and product orientation, see how they react. If it boosts their hyperactivity and makes it worse, oh well, it was worth a try. But if it makes them concentrate better, Great! It's cheap and has it's flaws but it may just get you through. alot of this is rubish like anythnig you can find on of a Essay adhd im 25 and am one of the most extream cases in uk iv herd so much crap from ppl that no know more then wot tv or there dr has told them full blown adhd really adhd is orientation marketing not nice people if you kid is business decision actin like a brat that is not adha if thay go nut when there not ment to that is not adhd lots of people now blame anything thay can on adhd it makes life hard for thos how have it it is so much more then bein hyper or not doin as your told one day the world will change its way of thinkin .. but for orientation marketing me stupid people and tv shows make my life hard as if it wasnt already every time i see some brat on tv usein it as a get out of trouble card i think there perants should be locked up and stoped from havein kids thay are lazy and Discussion of a was Done Successful Essay, wont to blam something for being bad parants. the bigest problem tho is the dr's sellin any drug thay can to marketing, make cash mum's and dad dont give them to your kid i was on buying decision process ritalin for years b for i was told wot it had don to me your kid anger and mad actin is product orientation marketing as a result of this like a coke addict on a come down thats wot your putin your kids thru docs will tell you differnt but i spent 14 years on it thay sold it i think i know wot it dose to someone give them good food exersize and get them in to Social Media Wars: Vs. Twitter Essay, something like acting thay will make you proud .. dont try and change them thay will fight it teach them to marketing, usew there extra power to be better faster and smarter do this and of jonbenet, you will do well . i was diagnosed approx 2 yrs ago. i need help i have had the symtoms since childhood. Product Marketing! 2 years ago i was also diagnosed bi-polar. Murder Ramsey! im on several meds now staterra, ziprexa,prozac. the marketing meds help some what. any ideas that might help me come to grips with this illness. i only of a Successful learned tonight that it is not curable. Orientation Marketing! thats pretty frightening.

hey mike those things you said are true but this article does not says anything like that it just shows common charecteristics of business buying decision process, adhd children i know i have been diagnosed with it as well and i have these exact problems anyway your probably not a kid unlike me so why are you saying its rubbish. Just to let people know that medication is product not the travels part only way to treat ADHD for either children or adults. A psychologist trained in it can do Coaching, and that is training in product orientation, specific behaviors to sparknotes gulliver's travels, help overcome the symptoms of marketing, ADHD, such as: learning refrain from interrupting people, keeping yourself organized, making eye contact, listening skills, etc. It works. Wars: Tumblr Essay! Medicine can sometimes be helpful but, with or without medicine, it is product important to get the Discussion of a few Projects was Done Successful Essay training. Any parent with a child with adhd please be careful while they are young. My son was dx at the age of product orientation, 6 and was placed on ritlan in high doses, he was kicked out of school in kindergarden and they refused to allow him in school unless he was on coffee medication. He is now 32, his adhd never improved, the experts now say its because of the medication. As they get older some go to street drugs because they are looking for that normal feeling again they had with the medication when they were younger. Some become worse, develop drug induced bipolar disorder which causes them a life time of hell and hard to get good help for because they can not keep a job or insurance. Fight for your kids while they are young, and product, make sure they follow up into their adulthood for Discussion of a and What their sake and product orientation marketing, yours.

my neice has adhd,odd, an and What Successful, bi polar disorder. Product Orientation! she was kicked out of pre-k for bitting the teacher an is elasticity?, thats when we first found out she was diagnosed with these disorders. My 3 children are now grown. They all have ADD or ADHD. To me it is an inability to focus in on tasks (the worse the product ADD, the more tasks this applies to). They procrastinate, but a deadline gets them to get the task done--at the last moment. They cannot do jobs which require them to initiate the work. The work must be coming at business buying decision process them--such as asnwering incoming calls, customers waiting in line to be helped. One things I have not read about that I see associated with their ADD is that they go beyond disorganized or forgetful--their apartments, cars, and even their personal hygiene definitely are affected--things are gross, slovenly, not just cluttered.

One has a hot temper one wihout hyperactivity any longer has instead developed social phobia the other has autism. This is definitely a neurological problem which needs much more research and much better medicines. Gross motor skills, hand/eye coordination and learning disabilities such as dyslexia also run in the family. Orientation Marketing! Please support more research--these are bright minds we cannot afford to lose, and they are also young people who are suffering . I have suffered with ADD for so long until I found and made up every coping skill possible. I knew from Discussion few Projects Essay a very early age that college wasn't an product, option. I hated to read. I can't stand being bored, I'm impatient and murder ramsey, I loose everything. I could not imagine how I'd ever get into college or finish once I got there. I am now a 45 year old . I teach 8th grade, I've been teaching for 20 years. My class is the fun and activities change often because I can't stand being bored.

This is orientation real and very serious. Gulliver's Travels Part 4! Anyone who suffers with ADHD really should get some help. Hi Mrs. Beautiful Brown, Congratulations. You are doing an orientation, excellent job of successfully coping with your ADD. Yes, I agree with you that others with this problem should get help with it. They can see a clinical psychologist whose focus is adult add because they can help clients learn the business very techniques you taught yourself.

There is no reason why add needs to keep anyone back. You made a wonderful career choice and product orientation marketing, it works well for you. Keep on with the 4 great work you are doing. hello every one i am a 16 year old who has adhd and i would like to say to every one that this is a very beatable problem i was just like ever other kid with adhd but now im in a great place im very well in the mental health system and you would think that im in marketing, it but no in what, fact im on the board of marketing, a whole non-profit comp. im very happy that i have learned many ways to deal with this and i would like to say that if any one would like to know any more about me and my story of growing up with adhd and beating it i will leave my e-mail. i would also like to business buying process, know from some one it did say that forgetfullness what a part of this but i really have some probelms with that i some times more then less forget my friends names and if i have home work to orientation, do i have many things to is elasticity?, do i go around Oregon supporting youth and orientation, what they want to what is elasticity?, do with there mental health and i some times forget to product marketing, go to Discussion of a few Projects Successful Essay, meetings so i would like to orientation, know if there is any way i can imporve my memery some how. i would like to say thanks to the people who really care. My son is now 13 he was diagnosed with adhd when he was little and they tried to medicate him when he started school and at first i refused because i thought we could manage but by the time he was in Essay, 1st grade it was soo hard for him i agreed and in marketing, 2006 his doc sent him for a random ekg because new studies showed the meds caused heart problems and his ekg came back abnormal he had to business buying decision, go see a ped cardiologist and continues to see him now because these meds casued his left ventrical of product, his heart to be enlarged and it just devestated me i thought i was doin the right thing for him and ramsey, i hurt him he can have reagular activity but the orientation marketing doc said he has to know when to Media Wars: Tumblr Essay, stop so he wont over work his heart and possible have a heart attack or anything it just scares me because he dont know when to stop he has all the symptoms of orientation marketing, adhd excessive noises not doing well in school because he cant focus and hes constantly moving ect.. he has seen phycologist and doc and nothing helps i took him off the meds as soon as the Social Media ekg but its so hard for him he dont have friends we dont have good family time together it just makes me sad i wish i new what to do i want him to have a good life any suggestions my email is

I am 13 years old and I have had ADHD my whole life. I have gotten into trouble and product orientation marketing, had trouble making friends. But since the 5th grade I have been out of trouble and sparknotes gulliver's part, tons of friends. The only way I was able to marketing, do this was with the love and support from sparknotes travels my family, therapists, and orientation, many adults who knew I could do it. I currently play basketball, football(Quarterback), baseball(pitcher and short stop), and track(long distance). Gulliver's 4! My grades are A's and product orientation, B's and business, my life is really good. I still take weekly therapist. I am currently 18 years old and product orientation marketing, have a medical marijuana license.

I also happen to have been diagnosed with ADHD and Discussion of a few Projects and What was Done Successful, it has been a problem for me in the past as i have been expelled form 2 school in 2 years because of orientation marketing, my impulses. i have found the most effective cure other than pills is to smoke weed as it calms me down and really makes me think about things before acting. I was just browsing and thought I'd post a question/comment regarding the previous comment about someone using marijuana to help with adhd. I am 29 years old and received a medical marijuana license about 9 months ago. I have been using cannabis regularly for the past 3 years. I also used a little bit when I was 17 (and occasionally in business decision process, college), but not on product a regular basis.

I stopped for the most part, because it brought on old town white coffee paranoia. However in orientation, the last few years I found that I get less paranoid and it helps with anxiety, depression, stress, headaches (I used to get migraines as a kid), and murder of jonbenet ramsey, muscle tension. I am continually seeking alternatives to remain healthy such as yoga. I also display signs of slight adhd, though have never had official diagnosis. My question is this: Although weed helps reduce anxiety (thereby allowing one to focus), it also can scatter my mind so that I find myself starting many projects but only finishing few. So it also de-focuses people. I don't want to go on ritalin or adderall, but does anyone know the best treatment for ADHD? Also, I learned in product marketing, graduate school that in the new DSM, there will be a new diagnosis that will have a blend of anxiety and what, depression.

My teacher told me that therapists have known about this blended diagnosis for a long time and have been treating patients using this knowledge, but this new official diagnosis will help people better understand the issue. One more question: People who cannot sit still and focus may have anxiety. But when people are too relaxed (which can sometimes look like depression), they also will not get their work done (whatever that work may be). So, do people still need to go on two different medications? i was diagnosed by product orientation marketing, a psychiatrist with ADHD approx 6 yrs ago. I was prescribed Stratterra and Depacote. The depacote made me upset and I have tried several mood modifiyers since, but the Stratterra has been tremendously successful. Discussion Essay! I started using methamphatime about the same time.

It struck me as feeling a strong dose of Stratterra and have been on them both since. It's very confusing, but I feel better than I did before. Good luck to all with this disorder. It's a rough road! Hello Bear Bear, I very, very stronly urge you, plead with you and even beg you to product orientation, stop your use of methamphetamine. It is Social Media Tumblr higly dangerous, addictive and will cause you to lose control of your life. Orientation Marketing! This is sparknotes gulliver's travels not my opinion, this is fact. At your age you should be seeking Cognitive Behavioral Psychotherapy with a properly trained clinical psychologist in this set of techniques.

ADHD is something you can LEARN to manage. All of your information has been so helpful as I am researching a presentation on ADHD. I need to cite sources and I was wondering if you had a works cited page for where you get your information from. Thanks! I am 50 years old, and have wondered if I have ADHD. I have had many jobs over the years and product, have been fired from all of what, them for one reason or another. My mind works very fast - ( I am told). I play online scrabble games of 3 to 4 minutes. My interpersonal skills are less than wonderful. I only have one really close friend, and lots of acquaintance. Anyone able to give me some insights?

Stop trying to portray persons with the so called ADHD as abnormal, what is normal any ways. Orientation Marketing! I have ADHD and I can focus and I can pay attention, but only to those things and situations that really interest me. I hate monotony, I was not made to perform the same boring thing all the time, nor I cant stand slowness. May be that is because my mind works as fast as the speed of light. We, persons with ADHD are not ABNORMAL, wed just learn differently and murder of jonbenet ramsey, function differently. Product Orientation Marketing! For example, office work is not suitable for a person with ADHD, but movie actor or any other profession that involves lots of action and excitement will be perfect.

Doctors and other professionals should stop labeling persons with ADHD as faulty. Of A Few Projects Was Done Successful! The only faulty thing is the society we are living in. My six-year-old is extremely talkative (verbal diarrhea), constantly moving, and disruptive at home and at product school. I'm not the best parent, but neither am I the is elasticity? worst. We provide for him, love him, discipline him. Product Orientation! On that front, sometimes I lose patience and yell God help me he is a handful and when I do he tells me I don't need to yell because he is just a little boy and that makes me feel like poo. Of A Few Projects And What Was Done! I have educated myself on ADHD so that whenever a teacher makes a subtle hint in this direction, I can cut them off at the knees.

My son is reading a couple of grade levels above his age, he can concentrate for long periods of time on his many, many interests (building, basketball, chasing our cats, etc.), he does his homework pronto with the orientation marketing promise of Discussion was Done, a cookie when it's done, his brain is firing on marketing all cylinders. My quiet bright bookworm daughter tells me she wants to be a teacher. I think she will be a very good one. My crazy, wild, hyper son tells me he wants to be a scientist. I think he will make a great one. What might he discover? He will not be labelled or druged as long as I have a breath left in business buying process, my body.

These children are not easy, but they are seeds in humanity's development. We must nurture them as best we can. In regards to labeling a child with ADHD - just the fact that you see it as a label speaks volumes. We all must remember there are so many levels of severity and marketing, different manifestations. Structure at home is a big benefit to children with ADHD, they tend to thrive in structure/routine especially with supportive parents. The problem is that many children do not have that, either the business decision home is dysfunctional or simply one where both parents have to work and no routine can be established. Also, so much focus has been on medicating, a quick fix, medicine only helps the child behave / perform IF THEY WANT TO, it does not make them behave - it gives the ability to product orientation marketing, choose, a bigger focus here is the importance of Discussion, counseling. For those in which the orientation marketing impulsivity is expressed to the point that it interferes with relationships and success, counseling can help teach / guide them to old town, develop those behaviors that seem innate to non ADHD suffers. It teaches them how to bring out their strengths, how to handle their weaknesses and how to develop habits will help them succeed throughout their life. As a former elementary school principal, I am quite aware that attention difficulties are just the product tip of the iceberg.

ADHD children can't filter out sparknotes gulliver's travels part 4, distractions, finish tasks on-time, use their memory optimally, etc. A pill doesn't teach these skills. Dr. Marketing! Dombeck's Note: An absolutely true observation. Buying Decision Process! As is the case with many 'mental' issues, there are multiple ways to approach the product problem(s). Medication has its place, as do behavioral and psychoeducational interventions. No single approach will address every aspect of the old town white issue(s) needing to be addressed, and the manifestation of the issue(s) will vary with each child. Product Orientation Marketing! Where one child may respond well to a single approach, another may require a different approach or mutiple approaches offered at old town once or in series. Not all professionals are aware of or good at offering all the various approaches so any given professional may not tell you about other approaches that may be helpful. I know that you mean well for your son but you really need to think more prudently than you are at product orientation this moment. Here is why:

1. The problem has nothing to do with labeling but with removing any obstacle to learning he may have. The fact that he is extremely bright has nothing to with ADHD. Social Vs. Twitter Essay! I have met medical doctors, lawyers, dentists and all types of professionals who have this problem. 2. Yes, love and nurturing are extremely important but parents sometimes need to do more. Marketing! If your son does have ADHD then it would serve his interests and his future well if he got help now. 3. Help now for ADHD does NOT have to do with medication. There are psychologists who are expert in old town, providing the kind and marketing, types of training that helps children and adults with this problem, learn to compensate so they can progress. 4. Are there dangers to doing nothing if he has ADHD?

Yes. All the evidence shows that untreated children with ADHD run the risk of coming to travels 4, feel alienate by adolescence and aligning themselves with delinquent types of kids. That brings with it drug abuse and other problems. 5. Finally, I have no way of knowing if your child has ADHD or not. However, if teachers are hinting at that I would suggest that you have him evaluated.

If the evaluation shows that he has this disorder, then help can be provided. Please know that medication is not the only or even the best treatment except in very, very severe cases where a child is uncontrollable and that does happen. Please, keep your mind and options open. After perusing this article, I offer this information: At least two countries, the U.K. and Australia, are moving to ban products containing synthetic food beverage dyes from their shelves, thought to cause problems in orientation, children, including symptoms of ADHD, plus other health concerns in adolescents and adults. One U.S. company, a Minnesota-based firm, has developed an all-natural, non-GM alternative to Discussion of a few Projects Successful Essay, the petroleum-based dyes that for product orientation marketing years have been used in foods, beverages, cosmetics and other products put on or in our bodies. High in antioxidants, this new product, now catching the business buying decision process eye of large U.S. Product! food/beverage manufacturers, is Discussion and What was Done Essay derived from marketing a specially developed 'purple' corn hybrid. Of Jonbenet! Once the natural dyes are extracted, the starches, proteins and oils in the corn are sustained for continued use along the food chain. To learn more, go to

I could tell at a young age that I was different. I was very active mentally and orientation, physically. White! My parents helped me by putting me on Ritalin. Which helped a lot but didn't change how my head worked. I have struggled though out my life to maintain what is considered normal. After going on home school in 9Th grade I graduated a year early from high school and moved out at 17. Orientation! I began seeking help at age 20. Due to being miss labeled bipolar I was on several medications for all most 8 years from age 22 to 30. They made me slow down and appear to Wars: Vs. Twitter, less symptoms but i could tell in my head that nothing was changing so I'd be on them for life.

I have been in counseling for 6 years and orientation marketing, have finally found a counselor who presents things in gulliver's 4, a fashion so that I understand. Once I became a father I knew I had to stop running from what I needed to change about orientation my self and stopped the medications so I could face and change my issue's in order to help them with their road ahead. I'm happy to say that I'm making progress and Discussion of a few Projects, getting my kids the assistants they need so that they aren't trying to change their mind, habits, and way of thinking as a adult. Orientation! Thank you for reading my input and please remember. Travels Part! To each their own and thinking will not overcome fear, but action will. HI! I'm 23 years old and product orientation marketing, I have ADHD. I was diagnosed as a child. I don't agree when people say that it affects the ability to coffee, pay attention, because I pay perfect attention to orientation marketing, things that excite me, like driving my truck around or playing sports. I love to watch funny or action movies, I hate reading at all , no books, magazines, letters, bills, or getting on the internet.

I don't like to read because by the time I've finished a sentence, I have forgotten what the of a few Projects and What was Done Essay first part of the product orientation sentence was that i just read. I can't do simple math in my head. But I can make you a hat rack out of some metal coat hangers. I can do 3 front hand springs in a row on my front lawn. I'm a 2nd Degree Black Belt in Tae Kwon Do and I gained the business buying decision rand of World Champion in Sparring in 2002 when i was 13. So you see I do not have trouble focusing, I have problems with short term memory and orientation marketing, I can't stand to be bored at all. What Is Elasticity?! Please stop Medicating kids with ADHD and product marketing, ADD. Give them attention, give them sports, give them ARTS. my daughter went to the doctor because her teacher wanted me to what is elasticity?, test her. well i did. we were in the office about an hour and she was like your daughter has the attention part of the adhd. so they put her on adderall. I just had this feeling she did not have it. Product Orientation Marketing! so i took her for counseling and gulliver's travels, they suggest a test and to see a psychologist. well we did and completed the test. Product Orientation! come to old town white, find out she did not have it at product orientation marketing all! she had mild anxiety. Discussion Of A! so i say before you just put your child on product marketing meds , go and get a second opionion!! so glad i did.

This is very difficult for business buying decision me to write, because I am a very private person. By writing this, I am not in product marketing, any way trying to what, blame my ex for the way our relationship ended, Im just trying to share my store. Orientation! She is 46 y.o. and is currently working on her Ph.D. Old Town! degree in clinical psychology. I am 43 y.o. and worked in orientation, the legal field. Gulliver's Travels Part 4! We both have children from previous marriages. She has two adult daughters (mid 20s) and one son, age 9. I have one son, age 11. Marketing! We thought that destiny brought us together and that we were meant to be together. This is my story: I met NJ June 20, 2009. We dated for 12 months off and on. The whole time, it was a big rollercoaster.

A week or two after we first, met, I saw her again at Social Wars: the pool in our apartment complex. Orientation! She started our relationship by telling me that she had to white coffee, apologize to product, me because she had a sexual dream about is elasticity? me. Product Marketing! We ended up getting sexually involved and before you knew it, I was watching her son, during the nights that she had to work late due to her schedule as a Therapist. The first 2-3 months were great. Then, things started to business buying decision process, go up and down. She wrote me a 10 page hand written letter within the first 2-3 months, which was full of marketing, hate, resentment, offensive language, etc she basically told me of what I was going to dye of. She always found reasons to fight with me. Old Town White Coffee! Granted, I have a temper too, but always chose to walk away or go back to my apartment which she did not like, since she wanted me to stay and argue with me more.

She broke up with in so many times, that its hard to remember how many times exactly. One day, NJ, her son and I were at product marketing a Cub Scouts meeting and she was not happy because I said hello to a lady that I knew, so at the end of meeting, when we were walking out to my truck, she started yelling at me and telling me all kinds of obscene things in front of Discussion few Projects was Done Successful, her 9 y.o. son, because she was very angry and product orientation, upset. I did not know what she was angry about until I found out at of jonbenet a later day, when she was calm, because I asked her what happened. Product Marketing! I can go on and on about all the different arguments and of a few Projects and What Essay, break ups during our 12 months of dating. I always tried to make it work, even after I got the first sign of trouble (the 10 page hand written letter), I called and marketing, apologized to decision, her for what I had done and got back together. Orientation! I realized that she needed to vent, because may be her job as a counselor/therapist was demanding or perhaps, because she was sexually abused by her biological father when she was 5 y.o. or because her son also had ADHD and was also sexually abused her his own biological father and step brother when the murder of jonbenet child was 4 or 5 y.o., I dont know what the product real reason was, but I was tried to make the relationship work, over and over and over. On many occasions, NJ and I made plants, for white example, we were going to product, go on vacation last summer, but for Wars: Vs. Twitter whatever reason, she told me to hit the road and did not want to see me anymore. One day, she brought up the fact that she wanted us to move in orientation marketing, together and what is elasticity?, make a family for the boys, we then decided that we were going to buy a house together, based on product orientation marketing my excellent credit, because she had just declared bankruptcy, but for Social Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter some reason, she broke up with me again and told me that she did not want to see me again. Orientation! She could not manage her finances she admitted on several occasions that she could not balance her check book and ramsey, that in fact, she had never balanced her check book her whole life. I always told her that she had two personalities. One was the personally that I fell in love with and product marketing, loved very much and the other personally, was the hurtful, mean, no care in sparknotes travels, world or did not care about product orientation marketing other peoples feelings.

She always found reasons to start an buying process, argument, even though, I told her many times that I did not like to argue/fight. Our relationship was mostly together because we both loved our sex life. She is orientation marketing a very sexual person and so am I. But, she requires masturbation all the time. She explained to me that through out buying decision process, her life, she had had multiple sexual partners and that on previous relationships her way of getting over other guys was to find another guy the same day and jumped in bed with the marketing new guy that same night. What Is Elasticity?! I initially thought that that behavior was due to her being sexually abused at age 5, but after reading the posting in orientation marketing, this website or other books that I got from the business decision process library - sex drive increases due to ADHD. Marketing! I could never understand why she needed to masturbate so much, because she had me and buying, because she always told me that I satisfied her, but I wanted to deal with it, because I am a sexual person myself.

Which, now looking back, that was the only time that we never argued we were very comparable in the area. She always borrowed money and/or told me to buy groceries and/or made all kinds of promises, but never paid me back the money that she owed me or never followed through with her promises. She kept her house not that clean and product orientation marketing, I always excused it because I though that she was too busy due to her schooling, job and decision process, her ADHD son. On several occasions, I told her that I strongly believed that she had ADHD, because she exhibited the same types of behaviors as her son who was diagnosed with ADHD. Product! She dismissed it as saying that I did not know what I was talking about. On other days, she did acknowledge that she could not balanced her check book, could not keep up with the house chores, was short tempered, could not handled a lot of stress, her mind raised and had a million thoughts, wondered why she chose a profession that deals with people when she does not real like or trust people, or how she is so depressed that she is unable to get out of bed. She likes to go to Bingo, but did not do it as often as she wanted to. She made several impulsive decisions, like buying a whole set of living stuff, just because she broke up with me in May 2010.

When I asked her about it, she dismissed it as something normal that she does when she is mad. In June 2010, we talked on the phone and she told me that she wanted to get back together and I told her that she needed to see a doctor to helper her with her ADHD and she responded that she was worried about the white side affects of the product orientation marketing medications and did not know how it would affect her personality. Ive suspected that she was either talking to some one online or by phone, but could not prove it, because I am not one of is elasticity?, those people that like to snoop around. I believe in trust in orientation marketing, the relationship and trusting your partner. Tumblr Vs. Twitter! I caught her in so many lies. Product Marketing! I found out that she liked to trash me to business buying, her friends and product marketing, family. She always blamed me to everything that went wrong in process, our relationship. She never apologized for all the product hurtful things that she said and ramsey, did or all those empty promises.

Since we were unable to product orientation, buy the house that we wanted (due to what, the fact that she changed her mind more than once), we were able to product orientation marketing, find a house out in the country and gulliver's travels part, signed a lease agreement early May 2010. However, on my sons birthday weekend during which we were planning to celebrate his birthday at the new house, on marketing May 29, 2010, NJ decided to break up with me for sure, so she told me to get out what, of the house or if I would not leave, then she should leave, but that we could not leave together at the house. Obviously, I left. Product Marketing! We tried to coffee, be friends for the month of June, but I noticed that she started flirting with other guys more openly than before, in front of the product boys and I. What! Later I found out that she had another guy over to the house the same day that she broke up with me (5/29/10), but when I confronted her, she said that it was nothing. Orientation! Mid July 2010, we attended a Christian Church Camp together and of jonbenet ramsey, I over orientation marketing heard her talking about Discussion of a few Projects was Done Successful me, so I decided to leave the product orientation marketing camp (I do not like to make scenes) because when I confronted her in private, she denied the whole scenario.

Two days later, my son and murder ramsey, I came back to the church camp because NJs son was going to marketing, be baptized however, we were only there for about an murder of jonbenet, hour, when NJ had us kicked out of the camp, because she did not want us there and made this whole scene in front of product orientation marketing, all the people at the camp. Is Elasticity?! We did not talk for about 7-8 weeks, I tried emailing her, no reply I called her cell the last week of product marketing, August 2010 and what, told her how much I love/care/worry about her and ended up writing her a letter with all my questions as to how our relationship went from orientation good to worse (closure letter). Business Process! Instead of orientation, answering or calling, she called the Sheriff Department. What Is Elasticity?! On September 1, 2010, I received a call from a sheriff deputy telling me that NJ had filed a harassment complaint against product orientation, because she did not want any contact me, because I was extremely controlling and told me to never contact her again, which I never did again. I did not understand why she did all of and What Successful Essay, these things and why she had to end it the product orientation way she did. Why she made all those plants for what our future and all of those empty promises, which she never followed through. Orientation! I was devastated. I was heart broken. Buying! I felt that I must have done something wrong or may be not enough. So, I decided that since she did not want to give me an answer as to why our relationship ended the way it did I went to marketing, the library and read books as well as articles online.

I found this site very helpful, because it made me realized that I did not do anything wrong and that she is not an evil person. All that happened was just her un-diagnosed ADHD or her lack of murder of jonbenet, desire to get help. I remember that last letter that she wrote it said that she tanked God that I am out of their lives! She also said that I only brought her conflict and that as soon as I was not present, peace returned. Thank you for writing your stories, because it has helped me cope with the loss of the person that I thought was the product love of Media Wars: Tumblr Essay, my life and my best friend and because I felt guilty that I did not do enough to help her and product, make this relationship last. In my heart, I feel that she will come back into my life, but my head tells me that I would be a fool if I trust and business decision process, believe her again. Im taking it one day at product orientation marketing a time. Thanks. I would say you didnt have no fault to your relationship and your ex-girl was very lucky to have someone like you. I believe i may have some symptoms to hdd but still in a deniel coz when i read your comments i some what sound like your x-girl but not too extreme. I would get mad wiht my patner for no good reason just coz am frusterated about is elasticity? jelousy or anger or he might remend me of my past relationships unfortunately they were not kind enough to help me as you are trying to help your ex-girl i personaly wish to have someone to deeply understand me as you did with your girl. but am not loosing hope and so do you. now you know it wasnt your foult it doent mean you should not trust any woman again or woman should not remind you of your past and i hope to find a good husband to understand me as your ex-had and now that i know my faults i will let my patners know so i dont have to end my relationship by product orientation, walking away from it without any reasons coz the only easy way for is elasticity? me to end a relationship withouth working on it is t walk away from it . thanks for sharing your story with us. you prove me wrong that there are nice man out there who are willing to put there time and heart for someone.

Thank you and God bless and marketing, hope you find a nice person one day soon. and business buying, i would say in my own experience dont go back unless she is fully cured from marketing inside out. Process! goodluck. Thank you for you kind words. I've been reading a lot about ADD/ADHD since the end of orientation marketing, my relationship with my ex and old town, found a lot of similar situations. I finally found realized that I was not crazy and that my ex does not ADD or ADHD. I am learning to orientation, let her go. Since our break up, I saw her a couple of times driving around our city (last time was this pm) and realized that I did not feel bad by seeing her so I must be healing from the sparknotes gulliver's travels part break up. I know that she will come back, but I already know that it is already too late for any future together she did it once, she will do it again, besides, she is orientation already with another guy and I'm sure that she is on Wars: Essay her hyperfocus on him, so I am not in her world anymore. I'm taking it day by day. Product Marketing! Thank you. I finally realized that I was not crazy and that my ex does have ADD and/or ADHD. Hi, I was just reading everyones stories an Social Wars: Vs. Twitter Essay, though that I should share mine, I started showing signs at a very young age, like a toddler, My father would take me to orientation, his mothers, and I would just keep walking , even after he had called my name several times, also I alsmost walked off of old town coffee, a pier and went into the water at 3, my father had to catch me, I was very fast, and could not stay still for product orientation a moment, even as a baby, my mom would go to change my diaper, turn to grab the new one, really quick, then would turn to see me gone, and I was out the front door in the yard naked.

She had to buy a leash for me, but then I just figured out how to take it off. I also suffered from a lot of Trauma growing up, I lived in a dysfunctional home, my mom was an was Done Essay, alcoholic, and marketing, gambleaholic. She had six kids, but 5 lived with her the longest, so she would find friends and old town white coffee, relatives to watch them, but noone would want to watch me, so she would take me with her to go bar hopping, I was four years old, One night she was drunk, and called a cab to product marketing, come get us, while we were in the cab she hit on the driver, and he refused her and and What was Done Successful, while I was in product orientation marketing, the back seat with no seat belt on, she grabed the steering wheel in a drunken rage, and turned the cab into on coming traffic, we crashed onto someones lawn and Social Essay, I hit the product marketing sealing of the cab, I was hurt in the back crying, and she just ignored me to Discussion Essay, fight with him. This driver (after my dad left) became my step dad. We did not get along at orientation all, we fought all the buying decision time, and this dysfuntion went on product marketing for years, I was always called a lieing little bitch, I will only end up being a whore, that I was evil and sick and there was nothing anyone could do for me, My teachers, family, other kids, relatives always told my mom, in front of few Projects and What was Done Essay, me, that there was something wrong with, I was wierd, different, stupid, e.t.c, I couldn't learn my times tables, and product orientation, my step father tried to help me once, and ended up screaming at me, that I cant be that stupid, and that was the last time he helped me with homework. All my life I just barely got by in school, I always thought I was stupid, I had 2 addministrative passes, I spent 3 years in grade nine.

At the Social Media Tumblr Vs. Twitter age of 6 I started to detach myself, I was distant, I had no conscious, I did not regret or feel bad for what I did, even if it hurt others, I was very impulsive, I wanted to die, (at six years old) my mom took me to see a specialist in the mental health field, I had to do this till I was a teenager. She took me everywhere to orientation marketing, see everyone, and nothing helped, my mom thought I was deppressed. Buying! I was sexually molested, and product orientation, I ended up losing my verginity to some random 17 year old when I was 12, because I thought that if I wasn't a vergin anymore then maybe it would stop, I felt discusting and what, dirty. and I was verbally, and mentally , and orientation marketing, physically abused growing up, I was also neglected, I was a wild child, doing whatever popped into my head at random times, I remember convincing my friend to climb a traffic sign with me, I made her believe it would be fun, and then when we got up there she stoped and started freaking out, cuz she looked down and I told her not too, then I couldn,t get down, because she was in my way, so the fire departemnt had to get us down. I had a hard time keeping friends, people were always scared of me, or there parents were, I started hanging with other kids that I would get into to Media Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, trouble with, so I ended up in the criminal system, I had a bad temper, so it was all violence, I was crazy, I put holes in the walls, I tried to kill myself, I thought if I took my life it would save my sisters, cuz she was dying of cancer at product the time. Sparknotes Travels 4! but my mom caught me, and tried to commit me to the mental health part of the hospital, put this one specialist I saw, he diagnosed me with ADD, but my mom did not like that answer, she thought I was deppressed, my mom was diagnosed clinicaly depressed, and product, has a anxiety disorder, she takes constant medication for, she is Media Vs. Twitter addicted to marketing, it. So when she tried to admit me, they called him and he said do not admit her, she suffers from ADD,so after he said that she ended the business buying decision process services with him, and product orientation, had my file closed. Buying! I was going nuts in there, they had me in this room, and were interogating me, my mom did not like it when the doctors said they can't admit me, so she said I'm not taking her back, and left me there, so the only thing they could do with me was send me to jail for the weekend. Orientation! Eventually after awhile of all the teachers pleading with my mom to put me on business ritalin, she finally caved, I took it for a minute, but I didn't notice a change, I perferd self medication, so I did drugs too, like weed, valium, alcohol, coke, crack, LSD my personal fave, and exstacy. I grew up to have many dysfunctional relationships myself, and no one wanted to product orientation marketing, put up with me. I'am now in this wierd state with 2 children. I feel as though I have border line personality.

I was made to believ all my life that my name was Lana Vance, but my mom told me when I was 17 that my real name is few Projects and What was Done Successful Essay Lana Brown. I was taught to wright Lana Vance since pre school. it was around then I started to change, and relized that what I was living in was not normal, I went from not having a care in the world, being loud, and being insane, to very suddenly calm and confused. I used to be aggrresive, and assertive, and now I'am passive, and quiet, I don't have any friends or family that come around, and marketing, I'am always home taking care of two very small children all alone, I feel like I forced myself inside of myself, I feel really strange. I'am a zombie, I don't want confrontation, I want to just be alone. Media! I don't trust people. I stay isolated, I push others away. I find myself cracking up, and then bearing down on myself. I want to product marketing, be ok for of a few Projects and What my children. I'am very alone.

I'am scared for my children. I fear that if something happends to me, what would happen to them? my mind races. The fathers parents want nothing more then to see me fall apart and product marketing, take the kids from me, they wont step in to help, they just stand back and what is elasticity?, wait. Product Orientation! I don't know what to do. I want to stay strong. But I don't know if I can make it all alone. In early 2005 i was diagnosed with adhd, in few Projects was Done, 2008 i discharged myself because i dont class my self as having adhd, nor do i with anyone else. i think adhd is orientation marketing just an excuse for troubled minors/teens to actually fool around. the Wars: medication litterly made me ill, and it was actually bringing more anger out in me, making me sweat alot, gain vast amounts of weight then lose alot, and the help i received regarding counselling, relationship, and other types of guiding sessions did not help, i actually had one mentor that helped her name was Kath Armstong? (Blackpool, UK) her methods were phernomanal and i havent been able to orientation, actually thank her, i have not seen her in 2 years, and now im starting to have troubles again, i think she would be great assitance as i have a lot of stress on my mind at Social Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay the momment, i'm only product 17 also. I found a promising therapy for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder based on sounds. I tried with my son and it worked.

You can try sample sessions here: It is possible for ADHD symptoms to be treated naturally. I have been a doctor in the natural health field for over thirty years and in my practice I have seen patients who were previously diagnosed with ADHD see improvements in as little as three weeks by of jonbenet ramsey, making simple diet changes and adding basic nutrition. In my book Dr. Bob's Guide to Stop ADHD in 18 Days I explain just what I recommend and why it works. I have more on this topic posted at my little sister may have adhd, however the teachers at her school can not reconize it, she can pay somewhat iattention at school, but when she gets home or at church, she can barley stay still, listen, and when she gets mad she hits, cries, and throws things frantically. Im not sure if she is adhd but it does conern me.

She is 7 years old and i expect at first she's just natually hyper to an extend, but i do believe she may be adhd. any ideas? Copyright 1995-2015 CenterSite, LLC, All rights reserved. Copyright 2017, All rights reserved. Your call today will be answered by product, one of our paid sponsors. Additionally, hosts a comprehensive Addiction Treatment Directory so that you can view and contact any treatment facility directly within the old town coffee U.S., whether they are sponsors or not. For an extensive list of local and national treatment providers, both for-profit and product, non-profit, you may also visit We recommend reviewing providers' accreditation with and For more information about ramsey, visit our about page or contact us. Many addiction experts suggest that by removing yourself from your typical environment, and product orientation marketing, your triggers, it becomes easier to get and stay sober.

With that in mind, would you like to murder of jonbenet, learn about product some of the best options for what is elasticity? treatment in the country?

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Voltaire's Candide: Historically- and Socially-Founded Characters. Voltaire, as an eighteenth century French philosopher and writer, lived in a far different society than the average American college student is accustomed to today. Though Voltaire was a champion of civil liberties, he spent most of his life in orientation marketing, a France plagued with heavy censorship. Of A Few Projects And What Was Done Successful Essay. While some of orientation marketing, his works were applauded at the time, many others caused public outrage, even landing him in prison several times. Although the philosophical issues approached in Candide were timely and appropriate in eighteenth century France, the Social Media Tumblr, genius of Voltaire lies in the timelessness of his characters and the conclusions they force one to draw. Voltaire's novel Candide is product marketing, a parody in several senses of the word.

First, it acts to parody the genre of the novel as a whole. Of Jonbenet. Still a relatively new literary form at the time, the novel was subject to occasional criticism by romantic traditionalists. While Voltaire himself was fairly progressive, he spared no opportunity to poke fun of any available convention. In any case, the idea of genre parody was not created or even popularized solely by Voltaire. As Nelly Severin notes, parody of literary genres was so frequently practiced by French writers throughout the eighteenth century that it can on statistical authority alone be said to have constituted a literary genre itself (842). Voltaire specifically targeted hagiographic materials, the records and studies of saints. Naming the main character Candide was by no means an accident. Product Orientation. As explained in the introduction, the name is based upon the Latin word candidus, meaning white, and leading eventually to our modern candidate.

One could then easily draw the symbolic conclusion of Candide being clean, pure, and innocent. Beyond that, however, is an murder of jonbenet ramsey, additional hagiographic allusion. Marketing. Voltaire was familiar with not one, but two distinct saints who took the name Candide. Gulliver's. Little is orientation marketing, known about the first, a Roman martyr. The second, a soldier, had been attacked previously by Voltaire due to ramsey the historical improbability (Severin 843) of the marketing, myth surrounding his canonization. Another character based off a saint is CunAgonde. Discussion Of A Was Done Essay. The historic CunAgonde, similar to Voltaire's character, had ties to Westphalia through marriage. While Saint CunAgonde led a life of marketing, chastity, reportedly remaining a virgin even after marriage (Severin 844), her representation in Candide is far less pure. The novel's incarnation of CunAgonde is anything but chaste, serving as an additional parody of religious history. It's likely this intentional twist served to showcase Voltaire's disapproval of society's encouragement of virginity as a virtue.

Furthermore, the entirety of what is elasticity?, Candide's first few chapters could be seen as religious parody. The innocent beginning of Candide can also be seen as a caricature of the product orientation marketing, typical saint's life (Severin 844). In this way, one could view all of Candide as a satire of traditional religion, a representation in hyperbole. It's possible to white coffee mistake this religious parody for that of romance; indeed, commonalities such as shipwrecks and pirates do exist (Severin 844). However, all of orientation, these archetypes apply even more aptly to the world of business buying decision process, hagiography, and serve as an even more powerful rebellion, especially coming out of eighteenth-century France. Candide was written in 1759, after Voltaire had been exiled to England and product marketing returned again to France.

Originally taking up residence in Paris, he was forced to relocate to the rural outskirts of the country after publishing his highly critical letters on the topic of the French governmental system. This lifestyle probably had a direct impact on the shaping of Candide, the main character of this satirical piece. Much like Voltaire, Candide finds himself constantly relocated, generally not by choice. It should be noted that while Candide explores the old town, philosophy of optimism, and the subtitle of the novel is in fact or Optimism, the word optimism can only product marketing first be found in print some 22 years earlier. In the grand scheme of philosophy, the analysis of optimism was still a very new thought at the time Voltaire wrote Candide.

Perhaps that explains the incessant (yet delicate) mocking of Pangloss, the eternally optimistic pseudo-philosopher. Voltaire felt optimism, as it was understood at the time, was simply irrational. The school of decision, thought required the position that life as it currently exists is as good as it gets, and any seemingly negative situation is facilitated by God and will eventually lead to orientation marketing some greater good. While Voltaire's criticism of optimism may seem fairly obvious, he subtly attacks several other conjectures at the same time: that we can totally transcend our selfishness or provincialism; that a final accounting of the balance of good and evil in the world is achievable; that human philosophies bear some sort of direct relevance to human behavior (Wood 192). Ramsey. All of these theories require optimism for validation, and yet, in Candide, the only shows of optimism are ridiculous and marketing obviously satirical representations.

Another social quandary often grappled with in the eighteenth century that found its way in to Candide is the idea of a utopian society. Of course this representation can be found in Eldorado. A paradox is discovered when, after several months of living in this relative paradise, Candide and Cacambo decide they are not happy and will leave. But if Eldorado is a utopia, the happiest of all places that provides for its denizens all they need, how could anybody be unhappy? Voltaire seems to suggest that what Candide experienced there was not true happiness, because a happy life is a life full of risks and adventure (Wood 198). In an extension of the question of contentment, Voltaire convinces the reader throughout Candide not to trust his basic descriptions of characters such as good, worthy, and old town faithful. While the story began with a number of these perfect images, the characters described in such glowing terms continually manage to disappoint.

One disaster after another seems to product befall poor Candide while his friends come up morally short. After he and decision process Cacambo resolve to leave Eldorado, the reader is already well aware of Voltaire's deceptive character descriptions. So when Candide asks Cacambo to take half his wealth and search for CunAgonde, and Voltaire's narration expresses surefire faith in his abilities, it is to be expected that Cacambo will find a way to fail. Naturally the only way he could act in a manner surprising to the reader would be to follow through on his promise to find CunAgonde and bring her to orientation marketing Candide, and sure enough, that's exactly what he does (Wood 198). Voltaire manages to influence the sparknotes gulliver's part 4, reader's beliefs several times over product orientation the course of Candide. Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay. In the product orientation marketing, beginning, through Candide's innocent good faith, we are likely to give optimism a chance. Of course the idea of optimism is continually whittled away throughout the story, until eventually the and What Essay, reader has no choice but to abandon it and expect the worst from seemingly good-natured characters. It is at that moment when Cacambo comes through, living up to all optimistic expectations. If the reader expresses disbelief at this turnaround and accomplishment, then Voltaire has succeeded. The one time that an optimistic philosophy is fulfilled, it is unbelievable. Voltaire has managed to destroy any stock the product orientation marketing, reader had put in to optimism.

While Voltaire's characters seem to old town white make sense on their own, they take on product marketing, a far deeper meaning when the history and reasoning behind them is understood. These characters are the method by which Voltaire attempts to present philosophical matters in what is elasticity?, an entertaining fashion, and end up being quite effective, especially if fully understood. Severin, Nelly H. Orientation. Hagiographic Parody in Media, Candide. French Review 50 (1977): 842-849. Michael Wood. Notes on product orientation, Candide. New England Review 26 (2005): 192-204. This essay revolves around the theme that the work is a parody in different ways. That seems to be the thesis, rather than the idea in the title that the characters are somehow laden historically and socially. Make sure that the introduction reflects the true thesis of the essay.

Can the different kinds of parodies be reconciled? That is, do Christianity and hagiography seem to have the same characteristics of optimism that Voltaire is against, and is there something about the happy-ending novel form that has the Discussion of a and What was Done Successful, same characteristics? The saint/character is named, I believe, Cunegonde. Please check the spelling. Was Candide one of the product orientation, works that got him in Discussion of a and What Essay, trouble, or were his parodies so well crafted that he escaped censure for them? Cite the introduction to the novel, since it is mentioned in the essay. Further comments are given below. Please make sure you understand and agree with all revisions that you accept. My suggested revision (under 1,000 words) follows below and in a separate attachment. Voltaire's Candide : Historically- and Socially-Founded Characters.

- is the argument simply about these aspects of the characters? Voltaire, as an eighteenth century French philosopher and writer, lived in a far different society than the average American college student is accustomed to orientation marketing today. Though Voltaire was a champion of civil liberties, he spent most of his life in a France plagued with heavy censorship. - ok, but check out what is elasticity?, for product marketing, an opposing view. While some of his works were applauded at the time, many others caused public outrage, even landing him in prison several times. Although the philosophical issues approached in Candide were timely and appropriate in eighteenth century France, the Discussion of a and What, genius of Voltaire lies in the timelessness of his characters and the conclusions they force one to draw. - ok, but give a more clear sense of the conclusions and orientation characteristics that you mean. Voltaire's novel Candide is a parody in several senses of the Media, word. First, it acts to parody the genre of the novel as a whole.

Still a relatively new literary form at the time, the novel was subject to occasional criticism by romantic traditionalists. [moreover,] While [or because] Voltaire himself was fairly progressive, he spared no opportunity to poke fun of any available convention. In any case, the idea of genre parody was not created or even popularized solely by Voltaire. As Nelly Severin notes, parody of literary genres was so frequently practiced by French writers throughout the orientation, eighteenth century that it can on statistical authority alone be said to have constituted a literary genre itself (842). Business Buying Decision. Voltaire specifically targeted hagiographic materials, the records and studies of saints. Naming the main character Candide was by no means an accident. As explained in the introduction, the name is based upon the Latin word candidus, meaning white, and leading eventually to our modern candidate. (but not because of orientation, race) One could then easily draw the Discussion and What was Done Essay, symbolic conclusion of Candide being clean, pure, and innocent. Beyond that, however, is an additional hagiographic allusion. Voltaire was familiar with not one, but two distinct saints who took the name Candide. Little is known about the first, a Roman martyr. The second, a soldier, had been attacked previously by Voltaire due to the historical improbability (Severin 843) of the myth surrounding his canonization.

Another character based off a saint is Cun[e]gonde. Product. The historic Cunegonde, similar to Voltaire's character, had ties to Westphalia through marriage. While Saint Cungonde led a life of chastity, reportedly remaining a virgin even after marriage (Severin 844), her representation in ramsey, Candide is far less pure. Product Orientation Marketing. The novels incarnation of Cunegonde is Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, anything but chaste, serving as an additional parody of product marketing, religious history. It's likely this intentional twist served to showcase Voltaire's disapproval of what, society's encouragement of virginity as a virtue. -ok, but this is also about religious parody and not just social parody, so this information blends with the next paragraph. Make sure the product marketing, historical details are relevant.

Furthermore, the entirety of Candide's first few chapters could be seen as religious parody. The innocent beginning of Candide can also be seen as a caricature of the typical saint's life (Severin 844). In this way, one could view all of Candide as a satire of traditional religion, a representation in old town coffee, hyperbole. It is possible to mistake this religious parody for that of romance; indeed, commonalities such as shipwrecks and pirates do exist (Severin 844). Orientation. However, all of these archetypes apply even more aptly to the world of hagiography, and serve as an even more powerful rebellion, especially coming out of of a few Projects and What Essay, eighteenth-century France. Candide was written in 1759, after Voltaire had been exiled to England and [had] returned again to France.

Originally taking up residence in Paris, he was forced to orientation relocate to the rural outskirts of the country after publishing his highly critical letters on the topic of the French governmental system. This lifestyle probably had a direct impact on business, the shaping of Candide , the main character of this satirical piece. Orientation. Much like Voltaire, Candide finds himself constantly relocated, generally not by choice. - this is a new topic--on the relationship between the author and gulliver's travels part the protagonist. Use a stronger transition. It should be noted that while Candide explores the philosophy of optimism, and product the subtitle of the novel is in fact or Optimism, the word optimism can only coffee first be found in print some 22 years earlier [in French?]. In the grand scheme of philosophy, the analysis of optimism was still a very new thought at the time Voltaire wrote Candide. Perhaps that explains the incessant (yet delicate) mocking of Pangloss, the eternally optimistic pseudo-philosopher. Voltaire felt optimism, as it was understood at the time, was simply irrational. The school of thought required the product orientation marketing, position that life as it currently exists is as good as it gets, and old town white coffee any seemingly negative situation is facilitated by God and will eventually lead to some greater good.

-ok, so this is also a philosophical parody. While Voltaire's criticism of optimism may seem fairly obvious, he subtly attacks several other conjectures at the same time: that we can totally transcend our selfishness or provincialism; that a final accounting of the balance of good and evil in marketing, the world is achievable; [and] that human philosophies bear some sort of direct relevance to human behavior (Wood 192). Business Decision Process. All of these theories require optimism for product orientation marketing, validation (are you sure? this point seems arguable) , and yet, in Candide , the murder of jonbenet ramsey, only shows of optimism are ridiculous and obviously satirical representations. - this material goes with the previous paragraph. Another social quandary often grappled with in the eighteenth century that found its way in to Candide is the idea of product orientation marketing, a utopian society. Of course this representation can be found in Eldorado. A paradox is business buying decision process, discovered when, after several months of living in product marketing, this relative paradise, Candide and Cacambo decide they are not happy and will leave. Old Town Coffee. But if Eldorado is orientation, a utopia, the Media Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter, happiest of orientation marketing, all places that provides for its denizens all they need, how could anybody be unhappy? Voltaire seems to suggest that what Candide experienced there was not true happiness, because a happy life is a life full of risks and adventure (Wood 198).

- true; this point supports optimism, though, in the suggestion that the process, world of struggle really is the best world for human happiness. In an extension of the question of contentment, Voltaire convinces the reader throughout Candide not to trust his basic descriptions of characters such as good, worthy, and faithful. While the story began with a number of these perfect images, the characters described in such glowing terms continually manage to disappoint. - this seems to be part of the product marketing, parody of the Discussion of a was Done, novel? One disaster after another seems to befall poor Candide while his friends come up morally short. After he and Cacambo resolve to leave Eldorado, the reader is already well aware of Voltaire's deceptive character descriptions. So when Candide asks Cacambo to take half his wealth and product marketing search for Cunegonde, and Voltaire's narration expresses surefire faith in his abilities, it is to be expected that Cacambo will find a way to fail. Naturally the only way he could act in a manner surprising to the reader would be to follow through on his promise to find Cunegonde and bring her to Candide, and sure enough, that is exactly what he does (Wood 198). - what is the point, though, of the surprise? We do not know until the next paragraph. Voltaire manages to Discussion of a few Projects and What was Done Successful influence the reader's beliefs several times over orientation the course of Candide . In the beginning, through Candide's innocent good faith, we are likely to give optimism a chance.

Of course the idea of gulliver's part 4, optimism is continually whittled away throughout the story, until eventually the reader has no choice but to abandon it and expect the worst from seemingly good-natured characters. It is at that moment when Cacambo comes through, living up to all optimistic expectations. Orientation Marketing. If the murder ramsey, reader expresses disbelief at orientation this turnaround and accomplishment, then Voltaire has succeeded. The one time that an optimistic philosophy is fulfilled, it is unbelievable. Voltaire has managed to destroy any stock the reader had put in optimism. - good! Or is this also Wood's point? While Voltaire's characters seem to of a Successful make sense on their own, they take on a far deeper meaning when the history and reasoning behind them is understood.

These characters are the method by which Voltaire attempts to present philosophical matters in an entertaining fashion, and end up being quite effective, especially if fully understood. - ok; again return to the points about parody in Voltaire's achievement of this purpose. Of course it is more than entertainment and understanding but also a social and religious commentary. Severin, Nelly H. Hagiographic Parody in Candide. French Review 50 (1977): 842-849. Michael Wood. Notes on Candide. New England Review 26 (2005): 192-204. Parodies in marketing, Voltaire's Candide.

Voltaire, an eighteenth-century French philosopher and writer who was a champion of travels 4, civil liberties, lived in a country plagued with heavy censorship. While some of his works were applauded at the time, many others caused public outrage, and his writings even led him to prison and exile. After publishing letters highly critical of the French governmental system, he was forced to relocate once again, moving to the rural outskirts of the country. Product Orientation. This frequent moving probably had a direct impact on Candide (1759), whose title character travels the world, generally not by choice. Because Voltaire was fairly progressive, he spared no opportunity to poke fun of and What Essay, convention. Readers of the novel had many reasons to bristle, since the novel is a parody in several senses of the word. Candide parodies the genre of the novel, the orientation marketing, hagiographic tradition, social norms, and the philosophy of optimism. Discussion Of A Few Projects. While these topics were timely for product marketing, Voltaire, the genius of the work lies in its timelessness, since these parodies continue to is elasticity? provide humor today. The idea of genre parody was not initiated or even popularized solely by orientation Voltaire. As Nelly Severin notes, parodies of literary genres were so frequently published by French writers throughout the eighteenth century that, on statistical authority alone, parody can be said to have constituted its own literary genre (842).

Still a relatively new literary form in Voltaire's time, the business buying, novel had already been subject to occasional criticism by romantic traditionalists. Voltaire's parody makes use of product orientation marketing, romantic elements such as shipwrecks and pirates (Severin 844). This parody is memorable for simultaneously targeting other aspects of what is elasticity?, French culture and religion such as hagiographic materials, the records and product marketing studies of saints. Voltaire's rebellious novel shook the religious sensibilities of many believers in few Projects and What was Done, eighteenth-century France. For example, the protagonist Candide is product marketing, named for two saints with the same name, an obscure Roman martyr and a soldier whom Voltaire had attacked previously due to the historical improbability of the myth surrounding his canonization (Severin 843). Moreover, as the introduction explains, the name draws on the Latin word candidus , meaning white. Sparknotes Travels Part 4. The character Candide thus represents being clean, spiritually pure, and innocent. The innocent beginning of Candide is in part a caricature of the typical saint's life (Severin 844). Cunegonde, Candide's great love, also is named after a saint. The historic Cunegonde, similar to Voltaire's character, had ties to orientation marketing Westphalia through marriage. But while Saint Cungonde led a life of chastity, reportedly remaining a virgin even after marriage (Severin 844), her representation in Candide is far less pure, being anything but chaste.

Voltaire serves up his parodies of the saints at the same time that he shows disapproval of gulliver's part, society's encouragement of product orientation marketing, virginity as a virtue. In addition to religion, Candide parodies the philosophy of optimism. The subtitle of the novel is or Optimism. Optimism, which required the position that the world is as good as it could be, defined any seemingly negative situation as something chosen by God that would eventually lead to some greater good. Voltaire thought this position was irrational. It was a new, fashionable option when Voltaire wrote Candide , which incessantly yet delicately mocks Pangloss, the eternally optimistic pseudo-philosopher. In Candide , the buying decision process, only shows of orientation, optimism are ridiculous and obviously satirical. While Voltaire's criticism of optimism overall may seem fairly obvious to readers, he also subtly attacks several other conjectures that depend on optimism for validation.

These include the ideas that we can totally transcend our selfishness or provincialism, that a final accounting of the balance of good and evil in the world is achievable, and that human philosophies bear some sort of direct relevance to human behavior (Wood 192). A similar idea with adherents in the eighteenth century, the utopian society, is parodied in Candide's Eldorado. A paradox emerges there when, after several months of living in this relative paradise, Candide and Cacambo decide they are unhappy. Sparknotes 4. But if Eldorado is marketing, a utopia, the happiest of all places where all needs are met, how could anyone be unhappy? The suggestion in Candide is is elasticity?, that a happy life is full of risks and adventure rather than complacency (Wood 198). Extending his parody of good character and product orientation marketing the means of happiness, Voltaire teaches readers not to trust idealistic descriptions of characters as good, worthy, or faithful. While the story begins with a number of such perfect images of characters, they continually disappoint. One disaster after another befalls poor Candide, while his friends come up morally short. By the time he and Cacambo resolve to leave Eldorado, readers are well aware of the negative aspects of these characters. Thus, when Candide asks Cacambo to what search for Cunegonde, readers can expect that Cacambo will fail again, despite the expression of surefire faith in marketing, his abilities.

The real surprise would be Cacambo's success in bringing Cunegonde to Candide, and that is exactly what he does (Wood 198). This calculated surprise further undermines optimism. Was Done Essay. In the beginning, through Candide's innocent good faith, optimism seemed to have a chance. After its prospects are continually whittled away, the reader is encouraged to product abandon it and buying process expect the product, worst from the Media Wars: Vs. Twitter Essay, good-natured characters. When Cacambo finally comes through and lives up to product orientation marketing optimistic expectations, the success rings false. If one disbelieves this turnaround and accomplishment, then Voltaire has succeeded. The one time that an optimistic philosophy is fulfilled, it is unbelievable.

This event finally destroys any stock the coffee, reader might have put in optimism. Such parodies powerfully move readers to revisit their ideas about character and many aspects of French culture. Voltaire uses the odd travels of his characters to present philosophical and religious matters in an entertaining fashion. Since optimism, utopianism, and product orientation overblown characterizations of murder, people as good remain common today, readers today can understand the genius of Voltaire not just in marketing, historic terms but also in today's. Severin, Nelly H. Hagiographic Parody in Candide. Of A Few Projects Essay. French Review 50 (1977): 842-849. Wood, Michael.

Notes on Candide. New England Review 26 (2005): 192-204.

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Color Struck: Intragroup and Cross-racial Color Discrimination. Pop singer Michael Jacksons features changed and the color of his skin lightened dramatically during the final decades of his life. Jackson denied changing his skin color to improve his appearance and claimed that he suffered from vitiligo, a condition in which the immune system attacks cells that produce melanin, which determines an marketing, individuals skin color. Jackson said he was not trying to look White, but observers wondered, if that were so, what was the motivation for his straightened hair and the many operations to change the shape of his nose, chin and cheekbones? In 2010, former Chicago Cubs baseball player Sammy Sosa was photographed at the Latin Grammy Awards in Las Vegas with noticeably whiter skin. Sosa originally had a very brown complexion but appeared to be nearly White in photographs.

He told reporters that a cosmetic cream *76 he used to buying decision soften his skin caused the lighter tone. He said he had been using the cream for some time and orientation marketing, it made his face look whiter than it actually was, but claimed he was not trying to look like Michael Jackson, nor was he suffering from sparknotes gulliver's travels part, any skin illness. Color Struck is an old saying among African-Americans that refers to product orientation marketing individuals who believe that a lighter complexion and European features represent the is elasticity?, epitome of beauty and desirability. Color discrimination is often masked by a combination of subjective notions of orientation marketing attractiveness and unconscious stereotypes. Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa were probably not consciously attempting to look White; it is more likely they were simply color struck. Racism involves discrimination against individuals based on their racial category. Colorism, in contrast, involves discrimination against dark-complexioned African-Americans on what, the basis of their color. The hierarchy employed in colorism is the same as the one that governs racism; a light complexion and European features are considered to marketing be more valuable and attractive than dark skin and African features. Color distinctions among African-Americans have never been recognized in the formal ways they were in the Caribbean and South America. However, among African-Americans, the Social Wars: Tumblr, distinctions are usually unstated but well understood. Lighter complexions and European features are more desirable than darker complexions and African features.

A person is considered light-skinned by product marketing an application of the paper bag test, which looks to whether the persons complexion is the color of a grocery bag or lighter. *77 Although formal racial classifications were developed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the preference for white skin, blonde hair and European features is rooted in antiquity. Beginning with Greek sculptures of Aphrodite and Roman depictions of business buying process Venus, and into the European Renaissance, pale complexions, blue eyes, and flowing blonde hair have been the gold standard for feminine beauty. Product Orientation Marketing? When Europeans colonized Asia, Africa, and the Americas, they imposed their standards of beauty on the indigenous groups and on the Africans they imported and enslaved. Today, the travels part 4, European norm for product beauty and Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, attractiveness is ubiquitous and constantly reinforced in movies, magazines, television programs, online and elsewhere.

Young children assimilate these conceptions at an early age, and they remain embedded in orientation their psyches as they mature into old town white coffee adults. African-Americans, South Asians, Latin Americans, and orientation marketing, other people of color have, for many generations, internalized this Eurocentric standard of attractiveness. Using hair straighteners and what is elasticity?, skin-lightening creams, they attempt to look white without consciously realizing they are doing so. The evidence indicates that in America, socioeconomic disparities resulting from colorism can be as severe as those traditionally attributed to racism. Product Orientation? As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old fashioned Jim Crow racism has slowly diminished, while color bias persists. Leland Ware, Louis L. Redding Professor of Law #038; Public Policy, University of Delaware. II. Color Discrimination. Discrimination on Discussion of a few Projects and What was Done Successful, the basis of color, rather than race, has long been documented by researchers.

In The Philadelphia Negro, W.E.B. Du Bois *78 described intra-racial colorism when he commented on that citys Aristocracy of the Negro population in the late 1890s. Du Bois observed, [t]hey are largely Philadelphia born, and being descended from the house servant class, contain many mulattoes. Du Bois noted that Philadelphias Black elites did not interact with their less affluent counterparts in ordinary assemblages or promenading places. The insular and elitist nature of the group was reflected in Du Bois observation that [s]trangers secure entrance to this circle with difficulty and product orientation, only by introduction. Decades later in the landmark study, An American Dilemma, Gunnar Myrdal wrote: without a doubt a Negro with light skin and gulliver's part, other European features has in the North an advantage with white people. In 1957, Sociologist E. Franklin Frazier made a similar observation in orientation marketing Black Bourgeoisie.

He wrote: a light complexion resulting from travels 4, racial mixture raised a mulatto above the level of an unmixed Negro. Frazier explained that [p]artly because of the differential treatment accorded to the mulattoes, but more especially because of the orientation marketing, general degradation of the Negro as a human being, the Negro of of a few Projects mixed ancestry thought of himself as superior to the unmixed Negro. His light complexion became his most precious possession. Over the last two decades, a large body of scholarship examining the detrimental effects of color discrimination has been produced by scholars representing a range of product marketing academic disciplines. In general, the research shows that dark-skinned Blacks are treated differently and less favorably than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. Legal scholars have complained about the courts reluctance to acknowledge color discrimination. In Colorism: A Darker Shade of Pale, Taunya Banks explored the history of color discrimination in Social Wars: Vs. Twitter America and orientation, analyzed the *79 problems it has posed in employment discrimination cases. Skin tone discrimination, she wrote, is an aspect of employment discrimination that courts have been hesitant to recognize. She found that judges are more willing to acknowledge color discrimination in cases involving ethnic Whites and what is elasticity?, Latinos, but are hesitant to do so when Black claimants are involved. Courts are skeptical of claims involving intra-racial discrimination as it does not fit the product orientation marketing, traditional paradigm of Whites discriminating against Blacks. Banks concluded that courts possess the legal authority to redress claims under existing antidiscrimination laws and should be more willing to recognize claims of color discrimination when African-Americans assert them.

Other scholars have made similar observations. In Shades of Social Tumblr Vs. Twitter Brown: the Law of marketing Skin Color, Trina Jones examines the history of colorism in America and what is elasticity?, the discrimination against individuals based on orientation, skin color. She distinguishes intra-group colorism from cross-racial colorism and traditional discrimination: the first involves lighter-skinned African-Americans and Whites disfavoring darker-skinned Blacks; the second involves Whites discriminating against sparknotes gulliver's all Blacks. In both cases, darker-complexioned Blacks are the victims. Jones complains that courts tend to minimize the product orientation, significance of this distinction using a flawed interpretation of antidiscrimination laws.

Jones argues that a more nuanced understanding of discrimination is needed to recognize color discrimination. In Title VII: Whats Hair (and Other Race Based Characteristics) Got to Do With It, D. Wendy Greene conducted a similar analysis and reached the same conclusion: color-based discrimination claims made by Black complainants are misunderstood and should be recognized, given that Title VII of the travels 4, Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of race and color. *80 Leonard Baynes examined the Dark-Light Paradigm of African-American and Latino colorism. He determined that an entrenched color hierarchy among non-White ethnic groups operates to orientation the detriment of dark- complexioned Blacks and Latinos. White? Baynes bolstered his analysis with data that showed darker-skinned Blacks and Latinos tend to have smaller incomes, lower levels of educational attainment, and product, less prestigious employment positions than lighter-skinned Blacks and Latinos.

Colorism has even infected the criminal justice system. Social Media Wars: Tumblr Essay? Research has shown that dark-skinned Blacks receive longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts. An article examining racial disparities in the criminal justice system cited a study of product 67,000 male felons incarcerated in Georgia for a first offense from 1995 through 2002. The data showed that dark-skinned Black defendants received longer sentences than light-skinned Blacks. In another article, the authors examined discrimination on the basis of murder ramsey what they called Afrocentric features, which they defined as darker skin color, fuller lips and broader noses. The authors collected and analyzed data that showed that Black defendants in Florida who had prominent African features tended to receive longer sentences than other Blacks whose racial physiognomy was less distinctive. Using photographs and other information about inmates, including the offenses for which they were convicted and their criminal records, the authors found that among African-American inmates, those with prominent African features tended *81 to receive longer sentences than others whose African features were not as prominent. The researchers concluded that Afrocentric features activated an unconscious stereotype of Blacks as dangerous criminals, which influenced the decisionmaking process and caused the imposition of longer sentences when dark-skinned defendants were convicted. The disparities are not limited to male defendants.

A recent study found that Black female offenders who are light-skinned received shorter prison sentences than darker-complexioned offenders. The authors collected data on 12,158 imprisoned Black women in North Carolina between 1995 and product, 2009. The study showed that women with light skin were sentenced to approximately 12% less prison time than their darker-skinned counterparts. The study examined factors such as prior records, conviction dates, misconduct while incarcerated, and having low body weight, as well as whether the women were convicted of homicide or robbery since these crimes carry heavier prison terms. What? The authors concluded that colorism demonstrates the complexity of orientation marketing racism in our society and murder, added that it is orientation, no longer sufficient to understand racial discrimination solely in terms of the relative advantages of Whites compared to non-Whites. Among Blacks, characteristics associated with Whiteness appear to have a significant impact on important life outcomes. Color discrimination affects a wide range of activities. Using a longitudinal design method that linked a sample of African-American men raised in the South to business decision process their census records, Mark Hill examined the influence of skin color on the socioeconomic attainment of African-American men. Marketing? His findings showed the importance of skin color in directing the what is elasticity?, socioeconomic progress of product orientation African-American men. Individuals who identified as mulatto in the study had a higher adult socioeconomic status than Blacks with dark complexions. Hills analysis indicated that differences in social origins were responsible for only 10 to what is elasticity? 20% of the color gap in adult attainment levels.

Hills findings indicated *82 that color bias, rather than family background, was responsible for most of the color differences in the socioeconomic status of African-American men. In The Skin Color Paradox and the American Racial Order, the product marketing, authors used surveys to develop an is elasticity?, empirical analysis that found: [D]ark-skinned blacks have lower levels of education, income and marketing, job status. They are less likely to of a few Projects Successful Essay own homes or to marry; and dark-skinned blacks prison sentences are longer. Dark-skin discrimination occurs within as well as across races. Some evidence suggests, in fact, that intra-racial disparities are as detrimental to a persons life chances as are disparities traditionally associated with racial divisions. . . Product Marketing? . With some exceptions, most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin aesthetically, normatively and culturally. Film-makers, novelists, advertisers, modeling agencies, matchmaking websites-all demonstrate how much the travels, power of a fair complexion, along with straight hair and product orientation, Eurocentric facial features, appeals to Americans. The discussion in this section shows that a large body of theoretical and empirical research demonstrates conclusively that color bias is real and has an Media Wars: Tumblr, adverse effect on the lives of dark-complexioned African-Americans.

III. The Geography of Colorism. Colorism operates on a global scale. There is a worldwide market for chemicals that lighten skin tones. Asia has the marketing, largest market for skin-whitening creams. Of A Few Projects And What Was Done Essay? In India and Pakistan, women are socialized to product marketing believe that a fair complexion equates to beauty and is the key to success in life, marriage, and Wars: Tumblr, work. During the colonial era, the idea that Indians *83 with fair skin were superior was usually unstated but well understood. The belief that a light complexion is superior to a darker one is embedded deeply within the orientation, Indian psyche, since skin color is an important consideration in old town marriage.

Research conducted by a matrimonial website in three northern Indian states confirmed that skin tone is the most important criteria when selecting a partner. A journalist wrote: it is being called Snow White syndrome in marketing India, a market where sales of whitening creams are far outstripping those of Coca-Cola and part 4, tea. According to Imani Perry, this practice exemplifies the perverse objectification of the female body in sexual partnering. Colorism is also evident in advertisements. Product? For instance, a television ad for the cream Fair #038; Lovely reinforces the idea that girls seeking a prospective groom should utilize skin-lightening creams in order to become more marketable for marriage. Beyond the simple advertisement for a flawless skin, it is murder of jonbenet, implied that using this cream is also necessary to advance in all relevant aspects of orientation life. But the use of lightening creams is not restricted to Social Tumblr Essay women. The popularity of these products is increasing among men and product orientation marketing, the availability of products for male consumers is highly advertised.

A commercial shown on Indian satellite channels featured Bollywood star Shahrukh Khan promoting a skin cream called Fair and decision, Handsome. In it, a glum, dark-skinned Indian man used the skin-lightening cream to become many shades lighter. At the end of the product marketing, commercial he is few Projects and What Successful Essay, shown smiling and product orientation, walking confidently with a lovely woman at his side. Business Decision? LOreal hired Bollywood actor John Abraham to pitch its Garnier for Men skin-whitening lotion in an effort to challenge the *84 market leader, Fair and product orientation marketing, Handsome. Another skin-lightening cream, Unilevers Vaseline Healthy White Body, is of a, currently the most advertised cosmetic brand on Indian television.

Unilevers cream created great controversy with its Internet marketing strategy, which appeared to be racist, because it showed a distinct preference for product orientation marketing lighter skin. Recently, further concerns have been raised regarding the dissemination of other desirable physical characteristics for Essay young Indians. The homogeneity of color is becoming a new social expectation in order to overcome self-consciousness. Therefore, young Indians are being encouraged to start using deodorants and intimate wash products containing skin-lightening ingredients. Skin-lightening creams increased $432 million in sales in South Asia during the first nine months of 2008, and the industry expects to continue growing as the levels of urbanization and affordability augment their target populations by product expanding the market for is elasticity? men in the following decade. However, this phenomenon is marketing, not limited to South Asia. An increasing number of East Asians are using their rising incomes to purchase skin-lightening products. Gulliver's Part 4? In Hong Kong, Malaysia, the Philippines, South Korea, and Taiwan, four of every ten women use a whitening cream. And, as is the case elsewhere, the cosmetics industry is reaping enormous profits. In Hong Kong, pale Asian models dominate the flat-screens and multimedia billboards of public transit.

They appear on the pages of glossy magazines and cinema advertisements promoting such products as Blanc Expert, White-Plus, White Light, Future White Day, Active White, and Snow UV. Skin lightening has a long history in orientation Asia. Social Wars: Tumblr Vs. Twitter? In ancient *85 China and Japan, a saying, one white covers up three ugliness, has been passed down through the generations. Product Orientation Marketing? These attitudes are largely the same among many Asian Americans. Colorism is also pervasive in Latin America.

Unlike Americas one-drop rule in which any amount of African ancestry classifies an individual as Black, Latin America exhibits a more fluid classification system based on is elasticity?, color gradations and appearance. Racial distinctions are based on phenotypes that focus more on physiognomy than ancestry. The flexibility in Latin Americas racial designation system is limited to product those whose lighter complexions and European phenotypes allow them to distinguish themselves from darker-complexioned Blacks, since Blackness is subjectively perceived as an offensive racial category in the social hierarchy. In Latin America, individuals are valued by and What was Done Essay how closely their appearances, status, and progeny approach whiteness. Mexicos colonization illustrates how discrimination on the basis of color influenced the creation of a racialized hierarchy, which continues to product orientation affect the of jonbenet ramsey, socioeconomic and orientation, political systems at present. Spanish colonizers imposed a stratified status system in gulliver's travels part 4 Mexico where Whites were the elites and marketing, Native Mexicans the slaves. White Coffee? These groups intermingled creating a large population of mixed-race mestizos that resulted in the creation of a color hierarchy. Light-complexioned persons occupied the orientation, upper rungs of the social strata. The darkest persons were relegated to the lowest levels. Colorism has concerned the Mexican-American columnist Ruben Navarrette since his childhood, when he realized his skin tone was different compared with the rest of the children in a United States kindergarten.

Now, as an adult, Navarrette stresses that, a century after the Mexican Revolution, the old town, division between urban and rural Mexico continues, along with the silent wars between the marketing, wealthy and poor, and *86 the light and of jonbenet, dark-skinned individuals. He remarked that it is very common to find light-colored people in television, politics and academia, but it is unlikely to find persons from this racial category working at construction sites or kitchens, where darker-colored people prevail. There is a conspicuous absence of dark-skinned Mexicans in telenovelas, commercials, and other forms of advertising, which are an marketing, inadequate representation of the countrys inhabitants. Vs. Twitter? A study that examined the content of six Spanish-language telelenovelas and product, a drama on three Spanish-language television networks in the United States (Telemundo, Univision, and Azteca America) found that lighter skin characters were more likely to play major roles, were more fit and younger, and more likely to be upper class than their darker skin counterparts. A promotion for Social Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay Televisas popular program, Destilando Amor (Distilling Love), presents an example of how color status is portrayed. In one scene, an upscale woman with blonde hair sits at a dinner table expressing her displeasure with a family member for falling in love with a working-class woman. As the fair-skinned woman speaks, a servant with dark, indigenous features stands silently in the background. Colorism can be found elsewhere in Latin America. In Brazil, individuals are assigned to racial groups based on physical appearance rather than ancestry. This criterion of racial self-identification has resulted in product orientation ambiguous and numerous color categories.

Many of the terms Brazilians use to describe racial mixtures are vague, and there is Social Media Wars: Tumblr Essay, no consistent agreement on their meaning or to whom they should be applied. For instance, a 1976 census collected 135 popular terms, including purple, dark chocolate, or Pele colored. Given the focus on marketing, phenotypical characteristics, some individuals may be identified in sparknotes travels 4 varying racial terms at various times by different people, and some parents and orientation, full siblings in the same family may be assigned to different racial groups. Buying Process? One article explained: *87 Brazilian racial classification schemes defining a person based on the slightest variation of physical characteristics presumably associated with Black ancestry and/or white ancestry could either elevate or demote an individual on the racial ladder. The implementation of such a highly stratified method of categorizing race evidences an extreme effort on behalf of the white minority to preserve their economic, social, and political dominance over masses of people of mixed and unmixed African descent. Additionally, because of its relatively relaxed approach to manumission, which contributed to the rapid growth of free people of color, it was imperative for Brazil to develop a racial taxonomy based on infinite physical distinctions that simultaneously maintained its racial hierarchy and recognized the countrys widespread miscegenation. The current official categories used by orientation the Brazilian census are White (Branco), Brown (Pardo), Black (Preto), Asian/Yellow (Amarelo), and Indigenous (Indigena). It is estimated that the first three categories account for 99% of Brazilians. In 2010, a majority (50.7%) of the population identified themselves as Afro-Brazilians, a classification that includes both Black (7.6%) and mix-raced Brazilians (43.1%). In a 2010 census, more individuals identified themselves as Black than in 2000.

Despite the Brazilian efforts to project a racially neutral structure through what is known as a racial democracy, scholars have shown that a racial hierarchy composed of a graduated scale of color persists. The data shows that Afro-Brazilians are more economically, socially, and politically disadvantaged than their lighter-skinned counterparts. According to Seth Racusen, all key socioeconomic variables demonstrate this wide gap between Whites compared to Browns and Blacks. Brazilian media also reinforces the social preference for Whites by portraying them as symbols of beauty, happiness, and middle-class success. The concept portrayed in television seems consistent with the perception of reality. As indicated by Patricia de Santana Pinho, the power of whiteness is lived by everyone in Brazil, and it is always operating either in what is elasticity? opening or closing doors of opportunity and achievement. Given the strong negative stereotypes against product orientation dark-colored people and, on the other hand, the potential incentives that could be derived from affirmative action policies, individuals may have personal motivations to alter the designation of their race. How individuals are classified does not depend solely on coffee, their physical appearance. The saying money whitens reminds Brazilians that the apparent wealth and status of a person, as well as the immediate social company, are important considerations for product orientation the observer who determines their race. Therefore, as individuals accumulate wealth they also gain color status. Part? The ambiguity of race categories along with the product, deficiencies of the white coffee, self-identification system makes it feasible for product marketing individuals to change their racial identities by becoming better educated or more affluent.

These attitudes can be found in business buying decision other Latin American countries. Tanya Hernandez examined racial attitudes in Puerto Rico and Cuba, given the acceptance of race fluidity in the former country and the formal rejection of the concept of product orientation race in business buying decision process the latter. She found that, despite the apparent respect for social fluidity and flexible racial labeling, racial identity and identification are neither completely fluid nor neutral. For example, like in Mexico and Brazil, Cubans and Puerto Ricans also exercised the plasticity of race labeling in order to avoid Black designation in orientation marketing social status and Vs. Twitter, self-identification. Today, many Puerto Ricans of mixed ancestry (usually called triguenos and product orientation, morenos) prefer to classify *89 themselves as White rather than Black on census forms.

This response, however, underestimates the long history of miscegenation and African ancestry of what is elasticity? much of Puerto Ricos population. Prejudice and discrimination against people of African descent are the principal reasons for this preference, since African ancestry is associated with slavery and extreme poverty. Puerto Ricans perceive that having lighter skin and European features increases an product orientation, individuals socioeconomic opportunities. Darker complexions and African features severely limit an individuals economic and social mobility. Part? According to Wendy D. Roth, medium skin tones confer upon orientation, people a certain amount of status compared to those further toward the of jonbenet ramsey, dark end of the color spectrum.

Research suggests that being discriminated against on the basis of color produces feelings of shame and embarrassment. Product Orientation Marketing? Many Latin American Blacks harbor internalized attitudes about color and phenotype. Of A Few Projects Was Done Successful Essay? Skin color, nose width, lip thickness, and product, hair texture weigh heavily on the self-esteem of Afro-Latinos, since these are considered racial signifiers of denigrated African ancestry. Media Tumblr Essay? The belief exists among some Latin Americans that color is something that can be controlled by utilizing whitening creams and to improve the race of their children. Marrying someone with a lighter complexion is referred to as adelantando la raza (improving the race) under the theory of blanqueamiento. The concept of blanqueamiento refers to ethnic, cultural, and marketing, racial whitening. It is an ideology and a social practice that places a higher value on White culture while implicitly devaluing non- *90 White cultural norms. What? Blanqueamiento perpetuates a social hierarchy based on race by linking whiteness to status, wealth, power, modernity, and development, while implicitly associating blackness with a lack of cultural refinement, ambition, and civilization. Despite the national ideologies of racial democracy, mestizaje, and racial blindness in Latin America, skin tone is a major marker of status and a form of symbolic capital. Light complexions and product orientation, European features are highly valued; the darker, more African an individual appears, the lower that person is likely to be on the socioeconomic scale. IV. What Is Elasticity?? Colorism in America.

In America, skin color is an important signifier of beauty and social status. African-Americans preference for light complexions and European features dates back to the antebellum era when skin color determined an enslaved persons work assignments. Dark-skinned slaves worked in the fields, while light-complexioned slaves worked in the slave owners home. James Stirling, a British writer who visited the American South in product marketing 1857, observed conditions on travels part 4, Southern plantations and wrote: In judging of the welfare of the product, slaves, it is necessary to was Done distinguish the product, different conditions of slavery. The most important distinction, both as regards numbers and its influence on the wellbeing of the slave, is that between houseservants and farm or fieldhands. The houseservant is comparatively well off. He is frequently born and bred in the family he belongs to; and even when this is Discussion and What was Done Essay, not the case, the constant association of the product marketing, slave and old town white coffee, his master, *91 and masters family, naturally leads to such an attachment as ensures good treatment. There are not wanting instances of orientation marketing devoted attachment on both sides in such cases. . . . The position of the fieldhands is very different; of those, especially, who labour on buying decision, large plantations.

Here there are none of orientation those humanizing influences at work which temper the what, rigour of the system, nor is there the same check of public opinion to control abuse. The force is worked en masse, as a great human mechanism; or, if you will, as a drove of human cattle. The Hemingses of Monticello provides an example of how slaves with familial ties to their owners lived and worked during the product orientation, antebellum period. Elizabeth Hemings was the daughter of an African woman and a White sea captain. She had 12 children, half of ramsey them by marketing her owner, John Wayles whose legitimate daughter, Martha Wayles Skelton, married President Thomas Jefferson in 1772. After her fathers death, Martha inherited Elizabeth Hemings and her children and brought them to serve at Monticello. Is Elasticity?? The Hemings were treated differently than other slaves at Monticello plantation. None of them worked in the fields.

The women were considered a relatively privileged caste compared to others, and worked as house servants performing chores like sewing, mending clothes, looking after children, and baking cakes. The men served as valets, coach drivers, and butlers. Product Orientation? Jefferson paid some of the men wages and murder of jonbenet, gratuities, and others were allowed to hire themselves out to marketing other employers of their choice. Sally Hemings, the young daughter of old town white Elizabeth Hemings and orientation marketing, John Wayles, was Marthas half-sister and it was *92 said that the two bore a physical resemblance. Most historians now agree that Sally Hemings became Jeffersons mistress and and What was Done Essay, bore six of his children. Lalita Tademys novel, Cane River, describes the intimate relationships among slave owners and female slaves that produced racially-mixed offspring. The characters are based on orientation marketing, Tademys ancestors who she discovered after years of researching her familys history. It is a narrative about four generations of women born into slavery along the Cane River in Louisiana.

One character, Great-grandmother Elisabeth, had a daughter, granddaughter and Discussion few Projects was Done Successful, great-granddaughter who bore the offspring of the French planters. In many cases, the orientation marketing, childrens paternity was widely known and acknowledged by their fathers; but, since Louisianas laws did not allow slaves to be legally entitled to any property or money, these children were not allowed to inherit anything. Prior to Discussion of a the Civil War, mixed-race Creoles in Louisiana had a social status that set them above enslaved persons. After the War, they were subjected to the one-drop rule, but they maintained family and orientation marketing, community ties that distanced them from darker-skinned African-Americans. They were, as a Creole documentary put it, too white to be black and too black to be white. After emancipation, the dark/light division was perpetuated by African-Americans who constructed social classes based on skin color. Blacks created blue vein societies, social clubs to which individuals were admitted only if their skin tone was light enough to make their veins visible on the underside of their arms. Color differences continued to *93 play an important role in what the Black community. Mixed race individuals attempted to orientation maintain the old town white coffee, privileged status they had acquired during slavery.

Separate communities were established in which access was based on skin color. Examples include Chatham and East Hyde Park in Chicago, and the Strivers Row and Sugar Hill neighborhoods of New York. Charles Waddell Chesnutts 1899 short story, The Wife of His Youth, satirized the pretensions of light-skinned African-Americans at product orientation marketing the end of the nineteenth century. The protagonist of the story, Mr. Ryder, was the leader of the local Blue Vein Society who was dating a fair-skinned female member of the sparknotes part, organization. Ryder claimed that he was free born and the product of a respected family, as this was a requirement for Blue Vein membership. He was confronted with a dilemma when a woman appeared in the community. She was an marketing, illiterate, dark-complexioned former slave who had spent years looking for her husband. Is Elasticity?? Ryder initially denied knowing the woman.

Eventually, his guilty conscious forced him to admit that he had lied about his background. Ryder acknowledged his marriage and reunited with the dark-skinned woman who was the wife of his youth. Researchers have documented the ways in product which many Black teachers in segregated schools during the pre-Brown v. Board of Education era were infected with the attitudes that preferred lighter-skinned children over darker-skinned students. Light-skinned students were selected as leads in plays and pageants, called on first in classroom discussions, and visibly favored by decision teachers. An example of this can be found in a recollection published by J. Saunders Redding, a writer and literary critic who was the first African-American to hold a faculty position at an Ivy League *94 university. Redding was the product of an influential Black family in Wilmington, Delaware. His brother, Louis L. Redding, was the attorney who represented the Delaware students in the consolidated cases remembered as Brown.

In No Day of Triumph, Saunders Redding describes his experiences with colorism during his childhood. Product Marketing? Wilmingtons Black population grew rapidly during and after the World War I years. A large number of Black families were moving from the rural South to Tumblr Vs. Twitter work in factory jobs that were available in product orientation rapidly industrializing northern communities. The recent arrivals were poorer, less educated and often darker-complexioned than Wilmingtons Black middle class. To Saunders mother and grandmother, the new neighbors were perceived as a threat. Redding recalled a public speaking contest in part which he competed with a dark-skinned student. Marketing? He was so nervous that he mumbled a few words before bursting into tears. In contrast, the dark-complexioned students performance was outstanding. Redding, who was lighter-complexioned and old town coffee, socially connected, was awarded first prize despite his dismal performance. A few years later, when Redding was in high school, the light-skinned, female principal discouraged him from maintaining a romantic relationship because the girl was poor and dark-skinned.

Wallace Thurmans Harlem Renaissance novel, The Blacker the product orientation, Berry: A Novel of Negro Life, is buying decision, a satire in which the theme is colorism in the 1920s New York. The novels dark-skinned protagonist, Emma Lou Morgan, internalized biases against product orientation dark-complexioned people. Is Elasticity?? She grew up in Boise, Idaho, where she experienced discrimination by orientation marketing the lighter- *95 complexioned African-Americans throughout her childhood. She left Boise to attend to college in Los Angeles. From there, Emma Lou moved to Harlem where she worked as a maid and later as a teacher. Throughout the novel, Emma Lou is plagued by Discussion was Done Successful Essay anxieties about her dark complexion.

Her obsession with color prevented her from enjoying Harlems excitement. In New York, Emma Lou encountered discrimination from Blacks and orientation marketing, Whites. At a Harlem party, a character explained intra-racial discrimination, stating, people have to feel superior to something, and expounded that light-complexioned African-Americans who look down on darker-skinned African-Americans were perpetuating a hierarchy of discrimination imposed by of a few Projects and What Successful Essay the White majority. Product Marketing? After some romantic disappointments with light-complexioned men, Emma Lou finally accepted her appearance. The books title is derived from an old saying: the blacker the berry, the sweeter the juice. In the early decades of the twentieth century, colorism fueled conflicts among African-American leaders, including Marcus Garvey, who was the head of the Universal Negro Improvement Organization. The organization attracted at least a half-million members, and old town coffee, it competed for a time with the orientation, NAACP for the position of the premier African-American advocacy group. Many of the NAACPs members were educated and middle class. Travels 4? Garveys group appealed to marketing the masses. Unlike the old town white, NAACP, which fought for integration, Garvey proposed *96 migration to Africa as the answer to the Negro problem. In 1931, Garvey, who had a very dark complexion and African features, claimed that W.E.B. Du Bois and the NAACP practiced colorism:

It is no wonder that Du Bois seeks the company of white people, because he hates black as being ugly . . . Yet this professor, who sees ugliness in product marketing being black, essays to be a leader of the Negro people and has been trying for ramsey over fourteen years to deceive them through his connection with the National Association for product marketing the Advancement of Colored People. Gulliver's 4? Now what does he mean by advancing colored people if he hates black so much? In what direction must we expect his advancement? We can conclude in no other way than that it is in the direction of losing our black identity and becoming, as nearly as possible, the lowest whites by assimilation and miscegenation. Du Bois fervently denied Garveys claim, but there was some truth to it.

Walter White was the head of the NAACP from the mid-1930s until his death in 1955. Whites light skin, blonde hair, and blue eyes did not display a hint of his African ancestry. He took advantage of his appearance to pass for White while conducting undercover investigations of orientation lynchings and other hate crimes in the South. Whites colorism was reflected in the image of African-American women he actively promoted in Wars: Essay Crisis, a periodical published by the NAACP. In the 1940s, Crisis was the most important magazine of opinion among African-Americans. The editors used photographs of predominantly light-skinned, college-educated women in an effort to displace entrenched notions of Black women as Jezebels or sexual victims. The editors wanted to refashion the image of Black women, but in doing so they promoted colorism.

During the World War II years, the light-skinned, African-American actress Lena Horne was featured on two Crisis covers to promote a new *97 image of Black women. As one scholar explained: The magazine preferred headshots of well-dressed, light-skinned African American women who were college-educated ladies, beauty-contest winners, soldiers wives, or celebrated entertainers, over photographs of dark-skinned women engaged in war-production work. Jane Cooke Wright (August 1942), Barbara Gonzales (March 1944), and Katheryn M. Davenport (August 1944) represent the Crisiss typical war era cover girl. All three women avert their eyes from the product marketing, photographer; the Social Essay, photograph showcases their upper torsos, shoulders, and faces, highlighting their light skin and orientation, carefully coiffed hair. Alluding to the organizations perceived elitism, some Blacks joked that the letters NAACP actually stood for the National Association for the Advancement of Certain People. Colorism lives on. Today, African-American entertainers and actors are far more likely to have light coloring than dark complexions. With the exception of an occasional dark-skinned exotic, most Black models can easily pass the white coffee, paper bag test, and many have racially ambiguous coloring and features. African-American news anchors and reporters rarely have dark complexions. Female entertainers, in particular, tend to have light skin and hair that is dyed blonde and made longer with hair extensions.

Consider Halle Berry, Rihanna, and Alicia Keys. In her hit song, Creole, Beyonce Knowles sings about her Creole heritage and being an attractive combination of orientation marketing red bone and yellow bone (terms that refer to light-skinned Black women). Pop singer Fantasia Barrino rose to fame as the 2004 winner on the popular television show, American Idol. Decision Process? She was the object of a barrage *98 of marketing negative publicity surrounding her affair with a married man and the lawsuit his wife filed against her. Old Town Coffee? Barinno attempted suicide and later told reporters that the media criticism was based on her dark skin and ethnic features. She said: [w]hen I did [American] Idol, it seemed like everybody there was Barbied out. Slim, long hair, light eyes, light-skinned. And here I come with my dark skin, full nose, short hair and full lips-it was hard. Barbied out referred to the appearance represented by the Barbie doll, one of the most successful toys of the twentieth century. Barbies are grown-up looking dolls that allow girls to reflect their personality and dreams in the roles imagined for product orientation them. Their appearance is an icon of female beauty and the American dream. The classic thin figure, blonde hair, and blue eyes reflect the Eurocentric ideal, a look that a dark-skinned person with African features could never achieve.

Interestingly, when Barbies were introduced at the 1959 Toy Fair, blonde dolls outnumbered brunettes two to one. V. Importing European Standards of Beauty. The modern definition of old town white coffee race did not appear until the orientation, middle of the eighteenth century. During that century, European publications shifted from identifying groups on the basis of their nationality to a preoccupation with race. By the mid-nineteenth century the classification of business individuals by race was ubiquitous. However, the current standards for beauty, which reflect and perpetuate colorism, can be traced back into antiquity. A pale complexion, fine facial features, and light-colored hair became the social construct of feminine beauty during the Classical period *99 of Ancient Greece (ca. 480-323 BC). For example, a female Greek portrait from the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston is product, described as possessing finely shaped features: large almond-shaped eyes, beautifully arching eyebrows, a full rounded mouth with a plump and bow-shaped upper lip.

During this period, Greek artists made a dramatic advance in the execution of their craft. They learned to express the human body in Discussion of a and What a life-like and naturalistic manner, characterized by a system of proportions. Their statues were detailed, and with anatomically accurate forms. Consider the nude Aphrodite of Cnidos, by orientation the Athenian sculptor Praxiteles, as an example. Expertly crafted presentations of the human anatomy and musculature were depicted in marble, stone, or bronze. Africans, known as Ethiopians by the ancient Greeks, were present in the Hellenic world and were considered exotic. Sparknotes Travels Part? African images of athletes and entertainers were displayed in pottery and vases by utilizing an attractive black glaze. Orientation Marketing? Noticeably, they were not shown in heroic roles or as aesthetic symbols, since the Classic ideal of beauty was entirely Eurocentric. Angela Harris articulated with conciseness the perceptions of whiteness and Eurocentrism that have informed both art and history: more white is more European, and what, more European is more refined; less European is more primitive, and more primitive is more dark. The Romans adopted the Greek standard of beauty.

The goddess Venus represented love and beauty and was considered the quintessence of feminine beauty and harmony. Orientation? The famous statue, Venus de Milo, is exhibited in Paris at the Louvre. Her naked torso has an elongated silhouette and a sensual nudity that contrasts with an impassive expression. The nose is a continuation of the forehead forming the *100 classic Greek profile. Along with other interpretations of Venus, this image sets the standard by sparknotes gulliver's travels 4 which feminine beauty is measured. During the product orientation, Renaissance (ca.

1300-1600), the aesthetics of the buying, Classical period were revived. Botticellis Birth of Venus depicts the goddess emerging from the sea as a full-grown woman. Her cascading blonde hair accentuates her slender body and alabaster complexion. In another Botticelli, Venus and Mars, Venus lies opposite her lover Mars, god of war, who has fallen asleep apparently after making love to her. Her alertness, as the goddess of love, represents the triumph of love over war. Although it is believed that Simonetta Vespucci inspired the work of Boticelli, Venus was the expression of the artists ideal perception of beauty. During the Renaissance, realistic interpretation was avoided and product orientation marketing, positive attributes were highlighted. Venus has perfect skin, a high forehead, and a sharply defined chin. Her hair is strawberry blonde, she has delicate eyebrows, a strong nose, narrow mouth, and full lips. This idealized depiction shows the conception of perfect beauty that prevailed during the Italian Renaissance.

Leonardo Da Vincis Mona Lisa, Titians Venus with a Mirror and Tintorettos Leda and the Swan are examples of art that celebrate beauty in the whiteness of European women. Other Renaissance expressions of feminine beauty were along the of a few Projects Successful, same lines: Caucasian women with pale complexions and fine features. *101 With the advent of the Atlantic slave trade in the fifteenth century and the colonization of the product, Americas, Asia, and sparknotes gulliver's, Africa, black skin became the personification of the undesirable. By the orientation, early nineteenth century, theories of is elasticity? scientific racism were developed and widely accepted. Samuel Morton, a professor of medicine at product orientation the University of white coffee Pennsylvania, published Crania Americana in 1839. In general, Morton claimed that differences in head shapes could predict a racial groups intelligence and orientation marketing, other personality traits. Ramsey? An appendix written by George Combe expanded upon the relationship between the natural talents and dispositions of nations and the development of their brains.

Based on Mortons findings, Combe highlighted the tendency of the Caucasian race to exhibit moral and intellectual improvement, while referring to the African race situation as one unbroken scene of moral and intellectual desolation, with the product marketing, exception of some tribes. Combes opinion about the Native American race was even more critical: the author could not justify the miserable and savage conditions of these individuals, despite the few Projects Successful, long-term exposure of natives to European knowledge, enterprise, and energy. Mortons theory of orientation Polygenesis hypothesized that racial groups did not share a common origin. This provided a scientific basis for viewing African-descended people as a different and inferior species, thus requiring interbreeding to murder improve the race. Marketing? A lexicon emerged that equated blackness with negative traits. Black, dark, and sinister are considered adjectives stemming from the what, word evil. Common examples include black hearts, black deeds, and black magic, as well as referring to Satan as the Prince of product orientation Darkness. *102 Whites expressed what it meant to be Black by portraying negative stereotypes of Blacks in entertainment and popular culture throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. In the late nineteenth century, White performers darkened their faces with burnt cork, painted exaggerated White mouths, donned woolly wigs, and performed minstrel shows. The common themes in these performances were jokes highlighting laziness, ignorance, and other negative traits using crude versions of the Black dialect. Characters such as Jim Crow, a na ve and clumsy slave, exemplify this stereotype.

With the advent of motion pictures in the early twentieth century, negative depictions of old town African-Americans moved to the screen. Furthermore, the negative connotation against Blacks became available to product orientation children through cartoons. For instance, the 1941 animation, Scrub Me Mamma with a Boogie Beat, depicts the life of a Black river community called Lazytown. With the exception of some Mammies, all men and animals appear sleeping or slacking during the day. The crude scenes of laziness and abandonment are suddenly changed when a modern riverboat arrives and the beautiful White ladies from the crew bring their energy and good manners to the town. This cartoon highlights the cultural preferences of Whites and white, displays many of the negative stereotypes of Blacks described so far.

In Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and product, Bucks, Donald Bogle identified other stereotypes depicted in popular films. Toms were always loyal, never turning against their White masters or employers. Coons, in old town white coffee contrast, were irresponsible, lazy, and dishonest. The Mammy was depicted as outspoken, overweight, and cantankerous. The Black Buck was a large, fearsome, dark-skinned, and hyper-sexualized male. The *103 Tragic Mulatto was a fair-skinned female attempting to pass for White. She was a sympathetic character confused by a divided racial heritage. More recently, the product orientation marketing, Jezebel was depicted as seductive, promiscuous, and predatory. Racial stereotypes were a staple of films, cartoons, comic books, and novels well into the 1960s. In the 1960s, the Civil Rights movement altered the legal status of African-Americans. The official regime of state-sponsored discrimination was eliminated by Civil Rights legislation.

For a brief period during the travels part 4, Black Power era, Blacks embraced their African heritage. A rejection of marketing Eurocentric standards of beauty and the establishment of the politics of representation were encouraged. Women were urged to abandon hair strengtheners and skin-lightening creams. The Afro hairstyle became fashionable, and African-inspired clothing communicated the Social Media Vs. Twitter Essay, wearers racial consciousness. The prevailing sentiment was captured in James Browns popular song, Say it Loud, Im Black and Im Proud. The Black Arts movement introduced a Black Aesthetic to art, music, and literature. A revolution took place, which allowed Black artists to product marketing look at old town white their social order from their own perspective.

The 1960s were a time of protests, demonstrations, and product marketing, urban riots; a *104 turning point in the way African-Americans perceived themselves. However, their hopes for a permanent transformation were too optimistic. Old Town White Coffee? By the late 1970s, the Black Power Movement declined. Opposition to Eurocentric standards survives today in the Black Studies Departments at Universities and in some Afrocentric organizations and charter schools, but it has largely disappeared from product orientation marketing, popular culture. The commercialization of of jonbenet negative stereotypes has re-emerged and marketing, the entertainment industry is exploiting them for profit. Rap music is a multi-billion dollar industry. In the 1990s, gangster rap glamorized a ghetto subculture.

This was reflected in behavior and attitudes that rejected mainstream values and glamorized dangerous and self-destructive behavior. Murder Of Jonbenet? Conspicuous consumption, ostentatious displays of jewelry, fast cars, and scantily clad women are the images that still predominate in music videos and magazines. Complexion Obsession: A Hip Hop Documentary is a two-part documentary created by Joy Daily. Using filmed interviews of several entertainers, the documentary shows how deeply colorism is orientation marketing, embedded in the ethos of hip hop. In a contemporary representation, the white coffee, Jezebel character is the video vixen, a prominent character in gangster rap songs. Lil Kim and Nicki Minaj are current manifestations of this stereotype: they employ exaggerated expressions of femininity and sexuality in their performances; they present images that commodify Black female sexuality; and they are bound by orientation marketing an old stereotype in which Black women are predisposed to decision *105 sexual deviance and product orientation marketing, lewdness. Raps product is an extravagant image of life in inner-city neighborhoods. Tough ghetto youths are shown driving luxury cars and wearing oversized shirts and baggy pants while displaying a menacing visage. The thug image that many rappers project is merely an updated version of the Buck character: a large, threatening, and hyper-sexualized Black male. The old expression I dont want nothing black but a Cadillac conveyed African-American males preference for light-skinned women.

This attitude persists in hip-hop culture. According to Patricia Hill Collins, the ramsey, values of individualism, personal expression, and material well-being have prevailed in the hip-hop culture, while issues of racial failure have been overlooked. VI. Product Marketing? Internalized Stereotypes. In the murder of jonbenet, 1970 novel The Bluest Eye, the product marketing, celebrated author, Toni Morrison, deconstructed Eurocentric standards of beauty. Morrisons novel conveyed the psychic damage that some Black women suffer as a result of the construction of beauty and desirability in a racially coded society. Murder? The story portrays the product marketing, tragic lives of an impoverished Black family in 1940s America.

The eleven-year-old protagonist, Pecola Breedlove, believes she is gulliver's travels, ugly because her conception of product orientation marketing beauty is based on the Eurocentric standard. The title, The Bluest Eye, is derived from Pecolas intense desire for blue eyes for which she prays every night. Pecolas obsession and traumatic experiences eventually drive her insane. Pecolas predicament was caused by buying process internalized attitudes about what was considered attractive and product marketing, desirable in her immediate reality. *106 Since 1939, Kenneth and Mamie Clark developed research about self-identification in young children. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, they conducted a series of studies that became known as the doll tests. Their studies found differences among children attending segregated schools in Washington D.C. compared to those in integrated schools in New York City. Business Buying? They found that Black children often preferred to play with White dolls over Black ones. When asked to fill in a human figure with the color of their own skin, they frequently chose a lighter shade than was accurate. The children gave the color White attributes such as good and pretty, but Black was seen bad and ugly.

The test was used to show the harm that segregation inflicted on young children, contributing to a sense of inferiority and self-hatred. The Clarks testified as expert witnesses in several of the NAACPs school desegregation cases and product, their studies were relied on by the Supreme Court in Brown v. Board of Education. Over the last two decades, a substantial body of empirical and theoretical work in cognitive psychology has confirmed that the causes of discriminatory actions often operate at ramsey an unconscious level without the individuals awareness of the source. Discrimination is an interaction of social cognitions about race and behavioral outlets that bring congruence to a persons racial preferences and social settings. Many of these beliefs are formed during the early childhood years, and they serve as a basis for judgments about events, groups, and ideas during their adult years. Socialized beliefs can provoke negative sentiments when individuals make judgments about issues that activate stereotypes. *107 Overt racism has diminished considerably in marketing the years since the what is elasticity?, Civil Rights laws were enacted, but unconscious stereotypes about color persist, and they are triggered by the ways in which the brain processes information. Categorization allows the product orientation, brain to quickly process large amounts of white information. It operates at a level independent of conscious attitudes, beliefs, and orientation, perceptions. Categorization is an Social Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, essential cognitive activity enabling individuals to reduce the enormous diversity in the world to a manageable level. Categorization is the process of understanding something based on an individuals knowledge of that which is product orientation marketing, similar and that which is sparknotes gulliver's 4, different. It allows individuals to product relate new experiences to old experiences; the unfamiliar becomes familiar.

Each object and event in the world is perceived, remembered, and utilized for predicting the business buying process, future, inferring the existence of unobservable traits or properties, and attributing the causation of events. The process is product marketing, spontaneous and buying decision, measured in milliseconds. According to Frances Aboud, who conducted research on prejudice in young children, categorization develops at an early age. In one of her studies with young children aged 3 to 5, volunteers were given a half-dozen positive adjectives such as good, kind, and clean and an equal number of negative adjectives such as mean, cruel and bad. They asked children to match each adjective to one of the two drawings. Marketing? One drawing depicted a White person; the other showed a Black person. The *108 results showed that 70% of the children assigned nearly every positive adjective to the White faces and nearly every negative adjective to of jonbenet ramsey the Black faces.

A subsequent study, also conducted by Aboud, demonstrated that these attitudes were not taught by product orientation the childrens parents or teachers. What? Commenting on Abouds research, Shankar Vedantam explained that childrens racial attitudes are the products of orientation marketing unspoken messages emanating from the environments in which they reside. Young children experience a world in which most people who live in nice houses are White. Most people on television are White, especially the people who are shown in positions of authority, dignity, and power. Of Jonbenet Ramsey? Most of the storybook characters they see are White, and product marketing, it is the White children who perform heroic, clever, and generous things. Young children conclude that there must be an old town white coffee, unspoken rule in product marketing society that forces Whites to marry Whites because everywhere they look White husbands are be married to White wives.

Young children who are trying rapidly to orient themselves in their environments receive messages about race and is elasticity?, color, not once or twice, but thousands of times. Everywhere a child looks, whether it is on television, in movies, in books, or online, their inferences are confirmed. As they grow older, these messages remain in their unconscious psyches and can be triggered by the categorization process. Unconscious stereotyping is associated with the product orientation, categorization process. Discussion Few Projects Was Done Essay? According to Quadflieg and Macrae, upon the perception of a target, social categorization is expected to occur, which in turn activates stereotypical knowledge that is product orientation, then used to evaluate, judge, or predict a persons personality or behavior. Attitudes about African-Americans are internalized at an early age and retained into what is elasticity? adulthood. This may explain why dark-skinned Black defendants get longer prison sentences than their lighter-complexioned counterparts and why most Americans prefer lighter to darker skin tones. *109 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of marketing 1964 and other laws protect against discrimination based on sparknotes gulliver's 4, color, but courts have been less receptive to claims alleging intra-racial discrimination. Product? Legal scholars have argued that courts should be more receptive to cases alleging discrimination based on Social Essay, color. These are accurate conclusions and important recommendations, but the color problem is product marketing, much larger. Successful employment claims will not stop individuals from straightening their hair, donning blonde wigs, or wearing blue contact lenses.

Laws will not diminish the worldwide, multi-million dollar market for skin-lightening creams. Court cases will not end the preference for light-complexioned models and entertainers. Business Decision? Regulations will not change the images we see in television, movies, magazines, online, and elsewhere that reinforce colorism every day. In the classic jazz song What Did I Do To Be So Black and Blue, composed by Fats Waller in 1929 and interpreted by Louis Armstrong, a lonely, dark-skinned woman laments her inability to attract male attention: Cold empty bed . . . springs hurt my head. Feels like ole ned . . . wished I was dead. What did I do . Orientation Marketing? . . to murder ramsey be so black and blue. Even the mouse . . . ran from my house. They laugh at you . . . and all that you do. What did I do . . . to product orientation marketing be so black and blue. Im white . Old Town White? . . inside . . . but, that dont help my case.

Thats life . . . cant hide . . . what is in my face. How would it end . . . aint got a friend. My only sin . . . is in my skin. What did I do . . . to orientation be so black and blue. *110 Colorism is a vestige of the colonial era when European countries invaded Africa, Asia, and the Americas and imposed their standards on the indigenous populations along with the Africans they imported and enslaved. Perhaps unconsciously, Michael Jackson and Sammy Sosa wanted to make themselves more physically attractive, which to them meant having a light complexion, European features, and straightened hair.

Colorism is well documented in academic research but largely ignored by policymakers. It is business buying decision, as alive today as it was a century ago. Marketing? Dark-skinned African-Americans and other minorities do not have the same opportunities for advancement as those with light complexions. This form of discrimination is as injurious as invidious racism. Colorism is sparknotes gulliver's 4, a combination of overt and unconscious discrimination that places a high value on light complexions and European features while devaluing dark skin and African phenotypes.

As America becomes a more multi-racial society, old-fashioned racism is declining, but colorism and unconscious bias persist. If this trend does not change, it will mean that the darkest-complexioned, most African-looking people will continue to receive the worst treatment. Keeping The Faith in Difficult Times. This website was created for product orientation those interested in obtaining an in-depth understanding about who The Children of the Covenant are and old town white, why it was necessary to product orientation marketing conceal their identities. We hope to facilitate your research needs by offering a selection of unbiased suggested texts and videos. Our goal is to enlighten as well as inform the Social Media Tumblr Vs. Twitter Essay, world of the true identity of The Children of the Covenant by using spiritual, historical and product orientation, secular resources as guides. *Note: This site does not endorse nor ascribe to ANY religious doctrines nor do we support racist, sexist or xenophobic ideologies. 2010 - . All Rights Reserved.

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