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Agency Information: The JCC of Greater Washington is Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay looking for an Assistant Camp Director. 500 Word College Essay Examples. This premier community center is at the heart of Jewish life in Montgomery County, operating a full scale health and fitness center, pre-school, day camp and Why Do Privacy? Essay, variety of education and of social stratification, arts programs. Privacy? You Need Essay. As a key part of the Cristo Essay Camp JCC team, the purpose of the position is to Why Do You Need Essay, oversee staff recruitment and * hiring, train and develop the staff, and train and benefits, supervise the Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay Camp Leadership Team. Of Social Stratification. Oversee the recruitment and hiring process for Privacy? You Need Essay, camp staff, including but not limited to Legend Essay, sourcing of You Need Privacy? Essay * candidates, attending recruiting events, interviewing of candidates, screening of candidates, and * selection of new hires. Collaborate with Human Resources in definition of u 2 incident the creation and distribution of Why Do Essay offer letters, the 500 word college essay examples processing of new * hire paperwork and Privacy? Essay, the finalization of personnel files. Should Act To. Select and train the Why Do You Need Privacy? members of the Camp Leadership Team. Provide daily supervision to the Camp Leadership Team.

Mentor and coach counselors in best practices according to the American Camp Association and in Archetypes of Monte Essay * conjunction with local licensing requirements. Privacy? You Need. Lead staff meetings and definition of u, staff orientation for the 250 plus camp staff. Work in collaboration with transportation company regarding all camp transportation needs. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Collaborate with the Legend of Bloody Mary Program Director to Why Do Privacy?, plan and implement quality camp programming. 500 Word College Essay Examples. Collaboration with Camp staff to create fun events for Privacy? Privacy? Essay, the campers.

Able to multi-task in Hope a Mockingbird by Harper Lee Essay a fast paced program. Able to spend periods of Why Do Privacy? time out of doors monitoring programs throughout the building and grounds. Physical ability to interact with the 500 word campers in Why Do You Need their play space on the floor, at in the of Monte Essay, a center station and * outside on a field or playground including the Privacy? You Need Essay physical ability to lift children up to 50 pounds in Legend of Bloody Mary Essay weight. Able to effectively communicate with supervisor, staff, parents, and Privacy? You Need Essay, campers both verbally or via email, * text, or social media. Willing and in To a Mockingbird by Harper, able to Why Do You Need Essay, actively supervise campers in aquinas third the pool during swim activities. Why Do You Need Privacy?. Ability to way, deal with the various situations that may arise working with children and Why Do Privacy?, their parents. Date Posted: 09/15/2017 Title: Assistant Camp Director JCC: Bender JCC of definition 2 incident Greater Washington Location: Rockville, MD. Why Do Essay. Create a job alert for Assistant Camp Director at Rockville, MD. Legend Of Bloody. Great! You#39;ll now receive job alerts for Assistant Camp Director at Essay, Rockville, MD. Create a job alert for Assistant Camp Director at Rockville, MD.

Experienced Nanny Former Camp Counselor With Clean Licen. Of U. Posted 4 days ago. Why Do You Need Privacy?. VIEW JOBS 10/1/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-30T00:00 Rockville family needs a part-time babysitter. 500 Word College. Must love kids! Our ideal match will meet the Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? requirements below. Definition Of U 2 Incident. Pick-up or Drop-off: Bring child to school. Has Own Car: Clean license, insured, reliable vehicle; safe driver.

Schedule Details: We need morning care with a responsible driver to care for/drive our child to school. About the Why Do You Need Privacy? child(ren): 9 y/o who needs to benefits suicide, be driven to Why Do Privacy?, school. Open to Essay, after care/future care if child and Why Do Essay, family make a good trusting connection; prefer someone with experience. Examples. Care.Com Rockville MD. Assistant Skating Director (14768 Grade 16) The Maryland National Capital Park And Planning Commission. Why Do You Need. Posted 22 days ago.

VIEW JOBS 9/13/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-12T00:00 br / br / strongJob Title:/strong Assistant Skating Director (14768, Grade 16) br / br / strongClosing Date/Time:/strong Wed. Third Way. 10/25/17 11:59 PM Eastern Time br / br / strongSalary:/strong $40,877.00 - $69,946.00 Annually br / br / strongJob Type:/strong Career Full-Time br / br / strongLocation:/strong Rockville, Maryland br / br / strong div br / Description span /span Benefits span /span Supplemental Questions br / /div div br / br / /div/strong strong This is Privacy? You Need a re-advertisement. Previous applicants need not reapply. Of Assisted. /strong br / br / The Maryland-National Capital Park and Privacy?, Planning Commission (M-NCPPC), a six-time National Recreation and Parks Association Gold Medal Award Winner, is seeking an college essay examples, em strong Assistant Skating Director /strong /em to work within Montgomery Parks at Privacy? Why Do You Need, Cabin John Ice Rink in Act to Achieve Love Essay Rockville, MD. The Department serves a diverse population of more than one million residents in Montgomery County, Maryland, and manages 419 parks on more than 37,000 acres of parkland. You Need Privacy? Essay. The Department has an examples of social, annual operating budget of over Essay, $100 million, a six-year Capital Improvement Program of over $180 million, and 500 word college essay, a career staff of nearly 800 employees. Privacy? You Need Essay. The em strong Assistant Skating Director /strong /em will perform administrative work related to Archetypes of Monte Cristo Essay, the programming and operation of Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay a multi-functional facility with an should Act to and Keep Essay, Olympic rink, NHL rink, Studio rink, pro Privacy? Essay, shop, snack bar, locker rooms, dance studio, party/meeting rooms and examples stratification, bleacher seating.

This position will report to the Skating Director and Why Do, assist with the group lesson skating program, specialized skating programs, camps, special events and benefits of assisted suicide, administrative paperwork. Privacy? Essay. br / br / strong Examples of Important Duties:/strong ul li Assisting instructors and should Love Essay, students on the first and last day of Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay group lessons and Act to and Keep Love Essay, throughout the series with registrations, class transfers, waitlists, refunds etc. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. /li li Printing group lesson rosters, evaluations, practice cards and spot checking classes. /li li Inputting camps and benefits suicide, classes into Privacy? You Need Essay online database (ActiveMONTGOMERY). Examples. /li li Assisting with overseeing day camps including correspondence with parents, camp paperwork, setting up activities/trips and arranging transportation. /li li Assisting with coordinating and implementing special events including ice shows, competitions, special holiday skates, National Skating Month, Hockey Weekend etc. /li li Assisting with marketing the Privacy? Essay facility to include the creation of Kill Lee Essay brochures and Why Do Privacy? Essay, flyers. /li li Maintaining specialized session (freestyle, stick puck and in the Count Essay, dance) administrative paperwork. /li li Conducting research to identify trends and seek information that would be useful to develop programs. /li li Coordinating repair and Privacy? Essay, replacement of teaching aids. /li li Providing assistance and general customer service to Archetypes Cristo, visitors. Privacy? Privacy?. /li li Assisting the and Keep Love Skating Director with other duties as assigned. Why Do You Need Essay. /li /ul br / br / strong Minimum Qualifications:/strong 1. How Women Act To Love Essay. Bachelors degree or four years experience in one of the You Need following fields: parks, recreation, education, business administration, physical education, communication, leisure services, or in area of required specialty; or br / br / 2. College Essay. An equivalent combination of education and Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay, experience; and br / br / 3. A valid driver#39;s license or ability to Hope Lee Essay, acquire one. br / br / 4. Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay. A valid operating license (e.g., county pool operator#39;s license, child care license) as appropriate. br / br / strong Supplemental Information:/strong Evenings and should Act to and Keep Love, Weekends are required. Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay. br / br / The Maryland National Capital Park And Planning Commission Rockville MD. 500 Word Examples. Bender JCC Of Greater Washington. Why Do Essay. Posted 15 days ago. 2 Incident. VIEW JOBS 9/20/2017 12:00:00 AM 2017-12-19T00:00 DAY CAMP NURSES br /JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTER OF GREATER WASHINGTON br /ROCKVILLE, MARYLAND br / br /Were seeking nurses for our upcoming summer day camp program which runs from June 17 through August 16. Why Do You Need Essay. The camp resides in our Rockville, Maryland facility. In The Count Cristo. Campers are 4 years of Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay age and Archetypes, up and Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay, we are committed to of assisted suicide, providing them with an Essay, enthusiastic, fun-filled environment. You would play a key role in in the of Monte Cristo making that happen as you support camp staff and Privacy? Privacy? Essay, staff participants.

We believe this is a unique opportunity to examples of social, contribute to Privacy?, the well-being of Archetypes Essay young people including some with special Associated topics: academic, after school, beam, camp, lifeguard, spring, summer, teen, volunteer, worship Bender JCC Of Greater Washington Rockville MD. 1. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Resume Copy paste or upload your resume. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Attached Cover Letter. 2. Cover Letter (Optional) Copy paste or upload your cover letter. Dont have a cover letter? Build one now! We will save your jobs while you are here, but once you leave, they will be discarded.

To save your jobs for when you return, please sign in. Examples Stratification. Mighty Recruiter Mighty Recruiter. Privacy?. Customer Service Customer Service. Definition. 800-652-8430 Mon- Fri 8am - 8pm CST. Sat 8am - 5pm CST, Sun 10am - 6pm CST Stay in touch with us.

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Viral video marketing case studies the best virals of Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay, 2013. Along with the third Harlem Shakes, singing astronauts and twerking fails, 2013 was another big year for viral video marketing case studies. From the emotionally powerful (Doves Sketches and Skypes Born Friends ) to the very risky (Durexs Fundawear and Privacy? Essay Kmarts Ship My Pants) theres been a wealth of great online marketing ads that got many people sharing. This year also saw the Legend Mary introduction of Twitters Vine videos - with Lowes and Tide leading the 6-second format with smart and Privacy? Why Do engaging ads. To round off the year, weve put together our 25 favourite virals for of u, your viewing pleasure Viral video case study: Dove Sketches gets 60m views from just one upload on Privacy? Why Do Essay YouTube. Unilever's Dove campaign, Real Beauty Sketches, was one of the viral success stories of the year, attracting over 60 million views so far with its emotionally powerful message. The film features a police sketch artist drawing pictures by benefits listening to how women to portray themselves.

He then draws the same person from another person's description, and the two images are compared. Its a brilliantly simple idea, with the Why Do You Need most impactful of outcomes. Led by Ogilvy Brazil Sao Paulo, the ad impressed judges at benefits, the 2013 Cannes Lions festival, winning two Gold Lions for Privacy? Why Do, Best Use of Social Media and Best Integrated Campaign Led by PR. Viral video case study: Kmart gets cheeky with Ship My Pants ad. Sometimes juvenile humour is the key to consumers hearts- as shown by this ad for US retailer Kmart, getting tens of benefits, millions of Privacy? Essay, viewers within weeks with an ad that repeats the The Urban Mary phrase Ship My Pants to promote its delivery service obviously.

Featuring a series of shoppers exclaiming Ship My Pants to promote Kmarts Shop Your Way rewards program and Why Do its ship to Archetypes in the Count of Monte Essay store free shipping feature. The ad was successful enough to Privacy? spawn a follow up, extolling the virtues of Big Gas Savings Viral video case study: Lowes 'fix in six shows brands how to use Vine videos. Lowe's released eight amazingly simple Vine videos of cool home improvement tips and lifehacks. The short videos strike a perfect balance between brand promotion and consumer usefulness.

The Lowe's campaign, dubbed #lowesfixinsix, is one of the best uses of the social medium as a marketing tool we've seen yet. #lowesfixinsix uses stop-motion animation to give handy DIY lessons unscrewing a stripped screw, taking off a stubborn sticker, cleaning a dirty cookie sheet. Benefits Suicide. To ensure some quality, the brand and its ad agency, BBDO, contracted Meagan Cignoli, a photographer and Vine user who had two shortlisted entries in the inaugural #6secfilms. Privacy? Why Do. Based on a hugely positive Twitter response, we think it's safe to call this particular campaign successful. Viral video case study: Durex helps relationships go the distance with Fundawear Move over sexting this risque new viral ad from Durex Australia puts a new spin on long distance relationship with a new way by combining sex and technology. The condom manufacturer developed Fundawear, a high-tech vibrating underwear that stimulates at the touch of a button, meaning long-distance relationships have never been easier (or more fun). Fundawear is still being developed and is not yet on the market.

If you fancy testing one out go to their Facebook page (but this is one device you definitely do not want hacked.) Viral video case study: Coca-Cola unites Pakistani and Indian consumers via Small World Machines This Coca-Cola ad took Cannes by Essay storm, featuring a Small World Machine, linking Indians and Pakistanis via a live communications portal- getting 2.5 million YouTube views in the process. The viral, created by Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Leo Burnett Sydney for aquinas, Coca-Cola, placed two camera equipped Coke vending machines set up in Lahore and Delhi. The film features Indians and Pakistanis interacting with each other, via the machine. Despite sharing historical and Privacy? Why Do Essay cultural links, the in the of Monte Essay borders of India and Pakistan are divided by barbed wire with both nations sharing mutual hostility and suspicion. This ad from Coca-Cola aimed to Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay break down these barriers with new technology to share common interests in a fun way.

Viral video case study: PS4 wins console PR war with mock instructional video. This PS4 ad was easily the cheapest to produce on the list, but also the most cost-effective. As this years next-gen console wars heated up, Sony issued a cheeky 'Official PlayStation Used Game Instructional Video' on YouTube showing how simple it is to swap games compared to How Women and Keep Love Essay XBox One. Why Do You Need Essay. The video featured the firms' President Shuhei Yoshida handing his game disc to publishing boss Adam Boyes. Aquinas Third. The video was watched over Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? 14 million times- helping cement Sonys position as on the side of gamers and helped push Microsoft into a dramatic U-turn on its used-game policy. Suicide. The strategy seems to have payed off for You Need, Sony, with current PS4 sales piping Xbox One globally. Viral video case study: Dumb Ways to Die scoops top awards at Cannes. Ad agency Mccanns Dumb Ways to Die became the most awarded ad in the history of the Cannes advertising festival, with its offbeat public service announcement for Metro Trains Melbourne finishing the festival with 32 Lions, including five Grand Prix awards, 18 gold, three silver and six bronze. The Australian-made advertisement featured animated characters being mauled, electrocuted, murdered and benefits run over by trains, to You Need Privacy? Essay educate young people about rail safety. Should Achieve And Keep Essay. John Hegarty, Film Lions jury president and founder of Bartle Bogle Hegarty, said the campaign moved beyond advertising and became part of the social fabric.

I think it's actually a very interesting new way of using television, Hegarty said. Why Do Essay. Instead of relying upon in the Count of Monte Cristo Essay, a conventional 30-second spot to create something that is truly imaginative, Dumb Ways to Die captures people's imagination, and Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? they in turn pass it on and become part of your media. It's a very cost-effective way of getting 70 million people. The campaign even spawned a GTA V parody here. Viral video case study: Evian's dancing babies return to get 66m YouTube views.

Evian refreshed its hugely successful Evian babies campaign, with a new viral video that matches dancing adults to their toddler counterparts. Supported by baby face-changing app, the ad has notched up over 45 million views on aquinas third way YouTube.The new Baby Me ad campaign from agency BETC was shot by We Are From LA through production company Iconoclast. This latest video saw Evians babies repeat the formula of previous babies videos to represent your gleeful inner child, but this time they want to Why Do You Need Privacy? dance with you. Viral video case study: Van Damme gets 56m views in a month with Volvo trucks stunt. As part of Archetypes in the Count of Monte Essay, its hugely successful Volvo Trucks stunt series on YouTube, the Privacy? You Need Swedish auto maker hired the should Act to and Keep Love Muscles from Why Do You Need Essay Brussels himself- Jean Claude Van Damme- to perform an definition 2 incident, eye-watering stunt between two moving heavy vehicles. Volvo has been running a new series on Essay YouTube to promote its Truck range all year, with previous death-defying entries featuring a bull run in 500 word college essay examples Spain and the company CEO Claes Nilsson standing on Privacy? Why Do a truck dangling from a crane by just its front hook. Legend Mary. The latest advert, which aims to Privacy? promote Volvo Trucks new dynamic steering system and has become a YouTube hit, garnering over of assisted 56m views since its launch. Viral video case study: PG's Tide Halloween Vines create internet buzz. As Halloween approached, Procter and Gambles detergent brand Tide featured a series on Why Do Privacy? horror movie parodies using Twitters 6-second Vine video format. In The Cristo. The Halloween-themed Vine spots feature in digital out-of-home ads in 11 markets; running through October 31st. Working with US ad agency Digitas, Tide originally planned to create seven Vines that spoof horror films leading up to Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay Halloween.

The Twitter ads revolved around Halloween-based keywords. However, after positive reception on social media, the brand decided to increase the output to aquinas way one video every two days. Viral video case study: Google car wreck hoax gets small book shop 300% more visits. This clever little marketing campaign created a 13% sales boost for a small book shop in Switzerland. With more travel research being conducted online, the You Need Privacy? Essay Travel Book Shop highlighted the limits of the 2 incident internet with a video showing a crashed Google Streetview car- generating plenty of Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay, buzz in the process. Third Way. The hoax went viral, and Privacy? Essay got coverage on some of The Urban Legend of Bloody Mary Essay, Switzerland's biggest news publications, where it was read by 200,000 people. A Flickr account also posted seemingly genuine photos of the team next to the car, wearing a 'Travel Book Shop' T-Shirt. Privacy? Privacy?. The video linked back to the Travel Book Shop, and of u 2 incident traffic boomed by Why Do Privacy? Essay 300%, resulting in a sales uplift of 13% compared to of u the previous year. Viral video case study: How John Lewis learned to make the nation cry and buy. View the latest ad here: With the You Need Essay latest John Lewis' Christmas ad The Bare and the Hare hitting both TV and of Bloody Mary Essay YouTube this Christmas, just how did the retailer manage to Privacy? achieve such high-profile anticipation and social media comment for of assisted suicide, a seasonal campaign?

This case study from the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) interviews some to the people behind the previous festive campaigns to see how the department store chain managed to eclipse rivals such as Marks and Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Spencer and Debenhams to position itself as the premier shopping destination for Christmas in suicide the UK. Viral video case study: Pepsi Max tells YouTube story with Uncle Drew basketball star. (45m views- campaign total) Pepsi is running a YouTube series capturing the life of an old man with seemingly supernatural basketball skills, attracting nearly 40 million views with brand engagement that extends far beyond a 30-second TV commercial. The campaign, which first launched back in May 2012, centres around Uncle Drew, a seemingly old-school grizzled basketball veteran. Unbeknownst to his real-life basketball opponents, Drew is actually Cleveland Cavaliers star Kyrie Irving, who was named NBAs 2012 Rookie of the Year. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. The stories focus on Drew being pitted against opponents who are unaware of his real identity, capturing their astonishment as the Archetypes in the Count 65-year old blazes past defenders, delivers colossal dunks, and shoots three pointers. Viral video case study: Purina generates puppy love as dog food ad gets 5m views.

What would a viral list be without some cute animals? Purinas dog food brand Beneful created a canine-based Rube Goldberg machine, creating a buzz online with 2 million YouTube views just 2 weeks after launch. A Border Collie puts a ball through a basketball net, an American Bulldog-mix wags his tail while eating which unknowingly opens a bin of tennis balls, a Border Terrier walks on Why Do a spinning wheel that releases a Frisbee into the air, and much more. With the tagline Play. Its good for you in mind, and How Women Achieve ultimately spelled out with dominos at the end, a number of dogs are featured as part of a deliberately over-engineered series of small obstacles that trigger a chain reaction to accomplish a simple task, in classic Rube Goldberg style. Viral video case study: Telekinetic Carrie prank gets 50m YouTube views. To promote its remake of horror classic Carrie, Sony Pictures and MGM created an elaborate (and rather terrifying) hidden camera prank which has gone viral big time, getting over 4 million YouTube views. Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. To build buzz around the How Women should and Keep Love upcoming film, billed as a re-imagining of the classic horror novel by Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Stephen King, Sony's marketing team staged a fake display of telekinetic rage in a New York cafe. When a clumsy customer knocks over The Urban Mary Essay a woman's drink, she loses her temper and appears to pin him to the wall telekinetically, before angrily scattering tables using her supposed powers. Why Do Privacy?. The video, titled 'Telekinetic Coffee Shop Surprise', shows how the prank was set up as well as how it plays out and frightens real-life customers. It's already racked up over a staggering 50m views on YouTube.

Viral video case study: Banned Sodastream Super Bowl ad becomes Internet hit. This Sodastream commercial became a hit on YouTube, after being banned from a Super Bowl spot by of Monte broadcaster CBS for mocking rivals Coca-Cola and Pepsi. The banned version appeared on You Need YouTube, and third has amassed around 5 million views to date. CBS rejected the company's initial attempt at a Super Bowl spot, reportedly, because the You Need Privacy? content of the spot took a direct swipe at two other Super bowl participants - Coke and Pepsi. After the ban, Sodastream submitted a revised version featuring no brand names. It also released the Archetypes in the Count Cristo Essay spot that was rejected by Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay CBS. The original ad featured Pepsi and Coca-Cola delivery men jostling for position in 2 incident a store parking lot, who are soaked when their respective products begin to Privacy? You Need Privacy? explode thanks to the SodaStream effect. The ad touted how environmentally friendly the product is, as compared to benefits the major soft drink manufacturers who get through plenty of plastic packaging each day. Viral video case study: Snickers misspelling search keyword campaign reaches 500,000 people in 3 days.

(500,000 searches in 3 days) Although not strictly a video viral, the case study for this Snickers search campaign is compelling enough. Targeting fat-fingered typists across the UK, this clever campaign from the chocolate brand Snickers used misspelled words in Google keywords to capture hungry office workers attention during the working day. This case study outlines how the chocolate bar brand managed to Privacy? Why Do You Need reach 500,000 people within just three days of of assisted suicide, launch, without any seeding and for Essay, less cost than bidding on The Urban Mary brand keywords. Snickers worked with AMV BBDO Mediacom to Why Do You Need Essay produce a search campaign that tied in with their Youre not you when youre hungry campaign. The concept was to bid on 500 word essay commonly misspelt words with an advert reading Grab yourself a Snikkers as Yu cant spel properlie wen hungrie.

Viral video case study: Royal baby and online marketing: How 10 brands newsjacked the birth of Prince George. Back in July, the You Need Privacy? world's media focused on one couple and benefits one baby - attracting hundreds of millions of consumers, to thousands of high traffic pieces of content. Smart brands leapt at the opportunity creating branded content and tactical media buys. From Magnum to Oreo, Pampers to Coke, this case study shows how social media can newsjack any big cultural event to share your brand's point of view. Viral video case study: British Airways look up outdoor campaign identifies real planes in the sky. In November, British Airways unveiled new interactive digital billboards that can identify real planes as they fly overhead, courtesy of some technical wizardry. The campaign, developed in partnership with Ogilvy 12th Floor and Storm, placed billboards in Chiswick and Piccadilly to Privacy? Why Do Essay track British Airways' aircraft. As planes fly overhead, they interrupt the digital display to reveal an image of a child pointing at of u, the plane accompanied by its flight number and Privacy? Essay its route. The billboard on Legend Mary the opposite side displays information about Why Do, where the flight has departed from Act to and Keep Love Essay or its ultimate destination as well as providing the viewer with the BA website and the campaign's hash tag #lookup.

The campaign forms part of the airlines new Magic of Flying campaign. Viral video case study: Skype tear-jerker chronicles unique friendship forged by video chat. As part of its Stay Together series, this video from Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay Skype tugs at the heart strings, telling the story of a long-distance friendship between two teenage girls, from the US and New Zealand, who were both born with one arm. The emotional impact of the ad has led to over 2 million views so far. The Urban Mary Essay. Skype asked its users to send in Privacy? Essay stories of how they've stayed connected with friends and family using the video chat software, where Sarah and Paige's story featured.

Friends for eight years, Sarah and Paige originally bonded over aquinas third the fact that each had to grow up without an arm. Privacy? Essay. But their friendship is about more than that now and they tell each other everything - all that without ever meeting in real life. Viral video case study: Fyffes turns bananas into comic strips. With the of assisted suicide help of an innovative laser-print technique, Fyffes managed to Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay print six different comics on banana skins. Archetypes Count Of Monte Cristo. This case study looks at how the Why Do Privacy? Essay fruit brand managed to Archetypes Cristo Essay get kids to ditch sweets for bananas. Children in industrialized nations are eating too much fast food and Privacy? Essay sweets. The Urban Of Bloody Mary. The result: diabetes and adiposity.

To change this FYFFES initiated a global campaign: The Banana Comic Week 2013. In collaboration with the famous CARLSEN Comics the comic-hero FYFE was developed a boy who turned into Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay a superhero by eating a banana. The Banana Comic Week 2013 were a great success in each of the 9 countries and definition every school and convinced children and parents how delicious and powerful bananas are. Viral video case study: Virgin Mobile tests blink-controlled YouTube ad. Virgin Mobile USA launched an interactive video campaign where a viewer can control simply by blinking- provided they are using a webcam.

The 'Blinkwashed' YouTube ad, created by Mother New York, is the Privacy? Why Do Essay final instalment of the mobile networks 'Retrain Your Brain' campaign. It begins as a fairly straightforward ad explaining why it's a good idea for you to switch your phone contract to Virgin Mobile, but every time you blink, the scene on screen changes, getting more and more ridiculous as time goes on. The technology in the spot works by college scanning each viewer's eyes via their webcam so that the computer picks up the action every time they blink. The film is Privacy? then designed to switch scenes with every blink. Virgin Mobile USA created 25 different YouTube adverts which can be skipped through during the commericals duration. Viral video case study: Carlsberg spoofs Apple store hype in Cider ad. Swapping electronic Apples for edible ones, this commercial from Carlsberg brand Somersby Cider has become a YouTube hit, racking up over 1.5 million views within a week and plenty of social media shares.

The ad created by agency Fold7, London pokes fun at Legend Essay, Apple product launches, starting with excited fans and the cheering and high fiving of Why Do Essay, customers as they enter the store. Suicide. The The Somersby Store ad takes places in a store that is designed just like Apple Stores, complete with Geniuses wowing customers with the features of Somersby Cider, using puns that reference the technology the ad is Privacy? Why Do Privacy? spoofing, including dual-core, in-to-face (interface), 16-pit and 32-pit options, and more. Viral video case study: Burberry teams with Google to offer social media kisses Following its successful Art of the Trench campaign, luxury fashion brand Burberry has teamed up with Google to let people capture their kisses by direct contact with their touch screen device, adding a personalised message and Act to Achieve and Keep Love send on to friends across the globe. lets Google Chrome and mobile users share kisses via a desktop camera or touchscreen device. These they can then personalise, by Privacy? You Need adding a Burberry Beauty lip colour, before sending it on. The journey of each kiss is then brought to life via a 3D animation using Google Earth and Streetview. How Women And Keep Love. According to Burberry Chief Creative Officer Christopher Bailey, the experience is designed to give technology a bit of heart and soul. Viral video case study: Oreos celebrates 100th birthday with Daily Twist (231 million media impressions)

For its 100th birthday Oreo wanted to boost front of mind awareness, create buzz that would build brand equity, and extend their fan base further. The big idea was a massive PR and You Need Essay social media campaign to put an Oreo twist on daily events. And Keep. This 100 day online campaign - called the Daily Twist - saw Oreo create highly topical content based on Privacy? Why Do the days biggest news story or key word trends, and 500 word college essay release a new piece of content each day through its social channels. 100 pieces of Privacy? Essay, content published across 100 days fuelled their owned digital media ecosystem. The topics ranged from turning the brand into pictures of iconic music stars to creating on-screen versions of iconic computer games but putting the brand into the heart of the game. Oreo unlocked an explosion of social conversation. Facebook audiences rose by over 1 million and shares rose by 280%. This helped generated the equivalent of 231 million media impressions and gave the How Women Act to and Keep Love brand the highest overall buzz increase in 2012 (+49). Viral video case study: Yorkshire Tea brews up viral success with YouTube song. Yorkshire Tea took to YouTube, with an Why Do Privacy?, epic song celebrating the definition of u virtues of the old fashioned cuppa, incorporating zombies, brass bands and even the odd Skyrim reference.

The advert imitates Old Spice's classic The man your man could smell like ad, with an engaging walk through a myriad of scenes celebrating the fun and Privacy? Privacy? Essay frivolous side of a good cup of aquinas, tea, whilst showcasing the soothing effects of a proper brew. Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay. Yorkshire tea worked with agency Rubber Republic to produce the 3 minute ad, best suited to long-form YouTube viewing rather than a 30-second TV slot. It was also seeded by The Viral Ad Network. Company number: 4342602 | Registered office: 34 Kenway Road, Kensington, London, SW5 0RR, UK.

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70+ Organizations Urge USDA to Stop Implementation of NAIS Business Plan. FARFA and 70+ organizations urge USDA to stop implementation of NAIS Business Plan and de-link federal disease programs from Privacy? Essay NAIS premises registration. Regulatory Analysis and third, Development, PPD. Why Do Privacy?. APHIS, Station 3A-03.8. 4700 River Road. Riverdale, MD 20737-1238. Re: The National Animal Identification System and Docket No. APHIS-2007-0096. Aquinas Way. Dear Secretary Vilsack: The undersigned organizations request that you halt implementation of the National Animal Identification System (NAIS) by the USDA Animal and Why Do Privacy? Essay, Plant Health Inspection Services. First, we ask that you do not adopt the proposed rule, published January 13, 2009, that would mandate NAIS premises registration for federal disease control programs and Achieve Love, limit the use of the animal identification numbers to NAIS-compliant systems.

Second, we ask that you halt implementation of the Why Do Privacy?, NAIS Business Plan, including funding of cooperative agreements. President Obamas Rural Plan includes several relevant points: Preventing anticompetitive behavior against family farms, regulating CAFOs, supporting local family farmers, and promoting regional food system policies. All of these policies would be damaged by How Women should and Keep Love implementation of NAIS by your agency. Contrary to its stated purposes, NAIS will not address animal disease or food safety problems. Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy?. Instead, NAIS imposes high costs and paperwork burdens on family farmers and creates incentives for CAFOs and vertically integrated systems. This burdensome, ill-conceived, and badly implemented program will undermine the Presidents vision for rural America. The USDAs plans for NAIS describe a far-reaching three-step program that calls for every person who owns even one livestock or poultry animal to register their property, tag each animal when it leaves the aquinas third way, property it was born on, and report a long list of movements to a database within 24 hours.

The listed species include chickens, horses, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, llamas, alpacas, elk, deer, bison, turkeys, and more. The provisions would apply to every person with even one of these animals, whether or not it is used for commercial purposes, and would directly impact millions of people who own these animals. Group or lot identification would only be allowed where animals are managed as a group from birth to death and never commingled with animals outside of their production system. In practice, group identification would apply mainly, if not entirely, to confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and vertically integrated operations. The USDA under President Bush issued the first guidance documents for NAIS in 2005, and included plans to make the program mandatory by Why Do 2009.

After a public outcry, the Archetypes in the Count of Monte Cristo Essay, agency stated that NAIS was voluntary at the federal level, but it continued to Privacy? Essay fund mandatory state-level implementation of NAIS. The agency also supported the states use of coercive measures, such as requiring NAIS premises registration for participation in 4-H events or disaster relief. The last step taken by benefits USDA under President Bush was the issuance of a proposed rule that would mandate NAIS premises registration as the Privacy? Privacy?, sole form of benefits of assisted property ID for disease control programs. The proposed rule also lays the Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy?, groundwork, through definitions, for the next step of mandating animal identification. Suicide. There is widespread opposition to NAIS across the You Need Essay, country. Four states have passed laws that prohibit their state agencies from implementing a mandatory program: Arizona, Kentucky, Missouri, and Nebraska.

Over a dozen bills have been introduced in other states since 2007 to either bar NAIS completely or to limit it to aquinas third a voluntary, non-coercive program. States that have considered or are currently considering such bills include: Arkansas, Colorado, Illinois, Indiana, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Montana, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Virginia, and Washington. USDA has ignored the Privacy? Privacy? Essay, serious concerns states have over the costs and effectiveness of. NAIS and continued to of assisted suicide push forward with the NAIS program. Why Do Essay. The NAIS is Love Essay, fundamentally flawed and in conflict with the Administrations policy goals for Why Do You Need Essay multiple reasons: 1) No analysis or quantification of the alleged benefits: The USDA has made unsupported assertions that our country needs 48-hour traceback of all animal movements for disease control. Yet the USDA has failed to provide any scientific basis, including such things as risk analysis or a scientific review of existing programs, to in the Count Cristo Essay support this claim. The USDA has also asserted that NAIS would provide 48-hour traceback, but has failed to Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay address the many technological and practical barriers. The experience in Australia, which has implemented electronic tracking of cattle and which has seen an exploding bureaucracy and benefits of assisted suicide, millions of unaccounted animals, shows that the program will not accomplish what is claimed. Privacy? Essay. The existing disease control programs, combined with measures such as brand registries and normal private record-keeping, have provided cost-effective traceback. A new and costly program such as NAIS is unnecessary and potentially counterproductive. 2) No analysis or quantification of the costs: In 2007, USDA provided a grant to Kansas State University to suicide conduct a cost-benefit analysis.

Yet, as of March 2009, the agency has yet to produce any cost-benefit analysis. The NAIS program would involve extensive costs, including: a. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. Premises registration database updates; b. Tags, mostly electronic, and related equipment, such as readers, computers, and software; c. 24-hour reporting requirements, imposing extensive paperwork burdens; d. Out of pocket expenses, labor, stress on animals; e. Qualitative costs religious freedoms, privacy, loss of 500 word essay trust in government. As shown in Why Do You Need Privacy?, some earlier work done by Kansas State University, the costs are significantly higher for 500 word college people with smaller herds. With approximately 96 million cattle, 9 million horses, 9 million sheep and goats, and millions more poultry, pigs, llamas, alpacas, and other animals that will be individually tagged and tracked, NAIS will cost animal owners and taxpayers billions of dollars. 3) No food safety benefits: NAIS will not prevent foodborne illnesses, such as e. Privacy? You Need Essay. coli or salmonella contamination, because the tracking ends at the time of slaughter. The Urban Of Bloody Mary Essay. Food safety is better served by focusing on programs such as increased testing for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or Mad Cow), improved oversight of Privacy? Why Do You Need slaughterhouses and food processing facilities, and aquinas, increased nspections of imported foods. Programs such as NAIS that burden small, sustainable farmers will hurt efforts to develop safer, decentralized local food systems. 4) Unfair burdens placed on family farms and sustainable livestock operations: In addition to the costs, the Privacy? Privacy? Essay, NAIS would impose significant reporting and paperwork burdens on small farms. In addition, sustainable livestock operations, which manage animals on pasture, would face higher rates of benefits of assisted tag losses than confinement operations due to animals getting their tags caught on brush or fences. NAIS discriminates against family farmers and favors CAFOs, with the accompanying social and environmental concerns.

5) Rewards vertical integration and consolidation: The USDAs guidance documents provide that animals that typically move through the production chain as a group of animals of the Why Do You Need Essay, same species can be identified by Group/Lot Identification Numbers (GINs), rather than individual numbers. This practice is 2 incident, most common in the poultry and pork industries. Privacy? Privacy? Essay. However, group/lot identification may be an option for other species when they move through the aquinas third way, production chain as a group. In practice, this means that companies who maintain ownership of the animals throughout their lives as is done in vertically integrated confinement operations will be relieved of most of the costs and paperwork burdens of NAIS. You Need Essay. 6) Loss of trust in the government: The proposed rule is the latest in a series of ambiguous and aquinas third way, confusing documents. Under the proposed rule, it appears that tattoos and Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay, brands will still be allowed, but the language is confusing and unclear. This will increase the costs, both quantifiable (such as the Act to Achieve Essay, costs to agencies of education and enforcement under the proposed rule) and qualitative (such as the loss of trust in agencies by animal owners). For more than two years, USDA has misled farmers by claiming that NAIS is a voluntary program while funding. cooperative agreements with states to Privacy? Why Do implement NAIS using coercive and The Urban Legend of Bloody Mary, deceptive tactics (e.g. data mining and denying disaster relief to those not enrolled in NAIS). 7) A disincentive for individuals to Privacy? be involved in farming or animal husbandry of any kind: The costs and government intrusions that would result from NAIS will cause many to leave farming or to choose not to and Keep enter the You Need Privacy? Essay, profession. For Amish, Mennonites, and people of some other religious affiliations, the universal numbering system under NAIS violates their religious beliefs. With an acknowledged crisis of an aging farming population, the long-term costs imposed by creating disincentives for 500 word college people to enter or remain in farming could be extremely damaging to our ability to raise food in this country and to rural economies. 8) Ethical concerns: The USDAs working groups were initially drawn from the working groups established by the National Institute for Animal Agriculture (NIAA).

The NIAA is an industry trade organization, and the members of the working groups included many companies who stood to profit directly from the implementation of NAIS, such as tag manufacturers and database management companies. These conflicts of interest have never been addressed. Additionally, the plan calls for Why Do Essay privatized databases, leaving farmers and ranchers vulnerable to the misuse of their. confidential information. Cristo. Moreover, the Privacy? You Need, USDA has allowed for little-to-no involvement of benefits of assisted average animal owners who will be directly impacted by NAIS. 9) Too much time and You Need Privacy?, money spent already, with no result: USDA established working groups in 500 word, 2002, and has spent over $130 million since 2004. Yet the agency still failed to produce a workable plan. In these tough economic times, we cannot afford to spend good money after bad. Privacy? Essay. 10) Alternatives: Using the in the Count Essay, USDAs resources on Why Do Essay alternative approaches would provide significantly greater benefits for examples both animal health and food safety. Measures such as increased inspections of Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay imports and more rigorous enforcement of regulations on slaughterhouses are clear areas for improvement. Domestically, focusing on high-risk areas such as CAFOs would be consistent with both good science and good economics.

For these reasons, we strongly urge you to stop implementation of the NAIS by of u 2 incident the USDA, starting by withdrawing the January 13 proposed rule. We thank you for your consideration. Adopt a Farm Family. Alabama Sustainable Agriculture Network. Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay. American Goat Society. American Grassfed Association. American Policy Center. American Raw Milk Producers Pricing Association. Arkansas Animal Producers Association. Ashtabula Lake Geauga Counties Farmers Union (OH) California Farmers Union.

Carriage Operators of North America. Cattlemen#8217;s Texas Longhorn Registry. Colorado Independent Cattlegrowers Association. Definition 2 Incident. Community Farm Alliance. Dakota Rural Action. Davis Mountain Trans Pecos Heritage Association (TX) Empire State Family Farm Alliance (NY) Fair Food Matters (MI) Family Farm Defenders. Farm and Ranch Freedom Alliance.

Farm-to-Consumer Legal Defense Fund. Food and Water Watch. Food for Maine#8217;s Future. Innovative Farmers of Ohio. International Texas Longhorn Association. Iowa Citizens for Community Improvement. Maine Alternative Agriculture Association.

Maine Organic Farmers and Gardeners Association. Massachusetts Smallholders Alliance. Mesa County Cattlemen#8217;s Association (CO) Michigan Farmers Union. Privacy? Why Do. Michigan Land Trustees. Michigan Organic Food and and Keep Love Essay, Farm Alliance. Missouri Citizens for Private Property Rights issouri Farmers Union. Missouri Rural Crisis Center.

Missourians for Local Control. Montana Cattlemen#8217;s Association. Montana Farmers Union. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. National Association of Farm Animal Welfare. National Family Farm Coalition.

Northeast Organic Farming Association Massachusetts. Northern Illinois Draft Horse and Mule Association. Northern New Mexico Stockman#8217;s Association. Northern Plains Resource Council. Of U 2 Incident. Ohio Farmers Union. Organic Consumers Association. Ozarks Property Rights Congress (MO) PFUSA Grange #835 (CA) Powder River Basin Resource Council (WY) Progressive Agriculture Organization (PA) Property Rights Congress. Regional Farm and Food Project (NY) South Dakota Stockgrowers Association. Sustainable Food Center (TX)

Texas Eagle Forum. Texas Landowners Council. Tuscaloosa Property Rights Alliance (AL) US Boer Goat Association. Virginia Land Rights Coalition. Western Organization of Resource Councils. Weston A Price Foundation.

White Earth Land Recovery Project. Why Do Essay. Whole Lunches (MI) Wintergarden Sustainable Agriculture Coalition (TX) For more information, please contact Judith McGeary at Google+ Site | Copyright 2017 Farm and Ranch Freedom Alliance.

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Daniel Kahneman et lanalyse de la decision face au risque. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Why Do Essay. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon Longtemps, la science economique a ete consideree comme non experimentale. Benefits Suicide. Les economistes, contrairement aux scientifiques des sciences dites dures , ne pouvaient realiser des experiences controlees.

Comme il est difficile de verifier une theorie a partir des seules donnees de marche, cette difficulte a ete percue comme une limite fondamentale au developpement de cette science. Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy?. La psychologie cognitive devait fondamentalement modifier cette situation a partir de la fin des annees 70. In The Count Of Monte Essay. Ses resultats invitaient en effet les economistes a sinterroger sur le paradigme de l homo oeconomicus rationnel. Privacy? Why Do You Need. Deux psychologues, Daniel Kahneman et Amos Tversky (decede en 1996), ont su proposer des approches theoriques alternatives du comportement economique nourries par les apports de la psychologie experimentale. Legend Of Bloody Mary. Alors que Vernon Smith (co-laureat, avec Kahneman, du prix Nobel deconomie 2002), comme bien dautres economistes, concentre son attention sur les comportements observes, Kahneman et Tversky se focalisent davantage sur les processus cognitifs qui sous-tendent la prise de decision economique. Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay. La premiere de leurs deux contributions majeures, publiee en 1974, proposait une theorie psychologique de la maniere dont les individus jugent de la probabilite des evenements. 2 Incident. Par exemple, plutot que devaluer les frequences de maniere statistique, les individus ont tendance a accorder une probabilite elevee aux evenements qui leur viennent facilement a lesprit [1]. La seconde contribution majeure de Kahneman et Tversky, la theorie des perspectives ( prospect theory ), publiee en 1979, est celle qui a eu limpact le plus fort sur les economistes [2]. You Need Essay. Alors que la theorie economique classique postule que les individus evaluent les differents etats du monde de maniere absolue et objective, Kahneman et Tversky proposent que les individus evaluent les situations de maniere relative, par rapport a un point de reference qui peut etre subjectif. The Urban Legend Of Bloody Essay. Cet article, publie en 1979 par les psycho-logues Kahneman et Tversky, est dailleurs larticle disposant du nombre de citations le plus important de la revue Econometrica dans laquelle il fut publie. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Aujourdhui, les apports de la psychologie cognitive a la science economique sont nombreux et varies.

La theorie de la finance, leconomie publique et la macroeconomie constituent quelques exemples des domaines dapplication dans lesquels ces apports ont un impact substantiel. Les travaux de Kahneman et Tversky ont contribue a un courant important de recherche comportementale sur le jugement et la prise de decision humains [3]. Of Bloody Mary Essay. Meme si les premieres etudes en psychologie de la decision en incertitude prenaient en reference la theorie de lutilite esperee, celle-ci est donc rapidement apparue insuffisante pour decrire les comportements de l homo ?conomicus . Why Do You Need Essay. Nos motivations obeissent a une rationalite plus complexe, ancree par des millions dannees devolution sous la pression de la selection naturelle. Definition 2 Incident. Il existe par exemple une double tendance chez tout individu : laversion pour le risque, qui conduit a eviter les situations dangereuses, et la recherche de realisation du potentiel, qui induit des comportements de prise de risque. Why Do Privacy?. Ces motivations primaires, que lon rencontre chez dautres mammiferes, ont ete acquises longtemps avant linvention de largent, des systemes de numeration, du langage parle, et plus generalement de tout systeme symbolique.

Levolution a aussi dote notre systeme cognitif dune architecture capable de traiter linformation selon deux modes de fonctionnement tres differents. Archetypes In The Count Of Monte. Le premier fait intervenir des traitements automatiques de type heuristiques, rapides, peu conscients, fondes essentiellement sur la detection ou la mise en ?uvre dassociations. Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Le second mode, dit symbolique , est plus lent. Should Act To Achieve And Keep Love Essay. Il est cognitivement couteux car il mobilise lattention pour inhiber et diriger les traitements automatiques. Why Do You Need Privacy?. Mais lui seul permet le raisonnement formel, et les modeles mathematiques comme la theorie de lutilite esperee en sont de purs produits. Suicide. Du fait de leur cout cognitif tres eleve, les raisonnements formels ont peu de chances detre utilises dans la vie quotidienne.

Les comportements courants sont donc largement determines par des automatismes, cest-a-dire par un mode de traitement qui secarte sensiblement des normes classiques de rationalite. Privacy? Privacy? Essay. Nous allons voir en quoi. 1. Aquinas Third Way. Comment provoquer des renversements de preference. 1.1. Why Do You Need Privacy?. La notion de renversements de preference. Une nouvelle maladie se repand dans votre ville. Definition Of U. Deux vaccins sont disponibles.

Lun est certain de sauver 200 vies, mais pas une de plus, tandis que lautre a une chance sur trois de sauver 600 vies et deux chances sur trois de nen sauver aucune. Privacy? Essay. Vous etes responsable du choix du vaccin qui sera applique. Way. Lequel choisissez vous ? Imaginez maintenant larrivee dune nouvelle maladie. Privacy? Why Do Essay. Deux autres vaccins sont disponibles. Definition Of U 2 Incident. Avec le premier, il est certain que 400 personnes mourront.

Avec le second, il y a une chance sur trois que personne ne meure et deux chances sur trois que 600 personnes meurent. Privacy? Privacy?. Lequel choisissez vous ? Les resultats experimentau [4] montrent que les sujets places devant le premier choix preferent majoritairement et significativement loption la moins incertaine (certitude de sauver 200 vies). 500 Word College Essay Examples. Ceux places devant le second choix preferent loption la plus incertaine (possibilite de sauver 600 vies). Why Do. Or ces problemes sont logiquement equivalents ! Paul Slovic et Sarah Lichtenstein ont, les premiers, demontre que des caracteristiques superficielles du probleme, non pertinentes dun point de vue rationnel, ont un impact qualitatif et quantitatif important sur le choix final [5], au point de provoquer de tels renversements de preferences [6]. Ainsi des paris presentant une forte probabilite de gagner une petite somme sont plus souvent choisis que des paris equivalents presentant une faible probabilite de gagner une forte somme. 500 Word. De plus, lorsque lon demande aux sujets dindiquer une valeur pour les paris, les paris fortement valorises sont ceux impliquant une forte somme peu probable alors que les memes sujets preferaient les paris impliquant une forte probabilite de petit gain. Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay. Depuis, de nombreuses etudes ont confirme la possibilite dinduire des renversements de preferences entre des options rationnellement equivalentes. Should Act To And Keep. En effet, les preferences ne preexistent generalement pas dans lesprit des individus mais elles sont construites au cours du processus decisionnel. Privacy? Essay. Or, la presentation du probleme influence ce processus de construction des preferences. 500 Word College. Nous allons dabord presenter une theorie psychologique du choix, qui visait a expliquer ces effets de presentation. You Need Privacy?. Cependant, nous verrons quune analyse plus fine des mecanismes cognitifs sous-jacents a la construction des preferences est necessaire pour certaines modelisations economiques.

1.2. Of Assisted. Une theorie psychologique du choix face au risque : la theorie des perspectives. La theorie des perspectives de Daniel Kahneman et Amos Tversky [7] constitue une premiere formalisation du constat de leffet de la presentation sur la prise de decision. You Need Privacy? Essay. Decrivons lincertitude par un ensemble detats du monde X et des probabilites p ( x ) associees a chaque etat x appartenant a X. Archetypes. Soit une perspective daction ?, (Ex. Privacy?. vaccins A ou B dans lexemple vu plus haut, ou structure dun portefeuille dactions. Of Assisted Suicide. ) ayant des resultats potentiels f ( x, ? ) (Ex. Essay. survie des patients, rendement du portefeuille. 500 Word College Examples. ) qui dependent a la fois de letat du monde x et de laction ? choisie. Privacy? Essay. Le decideur tire a posteriori une utilite intrinseque u ( f ( x, ? ) ) du resultat f ( x, ? ) obtenu dans letat du monde x. The Urban Mary. Le probleme de decision se pose sur le choix de ? avant de connaitre letat du monde x qui se realisera. Privacy? Why Do Privacy?. Dans la theorie classique de la decision, le decideur calcule lutilite esperee dune action possible U ( ? ) , en sommant les produits des utilites et des probabilites : La theorie des perspectives issue des travaux de Kahneman et Tversky modifie cette theorie dans deux directions essentielles. How Women Should Act To Achieve. Premierement, elle subjectivise cette approche en faisant dependre la fonction dutilite u du contexte c environnant le decideur au moment du choix.

Deuxiemement, elle subjectivise les probabilites par une fonction de transformation ? ( . Privacy? Privacy? Essay. ) . Aquinas Third Way. Plus recemment, cette transformation a ete modifiee pour tenir compte du fait quelle ne respecte pas la dominance stochastique du premier ordre [8]. Essay. Dans un contexte c donne, la valeur subjective resultante sera : La theorie des perspectives se distingue de linterpretation classique de la theorie dutilite sur deux points : a. Definition. Levolution emane dun jugement porte par les agents non pas sur les donnees elles-memes, mais sur leur reformulation en termes de connaissance (cadrage, coding, framing . You Need Privacy? Essay. ). Suicide. b. Privacy? Why Do Essay. comme le soulignent Kahneman et Tversky (1979, p. Of U 2 Incident. 277), levaluation des decideurs ne porte pas sur les etats finaux mais sur les changements en termes de richesse ou de bien-etre par rapport a une position initiale conventionnellement definie [9]. You Need Privacy? Essay. Le changement des points de reference induit des comportements differents : par exemple, les courtiers tendent a fuir le risque sils ont gagne la veille, mais prennent davantage de risques sils ont perdu la veille [10]. 2 Incident. Dans cette perspective, un manager qui veut induire un comportement plus equilibre de la part des membres de son trading desk ferait donc bien de modifier leurs points de reference. Privacy? Why Do Essay. Plus generalement, les predictions de la theorie de perspectives sur lasymetrie des comportements face au risque en fonction de la representation des situations de choix en termes de gains ou de pertes ont ete confirmees dans de nombreuses etudes empiriques [11]. 1.3. 2 Incident. Vers une theorie psychologique de lutilite esperee. Depuis sa publication en 1979, la theorie des perspectives a suscite beaucoup de reactions de la part des economistes.

Ci-dessous nous allons esquisser une theorie psychologique de la theorie de lutilite esperee qui essaie de reconcilier certains apercus de la theorie des perspectives avec la theorie de lutilite esperee. Why Do Privacy? Essay. Notons dabord que la prise en compte du contexte nest pas une specificite de la theorie des perspectives. 500 Word College Essay. En fait, la theorie classique offrait deja cette possibilite, en tout cas dans le cas statique. Privacy? Privacy?. Dans le cadre dynamique par contre, le fait que le contexte puisse se modifier de facon endogene avec le temps enrichit considerablement le modele. Faire dependre la fonction dutilite du contexte et sarreter la reviendrait a vider la theorie de toute sa substance predictive. Definition Of U. Il est donc essentiel de caracteriser lensemble des proprietes des fonctions subjectives u ( . Why Do Essay. , c ) et ? ( . Should Essay. ) qui sont acceptables (verifiees empiriquement).

La theorie des perspectives postule deux proprietes fondamentales a la forme de la fonction de valeur u ( . Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. , c ) : elle est convexe dans la region des pertes et concave dans la region des gains. Benefits Of Assisted. La forme en s de la fonction de valeur traduit une aversion des choix risques dans la zone des gains et une recherche des choix risques dans la zone des pertes. Une autre propriete essentielle postulee dans cette theorie est lexistence dune discontinuite dans la derivee premiere au niveau du statu quo . Why Do You Need. Elle signifie quune perte provoque une reaction negative dintensite plus forte que celle de la reaction positive provoquee par le gain correspondant (Figure 1). 500 Word Essay. Elle genere un phenomene de loss aversion , ou aversion aux pertes. Privacy? Essay. Localement au niveau de ce statu quo, le decideur est infiniment riscophobe au sens dArrow-Pratt. How Women Should Achieve Love Essay. Tout comme dans la theorie classique, cette discontinuite dans lutilite marginale a pour consequence que le risque devient un facteur de premier ordre. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. Cela signifie que la prime de risque augmente avec la taille de ce risque de facon lineaire (localement) plutot que de facon quadratique comme le suggere lapproximation dArrow-Pratt. In The Essay. Cela peut expliquer lobservation empirique que certains menages sassurent a 100 % contre certains risques malgre lexistence dun chargement important des primes dassurance.

Cela peut aussi expliquer pourquoi dautres preferent ne detenir aucune action dans leur portefeuille malgre une prime de risque historiquement tres elevee en faveur des actions. Le choix du statu quo dans la psychologie du decideur est un element determinant de son comportement. Privacy?. Ainsi, selon que ce statu quo soit fixe a une valeur faible ou elevee, les resultats apparaitront comme un gain ou comme une perte, et le decideur sera plutot riscophobe ou plutot riscophile. Of U. Les modifications de cette perception du statu quo peuvent expliquer les renversements de preferences observes dans les experiences. La fonction de ponderation ? ( . Privacy? You Need. ) est elle aussi supposee posseder une propriete restrictive : les probabilites objectives faibles sont trop fortement ponderees, et les probabilites objectives fortes sont trop faiblement ponderees. Essay. Une telle fonction est representee a la Figure 1, avec une discontinuite en p = 0 et en p = 1 pour representer un biais pour la certitude comme le suggere lexperience dAllais et le paradoxe qui y est associe.

Il sensuit quune reduction de lincertitude de 5 % a 0 % aura plus deffet quune reduction de lincertitude de 10 % a 5 %. Privacy? Why Do You Need Essay. Ainsi, des individus seront generalement prets a payer plus cher une police dassurance eliminant totalement un risque quune police reduisant le risque dans la meme proportion mais sans oter son caractere aleatoire au resultat final. La theorie des perspectives est cependant insuffisante : elle resume un certain nombre de resultats empiriques mais ne permet pas de comprendre lorigine de ces phenomenes. Benefits Of Assisted Suicide. Dou vient que la fonction dutilite et de ponderation de lincertitude ont les proprietes qui ont ete decrites ? Par ailleurs, des etudes ont montre que les reactions du public etaient determinees par des facteurs aussi divers que la perception dune inegalite sociale dans la distribution des risques et des benefices ou par laversion face aux situations qui induisent un sentiment de non controle (cas de la peur en avion). Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Dans ce dernier cas, certaines personnes prefereront prendre leur voiture, par peur de laccident davion, alors que le risque objectif est notoirement plus eleve dans les vehicules personnels. Way. Expliquer de tels effets suppose detudier lorigine meme de la fonction de valeur subjective. Privacy? Why Do Privacy?. Il est aussi apparu que la nature de la tache demandee au sujet avait un effet decisif sur le resultat final de la decision : les taches demandant au sujet de choisir entre diverses options produisent des resultats differents de celles demandant au sujet devaluer monetairement les memes options. How Women Should Achieve Love. Il est donc necessaire detudier les mecanismes cognitifs menant a la decision. 2. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. Les causes cognitives des renversements de preference. 2.1. 500 Word College. Lhistoire et la position sociale du decideur comme element du contexte. La portee exacte des contributions de Daniel Kahneman, Amos Tversky et de leur ecole a la theorie economique de la decision peut etre appreciee de diverses manieres.

On peut considerer que les travaux de ces auteurs aboutissent a des specifications particulieres sur la fonction dutilite des agents. Privacy? Privacy? Essay. Mais cet appauvrissement apparent de la theorie est compense par deux considerations. Aquinas. Premierement, les economistes de lincertain avaient pris lhabitude de supposer implicitement la continuite de lutilite marginale. You Need Privacy?. La mise en exergue dune discontinuite au statu quo ainsi que de ses consequences nous rappelle le caractere reducteur de lhypothese de continuite. Deuxiemement, la theorie des perspectives met laccent sur le caractere dynamique de la gestion des risques. Should Achieve Love. Dans le cas ou les resultats f ( x, ? ) sont purement monetaires comme dans les applications a la gestion de portefeuille, le contexte c est usuellement caracterise par la valeur presente du portefeuille, ou plus generalement une somme ponderee des valeurs recentes pour tenir compte dune memoire (limitee) de linvestisseur. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. De plus, lutilite u est specifiee par. On interprete alors f ? c comme laccroissement de valeur du portefeuille durant la periode consideree. Achieve Love. Il y a aversion aux pertes si.

Sous cette derniere hypothese, les investisseurs sont bien plus sensibles aux reductions quaux accroissements de leur richesse. You Need. On peut tirer de nombreux autres enseignements dune telle modelisation [12]. Legend Essay. Par exemple, apres une hausse ininterrompue des cours, les investisseurs nont pas encore integre psychologiquement lensemble de ces gains dans c. Privacy? Why Do Essay. Comme f ? c a alors de forte chance detre strictement positif, leffet de laversion aux pertes sera tres faible et linvestisseur sera pret a prendre beaucoup de risques. Third. Cela pourrait expliquer pourquoi certains investisseurs augmentent leur exposition aux risques boursiers pendant les booms et, au contraire, resistent longuement a acheter des actions apres un crash meme en labsence de correlation serielle des rendements. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Ces renversements de preference sont induits par une modification du contexte plutot que dune modification des anticipations. Le statu quo c est aussi appele point de reference. Legend Mary. Son evolution dynamique nest pas sans rappeler la theorie de la formation dhabitude. Why Do. Le bien-etre dun consommateur a un instant ne dependrait pas tant de son niveau de consommation a cet instant, mais plutot de son augmentation ou de sa baisse par rapport a son niveau anterieur. Archetypes Count Of Monte. En fait, il developperait des habitudes de consommation.

Sacrifier ses vacances une annee a un impact negatif sur le bien-etre bien plus important sil sagit de sacrifier une tradition estivale bien etablie que des premieres vacances. Privacy? You Need Privacy? Essay. En consequence, un individu sera plus riscophobe sil a deja developpe des habitudes de consommation elevee que sil sagit dun nouveau riche . How Women Should And Keep Love Essay. Lhistoire passee du decideur est donc un aspect important du contexte. Le point de reference peut aussi dependre de la position dans lechelle sociale du decideur, et de ses perspectives de grimper cette echelle en prenant des risques. Privacy? You Need Privacy?. La jalousie, lenvie, le conformisme, ou au contraire laltruisme et lanticonformisme, semblent jouer un role important dans les prises de risque observees dans un certain nombre de domaines (loterie nationale, choix depargne. Essay. ) Les modeles dits dexternalites de consommation permettent de prendre ces traits de caractere en compte [13]. Certains chercheurs ont etudie les processus cognitifs en jeu dans levaluation et la prise de decision face au risque, dans des domaines beaucoup plus complexes et plus mal structures que les situations de laboratoire classiques. Privacy? Why Do You Need. Les sujets de ces etudes sont des directeurs dentreprises, des pilotes davion, des medecins en situation de diagnostic, des courtiers en assurance, des traders sur les marches financiers etc. Definition 2 Incident. Linvestigation des processus cognitifs en jeu dans levaluation et la decision a montre que, alors que lapproche traditionnelle met laccent sur le choix parmi les options possibles, et sur la facon rationnelle doperer ce choix, les professionnels en position dagir dans leur propre domaine dexpertise semblent consacrer lessentiel de leur attention a construire et a maintenir a jour une representation fidele de la situation problematique. Privacy? You Need Privacy?. Developper lensemble des choix possibles semble etre une preoccupation secondaire pour ces experts : De nombreux travaux dans des domaines comme la decision militaire ou la medecine montrent que les experts souvent nevoquent quune ou deux options [14] meme si un long temps de reflexion est ensuite consacre a lanalyse de ces options. Legend. La pertinence de la selection initiale des options est donc lelement cle : a quoi sert de bien classer les options retenues si aucune delles ne contient la solution ? Du fait que la pertinence de la selection depend dune prise en compte adequate du contexte [15], le probleme majeur dans la prise de decision reside dans le processus de construction de la representation de la situation a risque, et de ses enjeux. Why Do You Need Essay. Nous allons donc nous orienter vers lanalyse des determinants de cette construction. 2.3.

Effet de la focalisation attentionnelle sur les proprietes de la situation. Phenomene abondamment observe, leffet de la focalisation attentionnelle vient de ce que les sujets basent essentiellement leurs raisonnements et decisions sur ce qui est explicitement present dans leur representation des problemes. Benefits Of Assisted Suicide. Les informations, connaissances, idees, qui se trouvent dans le faisceau attentionnel pesent donc beaucoup plus dans les raisonnements et la decision [16]. You Need Essay. Au contraire les hypotheses exclues du champ attentionnel ont une faible influence sur la decision. Aquinas Way. Conformement a ce principe, Amos Tversky et Derek Koehler ont propose et teste un modele permettant de mieux comprendre lorigine des jugements de probabilites subjectives, a savoir la theorie du soutien [17]. Privacy? Essay. Ces travaux reprennent et elaborent des etudes anterieures de Kahneman et Tversky sur la construction des jugements de la frequence et de la probabilite [18].

Selon cette theorie, le jugement de confiance relatif a une hypothese depend de la force des faits qui soutiennent cette hypothese. Aquinas Third Way. Cette force depend de la vivacite de la representation qua le sujet a lesprit au moment ou il procede a levaluation. Privacy?. En dautres termes, plus la representation dune hypothese (comme une consequence heureuse ou malheureuse dun choix) est vive, et plus cette hypothese recevra de force. Definition. Par ailleurs, focaliser son attention sur une possibilite permet den percevoir de nouveaux details. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. De ce fait, si le sujet focalise successivement son attention sur plusieurs variantes dune hypothese, la quantite totale delements soutenant cette hypothese (et donc la probabilite subjective associee a cette hypothese) sera generalement plus forte que si le sujet ne se represente pas clairement lensemble des details. How Women Act To Love. Il sensuit quune presentation qui incite le sujet a se representer avec force details les consequences dun risque augmentera generalement la probabilite subjective associee a ce risque. Privacy? Why Do You Need. Reciproquement, on 2 incident peut faire baisser la probabilite subjective ressentie par rapport a un risque en ne decrivant ce risque quen termes abstraits ne facilitant pas la representation concrete. On entrevoit aisement les implications de cette approche pour la conception des politiques de prevention de certains risques. Privacy? Privacy?. Loccurrence dune catastrophe peut conduire lopinion publique a surevaluer le risque de reproduction dun tel evenement. How Women Achieve And Keep. Les individus utilisent une Loi des petits nombres [19], attribuant le meme contenu informationnel aux echantillons de petites et grandes tailles, ce qui viole la Loi des grands nombres. You Need Privacy? Essay. A titre dillustration, ceci implique un exces de confiance des assures a la suite dun petit nombre dannees sans accident.

Ils relacheraient des lors trop vite leurs efforts de prevention, et leur couverture dassurance. How Women Achieve Essay. De la meme maniere, les investisseurs pourraient reagir excessivement aux dernieres nouvelles financieres, ce qui pourrait expliquer la forte volatilite des marches boursiers. Why Do Privacy?. Et les citoyens concluraient trop rapidement a un changement de climat suite a une forte tempete ou a une pluviosite hors norme, en oubliant que ces deviations ne sont pas necessairement statistiquement anormales . 500 Word Essay Examples. La prise en compte de lapprentissage par lobservation des processus dynamiques stochastiques dans les strategies optimales de gestion des risques constitue un des grands chantiers de leconomie de lincertain et de ses applications, tel le principe de precaution [20]. Dautres effets attentionnels ont des causes plus sophistiquees que la seule negligence de certains aspects du probleme. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Ainsi en est-il du principe de compatibilite [21] : le poids relatif dune information donnee dans une situation de jugement ou de decision est augmente si cette information est compatible avec lechelle utilisee pour donner la reponse. Of Assisted Suicide. Ainsi, le fait devaluer le prix dun pari tend a augmenter le poids de la dimension valeur par rapport a la dimension probabilite du fait que la dimension valeur et le prix dun pari sexpriment tous deux en unites monetaires. Privacy?. Autrement dit, la question rend saillante la dimension monetaire. The Urban Legend Essay. Leffet de la compatibilite a ete demontre dans les problemes de prediction dun evenement incertain et constitue aussi une cause importante de renversements de preference. Privacy? Why Do You Need. Il sexplique par le fait que les traitements automatiques fonctionnent essentiellement sur la base de calculs de similarite. Should Achieve Love Essay. Celle-ci tend a focaliser lattention du sujet sur les traits communs a la representation et a lechelle de reponse, ce qui renforce le poids de ces caracteristiques dans la decision. En contraignant le focus attentionnel, la tache demandee influe aussi sur la decision finale.

Soit la question : Vous devez decider si votre pays doit investir 55 millions de dollars dans un programme de securite routiere qui sauvera 570 vies, ou seulement 12 millions de dollars mais dans un programme qui ne sauvera que 500 vies . Privacy? Privacy?. Largent est habituellement juge moins important que les vies quil peut permettre de sauver. Aquinas Third Way. Les sujets choisissent massivement le programme de prevention le plus cher, mais qui sauve le plus de vies. Privacy? You Need Privacy?. Un renversement de preferences apparait lorsque lon demande aux sujets non plus de choisir le programme quils jugent souhaitable mais devaluer le prix que devrait couter un programme qui limiterait la mortalite a 570 deces, sachant quil existe un programme de 12 millions de dollars qui sauvera 500 vies, et ce de maniere a ce que les deux programmes soient egalement attractifs. 500 Word Essay Examples. Le prix donne, en moyenne 40 millions de dollars, est alors nettement inferieur au prix du programme qui sauve 70 vies supplementaires, ce qui semble incompatible avec le choix de ce dernier. Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Un renversement entre choix et evaluation sobserve generalement lorsque le probleme oppose plusieurs dimensions telles que lune est jugee plus importante que lautre. The Urban Legend Of Bloody Mary Essay. En effet, le choix opere par comparaison directe (les deux options sont simultanement presentes a la conscience), ce qui privilegie la dimension importante. Privacy? You Need. Dans levaluation, au contraire, chaque option est traitee independamment lune de lautre.

La comparaison nest quinferee sous lhypothese que les dimensions sont commensurables en se ramenant a une echelle monetaire commune. In The Count Cristo Essay. Cest cette derniere hypothese qui semble trop forte [22]. Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay. Finalement, le traitement cognitif de levaluation financiere induit des resultats differents de ceux produits par le traitement de la decision daction. Dautres parametres que le focus attentionnel interviennent egalement pour determiner limportance intrinseque et la polarite positive ou negative des elements de la situation. Une serie de travaux, qui dune certaine maniere prolongent ceux de Daniel Kahneman, menes notamment par lequipe de Paul Slovic montre que laffect est un facteur essentiel de levaluation des risques et des benefices, donc un determinant majeur des fonctions de valorisation et de ponderation [23].

Ainsi la somme des jugements affectifs positifs et negatifs relatifs a une situation de risque (comme limplantation dune centrale nucleaire dans le voisinage) constitue un bon predicteur des attitudes et des comportements relatifs a cette situation de risque [24]. Of U 2 Incident. Par ailleurs, nous avons vu que des presentations positive et negative dun meme alea induisent des choix differents : les choix presentes en termes de gains font preferer les options non risquees alors que les choix presentes en termes de pertes font preferer les options risquees. Dautres donnees, issues de letude des troubles cognitifs consecutifs a des lesions cerebrales, montrent que laffect determine aussi la focalisation attentionnelle, dont nous avons vu leffet sur la fonction de ponderation. Why Do You Need. Antonio Damasio et ses collegues [25] ont montre que les sujets places devant une decision dans une situation complexe nenvisagent pas consciemment toutes les hypotheses. Essay. Ils nen considerent quun petit nombre, selectionnees sur la base dune sensation emotionnelle. Privacy? Essay. Les individus chez qui cette sensation est deficiente deviennent incapables de prendre des decisions acceptables en un temps raisonnable, meme si leur QI reste eleve.

Ainsi, laffect determine non seulement la fonction de valorisation mais aussi la fonction de ponderation de lincertitude. Benefits Of Assisted. Chez des sujets sains, la lecture dun texte relatant une mort tragique, comme un meurtre decrit en detail, induit un affect negatif qui augmente les estimations de frequence relatives a dautres causes de deces sans rapport avec le texte initial (comme la probabilite davoir un accident de voiture). Privacy? You Need Essay. Du fait que laffect influence a la fois la fonction de ponderation et la fonction de valeur, ce qui netait pas prevu par la theorie des perspectives, les individus tendent a etablir une correlation negative entre les risques encourus et les benefices percus meme si la correlation est positive dans la realite [26]. College Essay Examples. Par exemple, une disposition affective favorable a legard des automobiles se traduit chez les sujets par limpression quelles apportent des benefices importants et presentent des risques faibles. Privacy? Essay. En revanche, lemploi extensif de pesticides, mal percu, est considere comme tres risque et ne rapportant que peu de benefices. Laffect traduit linteraction entre le systeme emotionnel et la representation du probleme. Aquinas Third Way. Cette derniere depend de facteurs socioculturels qui sous-tendent notre evaluation du risque. Privacy? Essay. Ainsi aux Etats-unis, et quelle que soit la nature des risques consideres (infections, pollutions, accidents, rayons X. Definition Of U 2 Incident. ), les hommes blancs jugent ces risques plus moderes que ne le font les femmes blanches et les hommes et femmes noirs.

Dautres etudes ont montre que les hommes sont moins sensibles au risque que les femmes : pour la quasi totalite des sources de danger, ils jugent les risques moins eleves, et les consequences moins problematiques [27]. Why Do. Lorsque les etudes portent sur des sujets experts du domaine de risque considere (toxicite medicamenteuse, risques lies a lenergie atomique. The Urban Legend Of Bloody Mary Essay. ) les femmes scientifiques jugent le risque plus eleve que leurs confreres. 3. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Implications pour laide a la decision. Les travaux sur la decision en situation de risque font apparaitre celle-ci comme un phenomene multifactoriel, principalement dependant de la representation du probleme que sest construite le sujet, et donc : 1. Aquinas Way. des mecanismes qui guident la focalisation de lattention sur les differentes caracteristiques du probleme ; 2. Privacy? Why Do. de determinants socioculturels non integres dans les modeles classiques de la decision. The Urban Of Bloody Essay. Ces resultats constituent autant de pistes pour une amelioration de la communication entre le grand public et les decideurs qui, dans notre societe, sappuient essentiellement sur les evaluations dexperts pour la determination des risques objectifs , et sur des enquetes pour la connaissance des preferences du public. Ces resultats posent en des termes nouveaux la problematique du normatif versus du positif.

Les experiences en laboratoire cherchent a caracteriser les comportements des citoyens places face a des risques. Privacy?. Faut-il integrer dans la decision publique les biais cognitifs que ces etudes mettent en exergue ? Est-ce que le decideur doit proposer des programmes politiquement acceptables plutot que de sefforcer dexpliquer a cette opinion publique lutilite de telle ou telle decision collective basee sur toutes les considerations objectives connues a un instant donne, mais seulement elles ? [28] La faiblesse de levaluation des decisions publiques et du retour dexperience en France conduit a un constat inquietant dans ce domaine. Les travaux de Daniel Kahneman ont donc contribue a creer de nouveaux courants de recherche, tels que leconomie cognitive, leconomie experimentale et la finance comportementale. Benefits Of Assisted Suicide. Ils ont aussi contribue a renouer le dialogue entre science economique et science cognitive, tel quil existait deja aux epoques de Adam Smith, Jeremy Bentham et John Stuart Mill. Christian Gollier (INRA, U. Privacy? Why Do Privacy?. de Toulouse 1). Denis J. Archetypes Count Of Monte. Hilton (CNRS, U. Privacy?. de Toulouse 2).

Eric Raufaste (CNRS, U. Third Way. de Toulouse 2). Les travaux de Kahneman, Tversky et dautres psychologues ont remis en question le modele classique de lhomo ?conomicus. Why Do You Need Privacy?. De nombreuses etudes menees en psycho-logie et en economie ont notamment montre que la theorie classique de lesperance dutilite ne decrit pas de maniere satisfaisante les comportements humains face au risque. 2 Incident. Nous suggerons que la theorie des perspectives de Kahneman et Tversky peut etre elaboree dans une theorie subjective de lutilite esperee qui raffine et enrichit lapproche classique. Why Do Privacy?. Au dela, il est maintenant etabli que les preferences sont generalement construites pendant le processus decisionnel. The Urban Legend Of Bloody Mary. Or, cette construction est sensible a des effets cognitifs et socioculturels ayant dimportantes consequences pour la communication reciproque entre le grand public et les decideurs. theorie de lutilite esperee theorie des perspectives. Daniel Kahneman and You Need Essay, risky decision The work of aquinas, Kahneman, Tversky and Privacy?, other psychologists has called the benefits classical model of Why Do You Need, homo ?conomicus into essay question.

Many studies conducted in Privacy? Why Do Privacy? psychology and 500 word college examples, economics have shown that classical economic expected utility theory does not satisfactorily describe human behaviour under risk. Privacy? Why Do Privacy?. We suggest that Kahneman and third, Tverskys prospect theory can be elaborated into Why Do Essay a subjective theory of The Urban Mary, expected utility which refines and Privacy?, enriches the 500 word college essay classic approach. Privacy? Why Do You Need. Moreover, it has now been established that preferences are generally constructed during the aquinas third decision-making process. You Need Privacy?. Indeed, this process of The Urban Mary Essay, construction is You Need sensitive to suicide, cognitive and Privacy? Essay, socio-cultural influences having important consequences for Archetypes in the Essay, reciprocal communication between the Why Do Privacy? ordinary public and benefits, decision-makers. utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques. Why Do You Need Privacy?. Ces donnees anonymes nous permettent ainsi de vous offrir une experience de navigation optimale. Benefits Of Assisted. En continuant votre visite vous acceptez de recevoir ces cookies. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Vous pouvez toutefois les desactiver dans les parametres de votre navigateur web.

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Writing Better University Essays/Common essay problems. By following the approach of essay writing outlined in this book, you can avoid a whole range of very common essay problems: Unstructured: Many essays are not structured, which makes them difficult for the markers to read. Without structure, reading an Privacy? Essay essay is like a discovery journey: your marker will never be sure what is around the corner. This might sound appealing, but youre not writing a thriller. Your marker will have difficulty to see whether and how what you write is relevant to college essay the question set. Following the advice in Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay this book, you can avoid this problem by outlining at the beginning how youre going to answer the question ( delimit ). The Urban Of Bloody Essay. Your reader will know what is Privacy? Essay, coming up.

The section on the main body includes a few other points to make sure your essays are structured. Rambling: The problem of rambling is often just a symptom of the above problem: lack of structure. Count Of Monte Cristo. By thinking in a structured way, tendencies to ramble are reduced. Following a reasonable form of Privacy? You Need Privacy?, preparation will also help (see the section on 2 incident, preparation). Once you know what youre going to say, and in what order youre going to say it, its much easier to stay on track. Not relevant: Unfortunately many essays that are written are as such great essays, but include substantive sections that are not relevant. Privacy? Essay. The problem may be that not enough time is spent planning the essay.

It may also be the case, that the essay irrelevant bits merely appear to be irrelevant. The trick in the latter case is to link the paragraphs using suitable phrases, and actively demonstrate how the Privacy? illustrations are relevant, for instance. Unconnected: For the same reasons as in the above point, essays may be or appear unconnected. A good plan can be the first line of defence: making sure that you yourself know how the different bits link. The next thing to do, again, is aquinas third, using phrases that connect different paragraphs and Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? sections. Make sure that you write down how things link, because your marker will not usually be able to read your mind.

Unclear: An essay can be well put together, and the reader still be left unclear about what exactly is being said. The problem is in How Women Act to Achieve and Keep Love most cases the lack of Privacy? You Need, delimitation and definition . This means that the definition of u essay does not state what is and is not written about, and also that key terms are not defined. Privacy? You Need Privacy?. Much unclarity can stem from misunderstandings, the reader understanding terms in a different way from what you intended them to mean. What is clear to you may not be so for the marker. Making sure its down on paper, this problem can be prevented. Difficult: Essays that are difficult to read often suffer from one of the following symptoms: lack of illustrations, lack of conceptual clarity, or lack of guidance. Essay. Illustrations are not a nice to have, but an essential part of most essays. Think about the examples when you plan the essay. Conceptual clarity can be remedied by providing definitions, as outlined in the previous point. The lack of guidance means that your readers will feel lost, not knowing where the essay will go next.

Providing a clear introduction that delimits the scope of the answer is sometimes all that is needed. Within the You Need Privacy? Essay main body, linking sections and paragraphs helps further. The most common problem, probably, is students failing to answer the question. By paying attention to the process and content words, the first part of the problem is already resolved. Writing in a planned and structured way, the definition remainder is addressed, too. By following the outlined approach to essay writing, your answers will be focused on the questions set. In this section I try to outline what differentiates good from very good essays. In addition to a clear structure and a relevant argument, your markers will look for conceptual clarity and consistency. You can achieve this by taking care to You Need Privacy? delimit your answer, and define key terms in a way that is relevant to your answer.

A good general definition of globalization will not be as useful as one geared towards how globalization affects local consumption patterns, for example. Your examiners will also look for critical engagement. Constantly ask yourself how important an argument is. Use different theoretical perspectives (for example functionalism, Marxism, feminism, psychoanalysis) and in the Count Cristo think about how these help understand the Privacy? Why Do problem. Chances are that some theoretical perspectives have very little to say on your particular question. A critical engagement will mean that youre clear and explicit about the limits of argument.

Markers look out for statements like that X is important, but only in certain areas of Legend of Bloody Essay, life, or that Y is important but only when considered together with other concepts, or that Z is not as important as X and Y. Essays with top grades identify and Why Do You Need challenge where appropriate the examples assumption implicit in a question. The common essay question of provocative statement plus discuss invites you to think about the Privacy? Essay ideological, philosophical, or theoretical assumptions behind such a statement. A question may actually be the wrong question to ask if youre approaching the answer from a feminist point of aquinas third way, view, rather than a Marxist one, for example. Look out for counter-claims and examine their merit. A top essay will have a clear and systematic structure.

Ideally, at any one point your readers will know where they are, and why they are there. Privacy? You Need Essay. In practice this means that youll be clear about what you want to Cristo Essay write before you start, and that you organize your thoughts in a coherent manner. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. The different sections are thus linked in a way obvious both to you and your reader. Exploring all possibilities is examples, another way to Privacy? Privacy? Essay get top grades. Benefits Suicide. This means that youll be aware of the different approaches, but essentially, youll need to evaluate their usefulness.

Its not just a matter of applying a great number of Why Do You Need Essay, perspectives, but maybe more importantly one of Archetypes in the of Monte, choosing and Privacy? You Need Essay selecting which of those carry forward the argument most. This normally involves the rejection of some of the possibilities. Benefits Suicide. A great essay will make these choices, but also demonstrate why these choices are the right ones. Top-grade essays are also clear about the relevance of Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy?, what is written. In a paragraph, you not only list the different aspects, for examples, example, and then give an appropriate example. In addition, markers look for a few sentences on the importance of what was just written. Why Do Privacy?. This can usually be achieved by linking it back to 500 word college essay the question, or other underlying debates. Where your course uses course themes , its almost always possible to Privacy? Privacy? Essay use these as links. In their feedback, markers often use the 500 word phrase engaging with the question to refer to this aspect. In most cases when youre given an Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay essay to write, there is a word limit stated.

A word limit is simply an indication how many words you should not exceed in your essay. Sometimes instead a number of pages is should Achieve and Keep Essay, given. Word limits exist for a number of reasons. First of all, writing to length is considered a desirable skill. Secondly, having a limit is a way to ensure that you select the most relevant bits. Skills of selection are sought after outside of academia, too. Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay. Thirdly, word limits give an indication to you as the writer of How Women should Love, what is expected from you. You should always try as hard as you can not to exceed the word limit. They are called limits after all, not indications.

The most powerful of reasons is probably that you might be penalized. Moreover, keeping to word limits is part of Privacy? Privacy? Essay, good practice, nice on your readers, and a sign that you possess certain skills. Many institutions practise a formal or informal 10% tolerance. This means that for a 2000 words essay youll not be penalized unless exceeding 2200 words. Aquinas Third. Its essential that you check, and make sure you check with someone in Privacy? Privacy? Essay an adequate position. Staying within the aquinas way limits is the easier and safer option. Being limits, youll not be penalized for writing less than the indicated length.

However, writing less than you could means that you choose not to You Need Essay take the opportunities given to develop the argument as much as you can. Its for this reason that you might get lower marks. This means, that if you have significantly less than the indicated word limit, you should take some time considering why this is the case. Its not necessarily a bad sign, but usually means that you could develop the argument further, or that there are no illustrations to bring the essay alive. In either case, your marker will be likely to comment on this. Planning your essay is the best way to stay within the limits. When drawing up the outline, I always spend a moment thinking about how many words I want to allocate to each section. This not only helps me staying within the word limit, but more importantly, maybe, is the Archetypes in the Count of Monte Cristo plan for a balanced answer. By planning to write the same amount on two contrasting views, for example, its unlikely that I write three quarters of the Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? essay on one side only. This is the case, because were conscious of the essay structure when we plan it.

During the process of writing the essay, you can monitor your progress by checking the number of words in your current section. Planning and checking section by section will prevent you from panicking when looking at the overall word count. How Women Should Achieve And Keep. If you go over, or run out with much to spare, flag the section. Why Do Privacy? Essay. Maybe youll have an additional idea later on in the day, maybe your plan was not realistic, or maybe you mentioned a point in another section. By having the sections flagged, its easier to remedy the length of the Mary Essay essay once completed. Sometimes there is confusion over what counts as words. Words are what you write, and usually footnotes and appendices are not counted. Why Do Privacy? Essay. However, word processors often count these, too. In any case, do check what counts towards the word limit in your institution or course.

Some institutions count graphs (the amount of text that is covered by their space), but this is uncommon. Technically, references dont count towards the word count. If they did, this would encourage sloppy referencing. Therefore, if your institution insists on Legend of Bloody Mary, counting references as words, (please) make a case for good referencing. The list of Privacy? You Need Essay, references at the end of the essay is not included in any case. In practice, your markers are very unlikely to check, especially when you submit your essay in printed form. Its for reasons like this that many institutions allow you an extra 10%. These extra words are about as much as you need for Legend of Bloody Essay, good in-text referencing.

For the same reasons, the Why Do Privacy? length of essays is frequently limited in 500 word college examples number of pages. Do check the format expected, such as double-spacing. In any case, you should strive to keep within the word limit, because this is expected from you. The grading of Why Do Privacy?, essays is always in relation to suicide what could be said within the limits stated, not what possibly ever could be said about it. The skills of selection and summarizing are widely recognized, and many markers are very keen on these. Without word limits, why not hand in the reading list and Privacy? Why Do You Need Privacy? Essay let the marker make up his or her own mind? Surely all the relevant points would be covered It would be foolish to claim that a short book could be the definite guide to writing essays. Of course it is not. There are a number of good books that can help you to develop your academic writing skills.

Alternatively, consult your language centre for specialist courses on definition of u, academic writing. Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay. Do ask for help, because otherwise you might not get the support you deserve (and probably already have paid for as part of your course fees). There are books on writing that go into much greater detail than this small book. Ask your bookshop or library about what is available, and Act to and Keep Essay have a good look what is covered in the book. Books on Why Do You Need Privacy?, essay writing in How Women Act to Love general will never offer you as much advice as those focusing on specific aspects of writing. Everyone has different needs, and a book focusing on the areas of essay writing youre particularly good at will probably not help you as much as another. Feedback from Privacy? previous essays may help you find out Achieve Love, what areas you want to improve. For technical details, you might need a good dictionary.

If English is not your first language, get hold of a dictionary written for learners of Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay, English, such as the Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary (Hornby, 2005) or the The Urban Essay Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary (Woodford, 2005). These dictionaries were specifically written with the needs of Why Do Privacy?, non-natives in Archetypes Count mindincluding those very fluent in English. The definitions in such dictionaries dont use very difficult language, and there are many examples. In fact, many native speakers find such advanced learners dictionaries useful, too. The choice of grammar books is vast, and you should pick one you feel comfortable with. Just as with dictionaries, if youre not a native speaker, look around in the section for English as a Foreign Language. Michael Swans English Usage (1995), for example, is both approachable and comprehensive.

Many students do without grammar books, because realistically, we never have the time to check these obscure rules. Similarly, there are authoritative books on Privacy?, the style of your documents, such as The Oxford Style Manual (Ritter, 2003). Harts rules (Ritter, 2005) are often considered authoritative, but often go far beyond the scope of general essay writing. The book is more suitable in determining the of u conventional order of appendices, for example. For normal essays these books are far too comprehensive, and Privacy? Why Do Privacy? Essay your markers are likely to of Bloody Essay be unfamiliar with all the details. For advice on You Need Essay, writing style, there are a great number of books available. College Examples. Again, check your bookshop or library.

Some books focus on You Need Privacy?, the choice of the right word, others on different aspects of style. Note that different books give different stylistic advice. If you dont want to of Bloody Mary splash out on a good book, you could do worse than bookmark Paul Brians page on common English mistakes (2006). This free and useful guide can come in very handy when in doubt (see reference at the end for URL).