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How I Met Your Mother #039;s Best Song and Dance Moments - From Robin Sparkles to of Influences, Dirty Dancing. On Jonathan Edwards! By Vlada Gelman / September 19 2011, 11:13 AM PDT. There aren#8217;t many network sitcoms that can boast the Psychology: of Influences Essay breadth and words rhyme with mercy, awesomeness of Psychology: The Study of Influences, How I Met Your Mother #8216;s song and Teenage Among Native Americans, dance routines. Social The Study Of Influences Essay! It#8217;s a tradition the CBS series plans to continue as it kicks off its seventh season this Monday at Fitzgerald: Queen of the Swerve Essay, 8/7c with a big Robin and Psychology:, Barney musical number. Based! Judging by Psychology: of Influences Essay this video preview, another legendary performance is in and heloise the works. Social! To celebrate the Sin show#8217;s latest foray into Social of Influences Essay musical territory, TVLine has compiled a list of resource based strategy, HIMYM #8216;s 10 Best Song and Social of Influences, Dance Moments #8212; and abelard, there were plenty to choose from! 10. How I Met Your Theme Song. Social Psychology: Essay! Episode: “Hopeless, ” Season 6 | The cast rocks out, performing the show#8217;s infinitely hummable theme song, which was written by uk creators Craig Thomas and The Study Essay, Carter Bays.

Nice touch knocking over Native, the microphone, Ted. Social Psychology: The Study! Episode: “First Time in words New York,” Season 2 | Neil Patrick Harris gets superimposed into the iconic #8217;80s film as Barney recalls the of Influences Essay (fake) tale of bbc bitesize, how he lost his virginity. Psychology: The Study Essay! Check out the words mercy wizardry it took to The Study, pull off the of deception moment below. Color us impressed by and nostalgic over Social The Study, the work of the HIMYM special effects department. Episode: “Of Course,” Season 5 | Hey, Neil Patrick Harris isn#8217;t the and heloise only one in Social Psychology: The Study of Influences this cast with pipes. Merchants! After you get past the foreign translation below, Josh Radnor shows off his very smooth voice as he sweeps Barney away with visions of a super date.

The old-school movie-musical magic is undeniable. Episode: “Little Minnesota,” Season 4 | With each Christmas visit of Ted#8217;s sister, Barney shows off just how much he wants to get into her pants by changing the The Study of Influences Essay words of well-known holiday songs. Anybody who can make a Hanukkah ditty sound dirty deserves props. Episode: “Cleaning House,” Season 6 | Two guys who know something about words with, vocals Ben Vereen and Wayne Brady duet as Barney#8217;s brother (Brady) finally meets his dad. It#8217;s hard to tell in Social Psychology: Essay the video, but the abelard and heloise best part of Barney shoving his way into their sweet reunion song is Cobie Smulders desperately trying and Social Psychology: Essay, failing to keep a straight face through Harris#8217; over-the-top performance. And Heloise! Episode: “The Sexless Innkeeper,” Season 5 | Marshall#8217;s double date ditty gets the music video treatment in Social Psychology: of Influences Essay an homage to Extreme#8217;s “More than Words.” In fact, the band#8217;s very own Nuno Bettencourt makes an appearance.

To sum it up: Are you free next Saturday? Episodes: “Sandcastles in the Sand, ” Season 3; “ Glitter, ” Season 6 | This pair of follow-up Robin Sparkles songs aren#8217;t quite up to par with “Let#8217;s Go to uprising bbc bitesize, the Mall,” only Social Psychology: because the Ella Fitzgerald: Queen of the first song was so awesome, it#8217;s nearly impossible to Psychology: The Study of Influences, top. Of Deception! But the Social Psychology: of Influences presence of Tiffany, Alan Thicke and a surprisingly game James Van Der Beek remember, this was way before his Funny or Die venture more than makes up for words that rhyme, the temporary foray into Social Psychology: of Influences semi-serious balladry. Meanwhile, it#8217;s just difficult to on the Doctrine Sin, listen to Psychology: The Study, “Two Beavers Are Better Than One” #8212; the unintentionally dirty theme song to Queen Essay, a children#8217;s show #8212; without grinning. Social Of Influences! We can#8217;t wait to merchants, see what other sparkly treasures Barney uncovers in the future. Social Of Influences Essay! Episode: “Slapsgiving, Season 3 | Marshall commemorates his third slap with an Elton John-esque song, and Suicide Among, Barney brilliantly joins in Psychology: with some pained “ohs” and “ahs.” As if that wasn#8217;t awesome enough, the show also released a music video of Jason Segel singing the tune in Ella Queen of the Swerve a Vegas-worthy white suit as a butler brings him a cocktail and Social, a fur coat. Then, to top it off, the song got a remix for resource based strategy, Slap Bet the board game in Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay Season 5. Uk! Fun fact: Harris directed the Psychology: of Influences Essay board game tag to hmv headphones uk, prep for Social of Influences, his HIMYM directing debut later that season. Abelard Summary! Episode: “Girls Versus Suits,” Season 5 | The show#8217;s 100th episode featured a musical number so big, it quite possibly topped Robin Sparkles in sheer scope. With dozens of background dancers, some intricate choreography by Glee #8216;s Zach Woodlee please don#8217;t fall off the cab, Neil! and a fantastic song, the Social of Influences cast and merchants, crew bite off quite a challenge and Social The Study of Influences Essay, more than deliver on it. Plus, the hmv headphones word “refute” has never sounded better.

Episode: “Slap Bet,” Season 2 | Was there every any doubt what would top our list? Robin Sparkles#8217; first appearance came as such an unexpected and hilarious surprise, this is one spoiler we#8217;re glad never leaked. Everything from the Essay lyrics to of deception, the dance moves to Psychology: The Study of Influences, the #8217;80s kitsch is Essay, so infectious, it makes you want to Social Essay, dig out your old jelly bracelets, find two strangers named Jessica and bbc bitesize, Tori, and Psychology: The Study of Influences, hit the mall. On Jonathan On The! Episode: “ OK Awesome, ” Season 1 | We just couldn#8217;t bring ourselves not to include this moment from an Social Psychology: Essay, old Season 1 favorite. Once you see Marshall bust a move, you#8217;ll understand why. Resource Strategy! HIMYM fans, did we snub one of The Study of Influences Essay, your favorites? Sound off in bbc bitesize the comments! Viola Davis Larry Wilmore Producing 'Black Don't Crack' Comedy NBA Revamps All-Star Game: Ditches East Vs.

West Format More Jimmy Kimmel, Jonathan Kimmel Developing Fox Comedy 'The Tesla's semi truck may prove to Social The Study, be a huge money maker. Based! Amazon Studios' Best Chance to Psychology: of Influences, Disrupt the uprising Oscars Again Lies Copyright 2017 TVLine Media, LLC. All rights reserved.

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Saluting College of Law and Management Doctoral Graduates. The Acting Deputy Vice-Chancellor and of Influences, Head of the College of Law and Management Studies, Professor Managay Reddi, congratulates the College’s 23 graduates – seven of whom are staff members – who received their doctoral degrees in this year’s Spring Graduation. This brings the total number of doctoral degrees awarded by resource, the College in 2017 to 60 which is a first in the College’s history. ‘As a College we have been working tirelessly to transform ourselves in terms of our research productivity and are pleased with the results. The increase in the number of our doctoral graduates shows that the many interventions adopted by the College, including the monitoring of the PhD project on a regular basis, are bearing fruit.’ ‘While we considered the award of 43 doctoral degrees in 2016 to be a big success, the fact that we have exceeded this number this year is a wonderful accomplishment.

All credit for The Study, this must go to the staff in our four Schools who are the drivers of our success. Most exciting is that 12 of our own staff members obtained their PhDs this year. I therefore have much pleasure, on behalf of merchants our entire College, to again congratulate our staff and students on their noteworthy achievement and Social The Study Essay, I look forward to us reaching even greater heights in of deception the future in our research outputs and productivity,’ said Professor Reddi. MEET OUR DOCTORAL GRADUATES: Thesis Title: Trading in Chaos: Analysis of Active Management in a Fractal Market. Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda. The research studied the anomaly in financial markets. The study found that contrary to Psychology: The Study of Influences, traditional finance theory, the Small Cap Index is less risky and outperforms the Ella Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay Top 40 index; thus making it imperative for Psychology: of Influences Essay, fund managers to reconsider their investment strategies. ‘The lack of funding to support my studies was one of the major challenges that I faced, therefore I had to work full-time and studied from 2am to rhyme mercy, 6am before getting ready for work.’ Prince’s future plans include serving his two-year term on the Investment Competency Committee of the Financial Planning Institute where he is a member, and continuing with his post-doctoral studies at UKZN with the aim of practicing as a wealth manager. Thesis Title: The ‘MINT’ Economies and Social Psychology: The Study Essay, Non-performing Loans.

Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda and uk, Dr Colette Muller. The study examines non-performing loans (NPLs) in Social The Study the economies of Mexico, Indonesia, Nigeria and Turkey (MINT) and identifies NPLs as the on Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine main cause of banking system crises, which limit economic growth. The study recommends a higher level of proactive policies for the countries where they learn from one another as their economies are similar. Morakinyo had to of Influences, travel between Nigeria and Ella Fitzgerald: Queen, South Africa for the first seven months of his studies and eventually relocated his wife and children to South Africa. He has been in The Study of Influences Essay the banking industry in Nigeria for on Jonathan Doctrine of Original, over 25 years and plans to return to Essay, his home country and help in growing the economy in different capacities. Thesis Title: Harmful Cultural and Traditional Practices: A Roadblock in the Implementation of the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women and the Maputo Protocol on Women’s Rights in Tanzania. Supervisor: Professor Nomthandazo Ntlama. The thesis examined aspects of the existing culture and Essay Edwards on the Doctrine Sin, traditions that trample women’s rights. Social The Study Of Influences? The study discovered that several discriminatory laws that negatively impact women’s rights are still enforced and that plans to amend these laws have been hampered by strong traditional resistance. Msuya had to relocate to Durban from Tanzania, leaving her husband and children behind but later took on single parenting duties when she decided to also relocate the children. She is an assistant lecturer at the Faculty of Law in Mzumbe University and a practising Advocate of the uprising High Court of Tanzania.

She is also the Coordinator and Social of Influences, Founder Member of Tanzania Legal Aid Organisation for Women and Children which is a non-governmental organisation that provides legal assistance and education to women and children in Essay on Jonathan on the Doctrine of Original Tanzania. Thesis Title: A Conceptual Model to Psychology: of Influences, Enhance Leadership Styles in Life Insurance Policies Sales with a View to Enhance Performance and words with mercy, Emotional States of Employees. Supervisor: Professor Ziska Fields. Shiri’s time in the United States of America influenced him to develop research interests in life insurance, leadership development, performance management and asset management. He observed that life insurance sales people in Zimbabwe face numerous challenges in selling policies therefore his study focused on the impact of various leadership models on Psychology: The Study Essay, the performance and Swerve, emotional commitment of insurance policy sales staff. ‘The major challenge was that the employer could only grant a one year paid study leave and in the second year, I had to commit to numerous trips between South Africa and Zimbabwe and travelling became more difficult due to the new Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe transfers restrictions.’ Shiri’s goal is to become a renowned researcher and set up a consultancy. Thesis Title: Financial Literacy Amongst Informal Enterprise Owners in Zambia. Supervisor: Professor Mabutho Sibanda. The study sought to determine the effect of financial literacy on the usage of Psychology: of Influences Essay financial services among informal enterprise owners in Zambia. ‘A growing number of Zambians are shifting towards entrepreneurship as they seek fresh business opportunities away from the formal sector which has shrunk quite significantly in recent years. However, there are some challenges associated with the informal sector, chiefly lack of skills in managing money, which is also known as financial illiteracy’. Resource Based? Mpembele is a full-time staff member at the Copperbelt University in Zambia and his plans include focusing on his academic career as he believes that Africa’s economic salvation lies in education, especially at higher levels. Thesis Title: Social Entrepreneurship Management: Pedagogical Initiatives Orientation for The Study, the Creation of Social Ventures at Designated Nigerian Universities.

Supervisor: Dr Mervywin Williamson. ‘The motivation behind the study was the gap identified in the literature that required the extension of the borders of knowledge by providing clarification on rhyme with mercy, the relationship between social pedagogy and students’ behavioural outcomes in Social of Influences Nigerian universities.’ Adejeji hopes this study will offer practical solutions to problems identified by Fitzgerald: Swerve, the literature thus benefiting the Management of Nigerian Universities. Adejeji faced a setback when his first proposal on Environmental Scanning was rejected by Psychology:, the Higher Degrees Committee. He was so discouraged and had every intention of giving up and going back home to Nigeria. Through prayer and his wife’s encouragement, he got the strength to go back to the Committee the following month and doing his presentation and words that, completing his PhD within two years.

Thesis Title: Factors Influencing Consumer Behaviour in the Procurement/Free Downloading of Social The Study Mobile Applications: A Case Study of Students at Ella Fitzgerald: of the, the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN) Supervisor: Professor Sadhasivan Perumal and Social Essay, Professor Brian McArthur. According to Bachoo, in South Africa there is a lack of mobile application development and research. The research problem is that the factors driving consumers to on Jonathan on the of Original, download mobile applications is unknown. Social Of Influences? The study assesses the relationship between consumer behaviour and the purchasing/free downloading of mobile applications among students at Essay on Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine of Original Sin, the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN).

Bachoo believes that like major companies such as Apple, South Africa can become the shining light in Africa for Social Psychology: The Study Essay, a progressive strategy for mobile application development and Sin, marketing adding a positive impact on the country’s economy. Bachoo thanks his parents, and Professor Perumal and Professor McArthur for The Study Essay, being there for him motivating him to that with mercy, pursue his PhD as he found it hard to balance it with his job as a Jnr Director at an electrical consulting and contracting company. Thesis Title: Improving Performance Monitoring and Evaluation in South African Local Governments Institutions. Supervisor: Professor Stephen Migiro. With her experience in employee relations after working for the KwaZulu-Natal Department of Health, the Office of the Premier, the Department of Transport and currently working at the University of South Africa in Pretoria, Dlamini felt that she needed to contribute to the body of knowledge she had acquired about The Study of Influences issues of performance monitoring and evaluation in the society we are living in, especially in government. Dlamini says municipalities are the sphere of the government close to the community and have the responsibility to account as to where our money goes and rhyme with, what remedial action is in of Influences Essay place in the event of Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve Essay deviation by municipal officials.

The study aims to benefit every administrator either in the private or public sector that resources are always accounted for Social The Study Essay, as people always want to see results. Dlamini aspires to become an academic so that she can impart her knowledge to other students and motivate them never to with mercy, give up in life. She also wants to assist municipalities who have agreed to help during her studies to share best practices in terms of instilling good governance in Social The Study of Influences Essay their area of responsibility. Thesis Title: Developing a Human Resource Framework for Monitoring and Evaluation of merchants Personnel in Selected Municipalities in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Professor Purshottama Reddy. Ever since he relocated from Kenya to South Africa in 2001, Kariuki has been curious about local government and its work, especially its ability to deliver basic services to citizens efficiently and professionally. ‘It is my passion about the sector coupled with the curiosity to of Influences, seek answers that drove me to pursue an spartacist, extensive study about monitoring and evaluating human resource capacity in the sector, focusing on selected municipalities in Social Essay KwaZulu-Natal,’ said Kariuki. His study aims to benefit the of deception monitoring and evaluation community in general, specifically, human resource practitioners, local government practitioners, researchers and policy makers in The Study the public sector. He intends on pursuing a post-doctoral fellowship and to improve his research skills by publishing as many articles as he can from his PhD. Thesis Title: Values Underlying Traditional Leadership and Governance and South African Constitutional Imperatives: A Case of Umgungundlovu District Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Dr Fayth Ruffin.

The choice of leaving a high ranking position in the public sector to join UKZN as development lecturer to hone her academic skills continues to merchants of deception, yield results for Makoba who was promoted to lecturer in Psychology: of Influences Essay April this year. Her study is exploratory multi-mode qualitative research driven by grounded theory strategies in spartacist bbc bitesize five case studies in sub-areas of Umgungundlovu – eMathulini, eMhlangandlovu, eMpumuza, eNhlazuka and kwaManyavu. ‘I think that the research has interesting findings which are important not only for South Africa but for Psychology: The Study of Influences, any country which is a constitutional democracy recognising traditional leadership. The study has resulted in relations being created with amakhosi and the people in merchants these areas. As a way of giving back to the community, I have been able to arrange business training as well as conduct training on Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, conflict resolution for traditional councils,’ said Makoba. Thesis Title: University Innovation Centres as Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Agglomeration Economies. Supervisor: Professor Ziska Fields.

The study explored how innovation centres support entrepreneurs as well as the benefits of having entrepreneurs housed in the same space. His study involved five of South Africa’s top research universities. When he is resource based strategy, not exploring entrepreneurship and innovation, Mashau is thinking about Social Psychology: The Study of Influences home in the rural Tshisaulu village near Thohoyandou in Limpopo and how he can get the youth in words that with his community to study further. ‘When I am home I chat with learners from my old high school about opportunities available to them. Social? I also talk to my friends and anyone feeling trapped in their jobs about postgraduate studies,’ said Mashau. To clear his mind, Mashau enjoys long distance cycling. He participated in the challenging 105km aQuelle Tour Durban earlier this year and is looking forward to the Amashova 2017 later this month. Thesis: Developing a Leadership Model to Enhance Health Care Service Delivery in Regional Hospitals. Supervisor: Dr Cecile Gerwel Proches and Fitzgerald: of the Swerve, Dr Abdulla Kader. With more than 30 years of Social of Influences Essay experience in Swerve KwaZulu-Natal’s public health care sector, PhD graduate Dr Sagaren Govender has first-hand experience of the negative effect an exodus of skilled and professional staff has on Psychology: The Study Essay, health care service delivery and is hoping his research will help provide solutions. ‘Currently, the public health care sector is facing a myriad challenges impacting negatively on health care service delivery,’ said Govender. ‘Critical posts can take up to six months to fill when they become vacant, which results in hmv headphones increased workloads for existing staff when such posts are not filled timeously. For example, the KZN Department of Health is currently facing a drastic shortage of oncologists who are critically needed to treat patients in the region,’ said Govender.The study explores leadership in Social of Influences relation to health care service delivery at RK Khan Hospital, King Edward VIII Hospital, Prince Mshiyeni Memorial Hospital and Grey’s Hospital in Pietermaritzburg.

It identified leadership as being fundamentally important for improving service delivery in uk regional hospitals. Thesis: The Role of Psychology: The Study of Influences Human Resource Planning on words that with mercy, Service Delivery in Sizakala Customer Care Centres in eThekwini Municipality. Supervisor: Dr Emmanuel Mutambara and Dr Bonginkosi Zondi. ‘The study’s findings reveal that in these centres, components of human resources planning investments are not being implemented effectively; there is no clear strategy for the development of employees and promotions in Social Psychology: The Study these centres; and there is a need for the working environment to be improved. This is very interesting and I hope that the Essay Edwards Doctrine Municipality will consult me for advice in planning for the enhancement of service delivery in their Sizakala Customer Care Centres,’ said Khumalo. Looking to the future, Khumalo is planning to enrol for a Law degree next year and will use his PhD as a stepping stone towards becoming a professor and an expert in the field of leadership especially in human resource planning. Thesis: Developing a Model of Organisational Success: A case of Link Healthcare Pty Ltd Business Implementations. Supervisor: Dr Muhammad Hoque. Citation: A significant number of liquidations and insolvencies have been reported by Statistics South Africa. The estimated number of insolvencies has increased by 12.6% year-on-year. This study resulted in the development of a Five Wheel Model for The Study of Influences, Organisational Success comprising key areas, namely, Global Expansion; Leadership Dimensions; Organisational Strategies; Organisational Structure; and Culture and Expertise/Efficient Key Departments, all of which collectively, were shown to deliver organisational growth and success.

Thesis Title: Why the Rationalist Foundations of Modern Science are Unsuitable for Ismail Economics. Supervisor: Professor Masudul Alam Choudhury and Professor GT Harris. Mahomedy conducted his research, thought to be the first of its kind in South Africa, on on Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine, Islamic economics to discover why the discipline has floundered. He says Islamic economics is a relatively new sub-discipline within the broader field of economics with a distinct focus on integrating the Social The Study of Influences Essay ethical value system of hmv headphones Islam within economic theory. The thesis suggests an alternative paradigm, not only for economics, but for other areas of Social Essay scientific enquiry based fundamentally on the precept of the Oneness of God. The study took much longer than expected as he was not willing to compromise his work, study and family commitments. ‘Ultimately though, without personal commitment, focus, and hard work, no PhD study is possible’. Thesis Title: Human Capital for Rural Infrastructure Development in South Africa: A Project-based Pedagogical Analysis. Supervisor: Dr Fayth Ruffin. The research identified the lack of based project management human capital across two provinces, two government departments and four universities, and found there was a disconnection between project management human capital development and rural infrastructure project delivery. ‘The study identifies the Psychology: of Influences need for of deception, Higher Education Institutions to introduce novel rural project management teaching, grounded in indigeneity and driven by African philosophies and inclusive of community-centred concerns to Social Essay, guide South African rural infrastructure development.’ Qwabe described his doctoral journey as challenging and daunting as he lost his father during his studies, and therefore dedicates this achievement to merchants of deception, his late father. Thesis Title: Developing a Stakeholder Management Model Based on Social Psychology:, an African Traditional Community- Bafokeng Case Study. Supervisor: Professor Thokozani Nzimakwe.

‘My motivation for doing this study came when I worked for words rhyme with, one of the most progressive communities in Africa – the royal Bafokeng. Social Of Influences Essay? I was impressed about how they as a unit have achieved much over the decades when other communities struggle. Resource Based? As I engaged with the community I realised that part of their secret to success lies in how they engage with each other.’ The study recommends broadening the knowledge of stakeholder management patterns within traditionally governed African communities. Majola described her doctoral journey as ‘full of challenges’ as each phase of the research process presented its own challenges but she overcame them by setting her mind on the right path. She has recently joined a JSE-listed private education company and hopes to of Influences Essay, either lecture or supervise research studies for UKZN. ‘I have always been passionate about education and it feels surreal that I can finally add my bit in improving the merchants South African academic sector’. Thesis Title: Analysing Challenges Impeding the Social Psychology: The Study Essay Implementation of Municipal Strategies in words mercy Mpumalanga Province: A Study of Msukaligwa Local Municipality. Supervisor: Dr C Sanangura. The principal objective of the Social of Influences study was to analyse the challenges i.e. Resource Based? communication, organisational culture, finances, human resources, structure or control, objectives and of Influences, leadership, whether or not they impede strategy implementation at Msukaligwa Local Municipality.

The results revealed that structure and finances have the greatest impacts while culture and objectives were in the middle whereas communication, leadership and Essay Edwards Doctrine of Original, human resources have minimum impacts on strategy implementation at the Municipality. Thesis Title: A Tourism Stakeholder Management Supply Chain Framework for Economic Contribution for Northern Cape Province, South Africa. Supervisor: Dr Muhammed Hoque. The study investigated the importance of stakeholder engagement in the tourism sector. The case of Northern Cape is used to illustrate the Social Psychology: of Influences Essay point regarding the importance of stakeholder engagement for optimum use of the tourism sector to achieve economic growth. The study findings showed significant levels of inconsistency of perceived engagements among the key stakeholders in the public and private tourism entities. Thesis Title: Customer Relationship Management in Call Centres: An Eskom Perspective. Supervisor: Professor IW Ferreira and Professor Brian Mcarthur.

Wicomb examined the role of call centres in the implementation process of Customer Relationship Management (CRM) strategic software packages at ESKOM. Findings include an underestimation by the company’s management of the significance of the role of call centres in Sin its strategy initiatives. Psychology: The Study? Challenges encountered during the upgrade of the CRM system were identified and can be addressed by applying the conceptual model proposed in this study. Thesis Title: Legal and policy Implications of Learner Pregnancies in South Africa – A Case Study in KwaZulu-Natal. Supervisor: Professor David McQuiod-Mason and Professor Ann Strode. ‘Given the current status of learner pregnancies in SA, I hope that the findings of this study will benefit pregnant pupils who have been unable to achieve their full educational potential due to their pregnancies,’ she said. For Khan, graduating with her PhD was not the only thing to celebrate as she gave birth to spartacist, a beautiful baby girl a week before the Graduation ceremony. ‘As a wife and Social, a first time mom, life is all about balancing different aspects of your life successfully. PhD is a lonely journey and it is physically, emotionally and resource based strategy, mentally challenging. I am grateful for my parents’ support as they were my pillars of strength during these difficult times and they encouraged me never to give up,’ said Khan. Thesis Title: Strategic Innovation as a Tool for Improved Performance Amongst Small and Micro Businesses. Supervisor: Dr Jennifer Houghton.

In his research, Ayandibu focuses on the importance of Essay Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs) and how they drive economic growth and development in South Africa and around the world. ‘I pursued a PhD on the improvement of the functioning of SMEs operations because I noticed most of the rhyme with mercy complaints of small business owners were basically about lack of funds. That prompted me to dig deeper to see if that is actually the main reason why small businesses often fail within five years of start-up, resulting in discovering that it is the embezzlement of funds by these small business owners that causes them to decline,’ said Ayandibu. Ayandibu is passionate about passing on his entrepreneurial knowledge to his students. This inspired him to Psychology: The Study, pursue his PhD in Leadership Studies. He wants to be a consultant to small business owners and also to run his own accountancy firm.

He aims to continue lecturing and specialise in Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve the fields of Accounting, Economics and Management. Thesis Title: Financial Sector Development and Economic Growth in Rwanda. Supervisor: Dr Harold Ngalawa. The study set out to investigate the relationship between financial sector development and economic growth in Rwanda. It established that unexpected changes in the domestic private sector credit account for the largest proportion of fluctuations in real output growth, supporting the supply-leading hypothesis in The Study Essay the intermediation link between financial sector development and economic growth in with Rwanda. It also found that the repayment period has a negative effect on non-performing loans. Photographs by: Abhi Indrarajan. or Call +27 31 260 8596 and follow the voice prompts.

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12 Classic Essays on English Prose Style. Despite the changes in English prose over the past few centuries, we may still benefit from the stylistic observations of the old masters. Here, chronologically arranged, are 12 key passages from our collection of Psychology: The Study Classic Essays on English Prose Style. (To read the complete essays, click on the highlighted titles.) There is a mode of style for which I know not that the masters of oratory have yet found a name; a style by which the most evident truths are so obscured, that they can no longer be perceived, and the most familiar propositions so disguised that they cannot be known. Hmv Headphones Uk. . . . This style may be called the terrifick , for its chief intention is, to terrify and amaze; it may be termed the repulsive , for its natural effect is to drive away the reader; or it may be distinguished, in plain English, by the denomination of the bugbear style , for it has more terror than danger. Eloquence is not in the words but in the subject, and in of Influences Essay, great concerns the more simply anything is expressed, it is generally the that rhyme mercy, more sublime. True eloquence does not consist, as the rhetoricians assure us, in saying great things in a sublime style, but in a simple style, for there is, properly speaking, no such thing as a sublime style; the sublimity lies only in the things; and when they are not so, the language may be turgid, affected, metaphorical--but not affecting. About this time I met with an odd volume of the Spectator . I had never before seen any of them.

I bought it, read it over and over, and Social of Influences Essay was much delighted with it. I thought the writing excellent, and Essay on Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine wished, if possible, to imitate it. With that view, I took some of the papers, and of Influences making short hints of the spartacist uprising bbc bitesize, sentiment in each sentence, laid them by for a few days, and then, without looking at the book, tried to complete the papers again, by expressing each hinted sentiment at length and as fully as it had been expressed before, in any suitable words that should come to hand. It is not easy to write a familiar style. Many people mistake a familiar for a vulgar style, and suppose that to Psychology: Essay write without affectation is to uk write at Social of Influences Essay, random. On the contrary, there is nothing that requires more precision, and, if I may so say, purity of expression, than the style I am speaking of. It utterly rejects not only all unmeaning pomp, but all low, cant phrases, and loose, unconnected, slipshod allusions. Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve Essay. It is Psychology: The Study of Influences not to take the spartacist, first word that offers, but the best word in common use. [Michael Sadler#39;s style is] everything which it ought not to be. Instead of Social The Study saying what he has to say with the perspicuity, the spartacist uprising bbc bitesize, precision, and the simplicity in which consists the eloquence proper to scientific writing, he indulges without measure in vague, bombastic declamation, made up of those fine things which boys of fifteen admire, and which everybody, who is not destined to Psychology: of Influences Essay be a boy all his life, weeds vigorously out of his compositions after five-and-twenty. That portion of his two thick volumes which is uk not made up of statistical tables, consists principally of Psychology: Essay ejaculations, apostrophes, metaphors, similes--all the worst of their respective kinds. Hmv Headphones Uk. The scholar might frequently emulate the propriety and of Influences Essay emphasis of the resource based, farmer#39;s call to Psychology: Essay his team, and confess that if that were written it would surpass his labored sentences.

Whose are the truly labored sentences? From the weak and flimsy periods of the politician and literary man, we are glad to turn even to the description of work, the simple record of the month#39;s labor in the farmer#39;s almanac, to restore our tone and spirits. A sentence should read as if its author, had he held a plow instead of a pen, could have drawn a furrow deep and spartacist uprising straight to Psychology: Essay the end. Cardinal John Newman on the Inseparability of Style and Substance. Thought and speech are inseparable from each other. Matter and bbc bitesize expression are parts of one; style is a thinking out into language. This is what I have been laying down, and Social The Study this is literature: not things , not the verbal symbols of things; not on the other hand mere words; but thoughts expressed in language. . . . A great author, Gentlemen, is that with not one who merely has a copia verborum , whether in Psychology: of Influences Essay, prose or verse, and can, as it were, turn on at his will any number of splendid phrases and swelling sentences; but he is one who has something to say and knows how to based strategy say it. (John Henry Newman, The Idea of Social Psychology: a University, 1852) Cooper#39;s word-sense was singularly dull. When a person has a poor ear for music he will flat and Fitzgerald: Swerve sharp right along without knowing it.

He keeps near the tune, but it is not the tune. Social Of Influences Essay. When a person has a poor ear for words, the result is a literary flatting and merchants of deception sharping; you perceive what he is intending to Social of Influences Essay say, but you also perceive that he does not say it. Words. This is Cooper. He was not a word-musician. His ear was satisfied with the approximate words. . . . Social The Study Of Influences Essay. There have been daring people in the world who claimed that Cooper could write English, but they are all dead now.

Agnes Repplier on uprising bbc bitesize the Right Words. Social Psychology: The Study Of Influences. Musicians know the value of chords; painters know the value of rhyme mercy colors; writers are often so blind to the value of words that they are content with a bare expression of their thoughts . Psychology: The Study Essay. . .. Words Rhyme With Mercy. For every sentence that may be penned or spoken the right words exist. They lie concealed in the inexhaustible wealth of Social Psychology: of Influences a vocabulary enriched by centuries of noble thought and delicate manipulation. He who does not find them and fit them into place, who accepts the first term which presents itself rather than search for the expression which accurately and beautifully embodies his meaning, aspires to mediocrity, and is content with failure. (Agnes Repplier, #34;Words,#34; 1896) [L]et me plead that you have been told of one or two things which Style is not ; which have little or nothing to do with Style, though sometimes vulgarly mistaken for it. Style, for example, is not—can never be—extraneous Ornament. . . . [I]f you here require a practical rule of me, I will present you with this: #34;Whenever you feel an impulse to perpetrate a piece of exceptionally fine writing, obey it—wholeheartedly—and delete it before sending your manuscript to press. Murder your darlings .#34; Woodrow knew how to conjure up such words. He knew how to make them glow, and weep. He wasted no time upon the heads of his dupes, but aimed directly at their ears, diaphragms and hearts. . . . When Wilson got upon his legs in Ella Fitzgerald: Queen Essay, those days he seems to Social of Influences Essay have gone into a sort of trance, with all the peculiar illusions and delusions that belong to a frenzied pedagogue. He heard words giving three cheers; he saw them race across a blackboard like Socialists pursued by the Polizei ; he felt them rush up and kiss him. (H.L.

Mencken, #34;The Style of Woodrow,#34; 1921) As the police put it, anything you say may be used as evidence against you. If handwriting reveals character, writing reveals it still more. . That With. . . Most style is not honest enough. Easy to say, but hard to practice. A writer may take to long words, as young men to beards—to impress. But long words, like long beards, are often the badge of charlatans. Or a writer may cultivate the obscure, to seem profound. But even carefully muddied puddles are soon fathomed. Or he may cultivate eccentricity, to seem original.

But really original people do not have to think about being original—they can no more help it than they can help breathing. They do not need to dye their hair green.

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Essays from the Far East Film Festival. T he Far East Film Festival in Udine, Italy held its first edition in 1998 with a special focus on popular films from Hong Kong. Since then, the event has grown in size and The Study of Influences, expanded to encompass works from across East and Southeast Asia. The festival specializes in popular films that are often not shown by other festivals, in based strategy the hopes of providing a snapshot of how cinema fits within overall trends in Asian popular culture. The festival also hosts a major retrospective each year: recent focuses include the Asian musical, director Patrick Tam, Nikkatsu action films from Japan, and Psychology: The Study of Influences, director Chor Yuen. The following essays are reprinted with permission from the FEFF official catalogue. The main essay for each year covers general commercial and artistic trends within the previous 12 months (the catalogue is printed during the words rhyme with festival in late April, so I usually write them in February or March). There are also comments centered primarily, but not exclusively, on the Korean films screened in Social Psychology: Essay Udine each year. More information about the festival can be found at http://www.fareastfilm.com. T he past twelve months have seen numerous ups and downs for Korean cinema -- but mostly downs. The industry has struggled through downturns in the past, notably in 2002, when investors became spooked by Essay Edwards on the Doctrine of Original Sin the failure of several big-budget films including Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . But most commentators would agree that 2007 ranks as the Social Psychology: Essay most serious challenge for Korean cinema since the start of its boom in the late 1990s.

At the same time, the industry is much larger than it was in resource strategy 2002, so the reverberations are spreading further. There are two sides to the crisis. The first is Social that Korean audiences seem to be cooling a bit on local films. After a record-setting 2006, with smash hits like The Host (13 million admissions), King and the Clown (12.3 million admissions), Tazza: The High Rollers (6.8 million admissions) and 200 Pound Beauty (6.6 million admissions), some retreat to Swerve more normal levels might have been expected. But a string of box office disappointments and a strong performance by Hollywood films caused the market store of Korean cinema to The Study Essay fall to 50% -- its lowest level since 2002. This was partly due to the films themselves. 2007 was a year in which few of Korea's best known commercial filmmakers -- Bong Joon-ho, Park Chan-wook, Kim Jae-woon, etc -- had new films to release. There were a few word-of-mouth hits, such as Seven Days (pictured) or Going By the Book , but in general there were not enough high profile releases to catch audiences' attention. A few big-budget disappointments, such as the $10 million costume drama Hwang Jin Yi, also contributed to the impression that some of the air had gone out of Korean cinema.

There were two notable exceptions to this rule, however (at least in a commercial sense). On Jonathan On The Doctrine Sin. Blockbusters May 18 and D-War were released a week apart in mid summer, and rode a wave of publicity to become the Essay best-selling Korean films of the year (with 7.3 and 8.4 million admissions respectively). May 18 is based on the real life Gwangju Uprising of that with mercy, 1980, when military paratroopers sent in Psychology: by the government clashed with pro-democracy activists and ordinary citizens, leaving hundreds (or, more likely thousands) dead. The horrific incident had been portrayed by Korean filmmakers before, such as in bbc bitesize Jang Sun-woo's A Petal (1996) or Lee Chang-dong's Peppermint Candy (2000), but May 18 was the most mainstream treatment of the subject yet. A bit too mainstream, argued some of its detractors -- the film seemed at times to be deliberately pushing the same emotional buttons that made Tae Guk Gi (2004) and Silmido (2003) so popular. Nonetheless its strong box office performance most be credited to Social The Study Essay more then just the market power of its distributor CJ Entertainment, as it continued to attract large numbers of viewers even late in its release. D-War , meanwhile, was another kind of hmv headphones, animal entirely. Psychology: Essay. Shim Hyung-rae, the creator of spartacist uprising bbc bitesize, Yonggary (1999), shot this massively expensive, English language monster movie in LA with an American cast and crew. The film is Social Psychology: The Study based on a mythical Korean creature that resembles a giant snake. Although to uprising bbc bitesize most Western viewers it will appear indistinguishable from any other really bad Hollywood B-movie, to many Koreans it became a source of Social The Study of Influences, national pride, since the at-times impressive CGI effects were done entirely in Korea, and since it was slated to receive a large 2,000 screen release in the U.S.

Korean distributor Showbox, as well as Shim himself, successfully turned the film's release into a major media event, and when local critics attacked the film for its inept direction or preposterous screenplay, it only made viewers more curious to see it. A strange kind of culture war also emerged, with ardent supporters of the film arguing on that its behalf online, and attacking anyone who criticized it. In the Social of Influences Essay event, the monstrously budgeted film ($30 million or $70 million, depending on how you do the accounting) was a huge commercial success in Korea, though its U.S. theatrical release a month later proved to be somewhat of a dud. Ultimately these two films would be the only ones to sell more than 3.5 million tickets in 2007, compared to Fitzgerald: of the five titles in Psychology: The Study Essay 2006 and Ella Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay, eight in 2005. Two other films -- kidnapping drama Voice of a Murderer (pictured below) and Social Psychology: of Influences, comic adaptation Le Grand Chef , would sneak past the uk 3 million admissions mark, though it seems both films failed to reach the Social Psychology: full potential of their eye-catching source material. The other side to bbc bitesize Korean cinema's crisis was related to the overall profitability of the industry. Social The Study Essay. The boom years of 2005-2006 had encouraged, among other things, a large number of new investors to enter the industry and an increasing number of film companies to list on the local stock market (mostly through back door means). Overseas sales of Korean films, thanks to words with mercy a surge of interest in Japan, peaked at $76 million in 2005. Social Essay. With all this money sloshing around in the industry, the Ella Fitzgerald: Essay results were predictable: budgets rose, salaries of major stars (and star directors) shot up, and Korea began making many more films than it had in Social Psychology: of Influences the past. The good times couldn't last forever, though. As Japan recovered from its momentary fascination with Korean pop culture, export figures plunged.

More seriously, the large numbers of films being made meant steeply increased competition at the box office, so that even in 2006 -- a record year at the box office -- almost everyone in based the industry was losing money. In 2007, when the number of tickets sold to Korean films dropped sharply, the situation was even more serious. The crisis was a source of Social of Influences, almost constant discussion in 2007, and of deception, few investors or producers expect the The Study of Influences Essay situation to improve in the next year or two. Ella Queen Swerve Essay. There are signs now that fewer films are being made. It seems likely that the rate of Psychology: of Influences, production will fall to 60-80 commercial films per year, which most people view as a sustainable level (excluding the based strategy sort of low-budget independent films that are often supported by the Korean Film Council).

Some worry that it could drop further than that. On the other hand, though, new companies continue to of Influences Essay enter the film industry, such as telecoms conglomerates SK Telecom and KT, so at this point it remains extremely difficult to product the crisis's long term effects. In the meantime, producers have been trying to lower budgets, though most find it is not an easy process. But all was not bad news in 2007. The most exciting development came in May, when Jeon Do-yeon won the Best Actress award at Cannes for merchants her fearless performance in Lee Chang-dong's Secret Sunshine . Jeon has been well known to The Study of Influences Essay fans of Korean cinema as a supremely talented performer with the chameleon-like ability to fully inhabit any role. From her debut in hmv headphones uk The Contact in 1997, she has won breathless praise and cartfuls of local awards. However this marked her first appearance in a major international film festival, so in that sense, a new Asian star was born. As months passed the awards would continue to roll in, with Jeon winning at the first Asia Pacific Screen Awards in New Zealand as well as the second Asian Film Awards in Hong Kong this March. Secret Sunshine itself also won numerous praise and awards, including Best Picture honors at of Influences Essay the two awards ceremonies mentioned above. A harrowing story about a young widow who moves to her husband's hometown and experiences further tragedy, the film was a consensus pick by many critics as the best film of the year. In its local release, audiences initially found it hard to relate to, but news of Jeon's award gave a considerable boost to spartacist bbc bitesize its box office performance.

A few other trends emerged among the films on release in 2007. One was a revival of the thriller genre, thanks to works like Seven Days , Our Town and, in the early part of 2008, The Chaser . Rather than a wholesale deconstruction of the Social Psychology: The Study genre, as in Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (2003), recent thrillers have combined stylish direction, great acting and merchants of deception, creative variations on genre conventions. Seven Days in particular was highly rated by viewers for its brisk pacing, well-structured plot and outstanding lead performance by Lost star Kim Yun-jin (it was to Essay Kim's misfortune that the based film opened in the same year as Secret Sunshine , otherwise she'd have been sure to win numerous acting awards). The film is Social The Study based on a clever premise: the young daughter of a star defense attorney is with mercy kidnapped, and rather than demanding ransom, the kidnappers tell the lawyer she must prove the innocence of a man on of Influences death row. Sure enough, remake rights were scooped up by Hollywood company Summit Entertainment. The ironically titled Our Town (pictured), by words with mercy debut director Jeong Gil-young, is another addition to a long line of Korean serial murder thrillers. However the film focuses on not just one, but two killers on the loose in an ordinary urban neighborhood (even if one of the two is The Study clearly the more ruthless and efficient killing machine).

As the body count grows, a complicated web of flashbacks fills in the viewer on the formative experiences of the two men. The autumn season turned up a few other genre surprises. Essay On Jonathan On The Doctrine. Director Lee Joon-ik has emerged in Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay the past few years as one of Korea's most distinctive and talented commercial directors, even if he is not yet attracting much attention abroad. After his breakout smash hit King and the Clown and resource based strategy, the word of mouth driven success Radio Star in 2006, he returned in The Study 2007 with The Happy Life , the Essay on the of Original Sin story of three middle aged men who decide to start a rock band. It doesn't sound like a particularly commercial concept, but once again the storytelling skills of Lee and his regular screenwriter Choi Seok-hwan have turned this into Social a hugely entertaining and enjoyable film. Shadows in the Palace is the debut work of Kim Mee-jeung, who worked on of deception the crew of King and the Clown and Lee's earlier Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield (2003). Set during Korea's Joseon Dynasty, the film is unusual in focusing on the women's quarters of the royal palace, where an unexplained murder sets dangerous events into motion. Mixing elements of the historical costume drama, the crime thriller and Asian horror, the film ranks as a distinctive, well-crafted (and cruel) film debut. Another mid-sized hit was the comedy Going By the Book (pictured), based on Psychology: The Study Essay a script by the well-known director Jang Jin and directed by newcomer Ra Hee-chan. The setup is simple: a soft-spoken but extremely conscientious policeman is asked to uprising play the part of a bank robber in Social a highly realistic simulation of a robbery. He proves to be more clever and devoted to the task at hand than his superiors expect, however.

Ultimately the film proved more popular than Jang Jin's own 2007 release My Son , which seems to be one of the weaker items in his filmography. Another trend, related perhaps to the current challenge facing the industry, was the Essay Edwards Sin increasing number of Psychology: of Influences Essay, low-budget commercial films shot in HD format. Often with partial funding from TV broadcasters, the films are interesting because, despite being commercial in orientation, their low budget allows lesser known directors a bit more creative freedom. One of the most interesting of 2007's HD films was The Wonder Years , a nuanced look at the worries and fantasies of uprising bbc bitesize, a reclusive 13-year old girl. The film is especially notable for the great performance coaxed out of Social The Study of Influences, teenage actress Lee Se-young by of deception the film's debut director Kim Hee-jung. The year 2008 opened on a slightly more positive note, with the Psychology: Essay runaway success of two films that, before their release, were considered to Essay of Original Sin be fairly low-profile. Forever the Moment focuses on the real-life experiences of Korea's women's handball team that competed at the 2004 Athens Olympics. Directed by Lim Soon-rye, who was previously pegged as an arthouse director with virtually no commercial potential, the film proved to be broadly popular among all age groups, especially women in their 30s (an increasingly influential segment of the viewing public). The film ultimately sold just over 4 million tickets.

Even more popular was The Chaser , a thriller which became an instant sensation purely on the basis of it being so well made. The film by debut director Na Hong-jin drew numerous comparisons to Memories of Murder (2003), despite being smaller in scale and featuring a much lower-profile cast. It's particularly effective in creating suspense, not related to whether the killer will be identified or caught (that is dealt with fairly early), but in of Influences Essay the fate of merchants of deception, a woman left at the edge of death at the killer's home. Like Memories of Murder , the film takes a hard look at the ineptitude of the police force, and uses this to further heighten the suspense. Sure enough, remake rights to this film were sold as well, to Warner Bros. and the production team behind Academy Award-winner The Departed . The rest of the spring looks to Social be fairly quiet for Korean cinema, however, with most high profile releases being pushed back to the fall. The biggest genre film on the near horizon is uprising The Guard Post , a military horror film set on Essay the border between North and South Korea. From Kong Su-chang, director of commercial and critical hit R-Point , the film is being given a major release by spartacist uprising bbc bitesize distributor Showbox.

But in general, the year 2008 will be crucial in terms of assessing the depth of the Social of Influences Essay film industry's downturn, and merchants of deception, the extent to which audiences turn out for high profile upcoming projects like Kim Jee-woon's western The Good, The Bad, The Weird (slated for a July release) and Park Chan-wook's vampire film Thirst (next winter). The film industry continues to receive a lot of attention in Korea, and new business friendly president Lee Myung-bak claims he will make cultural industries a priority in the coming years. But with many well-known film companies threatened with downsizing or bankruptcy, the industry is Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay still in need of a little good news. H owever the year 2006 is resource strategy ultimately remembered -- as the commercial peak of the modern day Korean film renaissance, or as a year in which the environment for making films sharply deteriorated -- it was a year of extremes for Korean cinema. On the one hand, the all-time box office record was broken twice, and Korean films as a whole sold a record number of tickets. Yet at the same time, the overseas market for Korean films collapsed (due mostly to The Study of Influences slackening interest from Japan), and because of rising budgets, the vast majority of films failed to turn a profit. Many smaller film companies found themselves on the verge of on Jonathan Doctrine Sin, bankruptcy. Last year's bitterly fought reduction of the local screen quota system to Social The Study of Influences 73 days per year only on the Doctrine, added to a creeping sense of pessimism for the future. The mood among Korean filmmakers in Social Psychology: of Influences early 2007 is one of deep concern.

The word crisis is now thrown about with abandon in the local press, however if there is indeed a crisis, it is words that rhyme mercy of a different sort than the problems faced by The Study Essay most film industries around the world. Resource Strategy. There's little sense right now that the industry is running out of creative ideas. A look back on the films produced last year confirms this, and although it's hard to see any sure-fire commercial hits lined up for the second part of Psychology: The Study Essay, 2007, for Ella Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay fans of Korean cinema there is more than enough to look forward to. In addition, the problem with the Social The Study Essay Korean film industry is clearly not the merchants audience, which is as supportive of local films as ever. The problem is something in the system itself, and the worry is Social Psychology: of Influences Essay that if it is Essay on Jonathan Edwards not fixed, it will deal a blow to the long term potential of Korean cinema. First, however, it is of Influences Essay worth taking a look at the films produced in the last year. Several directors took big steps forward in 2006. Most obvious, perhaps, is the Essay on Jonathan Edwards on the Doctrine case of Bong Joon-ho, whose ambitious creature movie The Host triumphed over initial skepticism and established its director as a consensus choice for the most respected filmmaker in Korea.

After opening to a warm reception in the Directors Fortnight section at Cannes, the film went on to sell 13 million tickets (worth $97 million) in Korea, setting a new local record. Although some viewers took issue with certain elements of the film (such as a much-criticized CGI shot of the monster on fire), and Social The Study Essay, critics did not afford it the same level of praise as Bong's previous film Memories of Murder , The Host nonetheless confirmed Bong's prodigious cinematic talent and gave him new visibility abroad. Another director to enjoy a breakout year was Choi Dong-hoon with the box office smash hit Tazza: The High Rollers , based on a well-known local comic. A spirited showcase of gambling, fast talk, betrayal and bbc bitesize, innuendo that earned $47 million at the local box office, Tazza confirmed its director's expert feel for witty dialogue and ensemble acting, first displayed in his 2004 debut work The Big Swindle . Psychology: Of Influences Essay. Choi also has a knack for great casting, and of the Swerve, indeed Tazza won particular praise -- and several high-profile acting awards -- for actress Kim Hye-soo's standout performance as a sultry, manipulative femme fatale . With two breakout hits to his credit and a clearly recognizable visual and narrative style, Choi can now count himself among the upper ranks of Korean directors. Whether his films will eventually cross the translation gap to of Influences gain a reputation among international audiences remains to be seen, however. Although the box office success of The Host and based, Tazza could in some ways have been foretold, one smashing success that surprised everyone was Kim Yong-hwa's 200 Pound Beauty . Based on a Japanese comic book about an Social Psychology: The Study Essay, overweight singer who undergoes extreme plastic surgery to become thin and beautiful, the mid-budget film benefited from strong word-of-mouth and a showstopping performance by young actress Kim Ah-joong. After grossing $16 million with his 2003 debut film Oh! Brothers and a further $45 million with this latest work, director Kim Yong-hwa can rightfully consider himself one of contemporary Korean cinema's most successful directors of comedy.

On a smaller scale, one of the best-loved films of the year among critics and fellow filmmakers was Kim Tae-yong's Family Ties . Told in three separate but related segments about people struggling with familial and romantic relationships, the film was named Best Picture at the Busan Film Critics Awards and went on merchants of deception to find festival success at Toronto and Thessaloniki, where it took Best Feature Film, Best Screenplay, Best Actress (shared among four members of the cast) and the Audience Award. Kim had previously been best known as the co-director of the Social Psychology: of Influences 1999 cult horror film Memento Mori , but with Family Ties he established himself as a highly skilled director in his own right. 2006 was certainly a breakout year for director Lee Joon-ik as well. After grossing $84 million with record-breaking hit King and the Clown earlier in the year, Lee quickly shot a much more modest follow-up that, while only ranking as a mid-level hit, enjoyed the spartacist strongest word-of-mouth of the Psychology: The Study of Influences year. Radio Star is the story of an aging rock star (Park Joong-hoon) and his loyal manager (Ahn Sung-ki) who move out to the country to work as a radio DJ. The synopsis does not inspire confidence, but Lee's storytelling skills ultimately make the hmv headphones film surprisingly engaging. In an online poll held at the end of the Social Psychology: of Influences year, the film topped even The Host to merchants be named by ordinary citizens as the best film of 2006.

Other directors who saw their careers advance in 2006 include Yu Ha with his well-reviewed epic gangster drama A Dirty Carnival ; arthouse director Hong Sang-soo with his acclaimed seventh feature Woman on Psychology: The Study Essay the Beach ; Ryoo Seung-wan with the low-budget action extravaganza The City of hmv headphones, Violence (which premiered internationally in a midnight screening at Venice); Lee Yoon-ki, whose low-budget art film Ad Lib Night won attention from festivals including Berlin; Song Hae-sung, who followed up the disappointment of Rikidozan with a major hit in melodrama Maundy Thursday ; Choi Ho, who won over both critics and audiences with his Busan-set drug ring drama Bloody Tie ; and independent directors Shin Dong-il and Min Boung-hun whose low-budget films My Friend His Wife and Pruning the Grapevine won critical praise at the Pusan International Film Festival. For an industry in Psychology: The Study which over Fitzgerald: of the Swerve, 50% of Social Psychology: of Influences Essay, new releases are by debut directors, it won't be a surprise to hmv headphones uk hear that there were several accomplished debut films in 2006 -- though admittedly, first-time directors in Korea generally hold less artistic control over their work than established filmmakers. Psychology: Of Influences. Son Jae-gon's My Scary Girl may not technically be a debut film, since he produced an earlier independent work that never screened in theaters, but as a first commercial release it was a hugely influential success. Shot for $700,000 on HD video, the Edwards Sin film was originally conceived more as TV content than as a mainstream release, but given a strong reaction from viewers it ended up securing a wide release, beating out Ice Age 2 and grossing $16 million. Having proved that a low-budget comedy can succeed without big-name stars, My Scary Girl now ranks as sort of a model case for film companies that wish to make good films on a cheap budget.

Another highly praised debut came from the directing duo of Lee Hae-young and Lee Hae-joon in the comic drama Like a Virgin . Best known previously for their screenwriting credit on of Influences the 2002 hit film Conduct Zero , the Fitzgerald: Queen of the Swerve Lees portrayed the Social Psychology: The Study Essay story of a gay high school boy from a rough neighborhood who ends up joining the local ssireum (traditional Korean wrestling) team. Filled with a deadpan, wistful humour, the film is in high demand from festivals following its international premiere at Berlin earlier this year. Much less noticed, but also deserving of praise was an inspired low-budget horror film from first-time director Kim Eun-kyung. Roommates is set in a sort of study academy from hell, which is all the strategy more disturbing and vivid because such places actually exist in real life. In Europe and North America, Asian education systems are often held up as a model for other countries to Social of Influences follow. Hmv Headphones Uk. Roommates shows in memorable fashion that such high achievement can sometimes come at a terrible cost. Meanwhile, director Lee Jeong-beom debuted with an Social Essay, unusually-structured story about a gangster who ends up befriending the mother of a man he has been ordered to kill.

Cruel Winter Blues debuted at strategy the Pusan International Film Festival in October and took many viewers by surprise with its earthy realism and accomplished acting. Two other noted debuts from 2006 include No Regret , an acclaimed gay-themed drama by Leesong Hee-il that enjoyed a surprising commercial success considering its low-budget origins; and Byun Seung-wook's Solace (pictured), a simply-told but highly engaging story about a pharmacist and a clothes designer who find much to get in the way of their growing attraction to Social each other. Although not a box office success, the latter work boasts two great performances by Han Suk-kyu ( Shiri ) and Kim Ji-soo ( This Charming Girl ). Of course, the merchants year had its share of disappointments as well. Kang Woo-suk's big-budget political drama Hanbando hoped to turn a hypothetical tale of Japanese aggression into a box office smash along the Social Psychology: of Influences lines of the director's earlier Silmido (2003). However a scathing critical reception and a lukewarm response by audiences meant that even with one of the Queen of the Essay biggest marketing campaigns of the year it fell well short of 4 million admissions. The Study Essay. At the end of the year, a similar fate would befall the big-budget martial arts fantasy The Restless , although the film's technical accomplishments in CGI imagery, costumes and Fitzgerald: Queen, mise-en-scene were widely acknowledged. The Study. Finally, the 1969-set romance Once in a Summer became the based apparent victim of a viewer backlash against films featuring hallyu (Korean Wave) stars. Psychology: Of Influences Essay. Ironically, Once in a Summer was unusually successful in showcasing the charm of its leads Lee Byung-heon ( A Bittersweet Life ) and Soo Ae ( A Family ). It was not that the film suffered poor word of merchants of deception, mouth -- instead, it was simply skipped over by viewers who were more interested in watching something else.

It was partly due to The Study of Influences Essay such commercial flops, and partly due to an unusually large number of films released (108, the most since the early 1990s) that overall profitability in the industry took a steep dive. At first glance, it seems odd that an industry with a 60% market share that recorded 100 million ticket sales to local films alone in Essay on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine Sin 2006 should be losing money. However the The Study cost of merchants, making, marketing and Psychology:, releasing films has steadily risen over the years, so that an average commercial film now needs to sell upwards of two million tickets, or about $14 million, simply to break even. The biggest cloud over the economics of filmmaking in Korea is the weakness of spartacist bbc bitesize, DVD and other ancillary markets such as cable TV. (Indeed, illegal downloading of films on of Influences Essay the internet has become a way of life) Whereas a country like Japan can release 200-300 films annually, with many smaller titles getting most of their revenues from DVD sales, Korea's over-reliance on based theatrical admissions places a practical limit on the number of Social Psychology:, films that can be made each year. Competition at the box office was particularly fierce last year, due to on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine of Original Sin a production glut brought on by a host of The Study of Influences Essay, stock market listings and new companies moving into the industry. That Rhyme With Mercy. So while the investors in Psychology: of Influences Essay The Host , Tazza (pictured) and on the Doctrine, several other titles enjoyed a very good year, most of the other 100+ films that were released in theaters lost money. The mood among investors in Social Psychology: early 2007 is a 180-degree turn from last year, when the industry was swimming in cash. Producers hoping to make new films are struggling to attract investment, and most observers predict that from the uk second half of this year there will be a sharp drop in the number of Psychology: The Study, films made. In a classic case of bad timing, several other developments have emerged just as the industry is of deception trying to deal with the after-effects of the production glut. One is a sharp drop in the level of international sales, from $76 million in 2005 to $24.5 million in 2006. The prime reason behind this was a return to earth by Japanese buyers.

In 2004-5, fierce competition between buyers led to a string of high profile Korean films selling for astronomical prices ranging from $4 million to $7 million per picture. However, despite a few notable exceptions such as April Snow and A Moment to The Study of Influences Remember , most of these films later flopped at that rhyme mercy the Japanese box office. As Japanese films gain increased popularity in their own market, it now appears that the Social of Influences Korean Wave has lost much of its sheen. This will have a particularly strong effect on Korean producers of star-driven, big-budget productions, which can no longer count on a strong sale to Japan. Another internal development is the Korean film industry's first ever labor deal, which is currently in based strategy the last stages of of Influences, negotiation and scheduled to go into Essay on Jonathan on the Doctrine of Original effect in July. There is widespread agreement among the Social Psychology: Essay Korean film community that lower-ranking crew members and other production staff have been treated in horrendous fashion throughout the spartacist uprising bbc bitesize modern-day boom. In general, such crew members receive very little pay and are compensated on Social The Study of Influences Essay a project basis, so that if a production fails to finish on schedule (as often happens), crew members work overtime for no extra pay. In worst-case scenarios, crew members have finished shooting a film and then never been paid for rhyme mercy their work. The new labor deal will establish industry-wide standards for Social Psychology: overtime pay and give workers increased leverage in settling disputes, so in one sense it is a highly welcome development. On Jonathan Doctrine. On the other hand, it is Social of Influences sure to result in a further rise in budgets, so Korea's profitability problem may get worse before it gets better. Producers are currently working hard to find solutions for the industry's problems, ranging from incentive-based pay to based limiting the amount of money distributors spend on prints and marketing costs.

More and more productions are being shot on Social The Study of Influences HD video (such as My Scary Girl or Roommates , pictured above) or super 16mm (such as Family Ties ) to help reduce costs. Swerve Essay. Still open to The Study of Influences question is whether the salary demands of the industry's biggest stars will fall in response to the worsening environment. Indeed, many of the biggest star-centered productions of 2006 failed to excite viewers, suggesting that a strong story is what audiences really care about. Korea has faced crises before, notably in 2002 after the spectacular crash of the big-budget films Yesterday, R U Ready? and Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . But many insist that this time is different. On Jonathan On The. If there's any optimism to be gleaned from the current situation, it's that there is widespread agreement in the industry that its current problems need to The Study Essay be addressed.

That, and resource based, the fact that Korean directors are as inspired as ever, and audiences still like to line up for the latest hot film. I n a memorable line from Song Neung-han's comedy classic No. 3 (1997), a gangster played by Han Suk-kyu says to Psychology: Essay his wife: Take a swan, for of deception example. It looks graceful and elegant above the water. But do you know what's happening underneath? Its feet are paddling away like hell! That's what life is.

Such is also the usual state of the Korean film industry. On the surface, Korean cinema glided from hit to hit in 2005, on Social Psychology: its way to another brilliant year in which it accounted for Fitzgerald: Queen of the 60% of local ticket sales. Star-driven films such as April Snow and The Study, A Moment to Remember became strong hits in on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine of Original Sin Japan, while on the festival circuit, a record seven Korean films screened at Cannes and Park Chan-wook's Sympathy For Lady Vengeance drew widespread notice at Venice. In October the Pusan International Film Festival celebrated its tenth edition in grand style, then in Psychology: Essay the final days of Ella Essay, 2005 a modest film called King and the Clown was released which unexpectedly sold upwards of 11 million tickets, and which at the time of this writing looked likely to set a new all-time box office record. It was indeed a good year for Social Psychology: The Study Korean cinema in uprising 2005, but a peek beneath the surface reveals a turbulent, unruly side to the industry as well. A public spat between producers and star management companies in the summer underlined some shifting power relationships in the industry. Labor issues have been simmering for some time, resulting in the establishment of the industry's first labor unions in Social The Study of Influences Essay December.

Major conglomerates CJ Entertainment, Showbox and Lotte continued to consolidate their power, causing friction with smaller and mid-sized companies. One of the highest rates of of deception, internet piracy in the world has resulted in a DVD market that is Social of Influences Essay described by some as about to collapse. And most explosive of all has been the issue of Korea's Screen Quota system, which the South Korean government has decided to Essay on Jonathan Edwards of Original reduce by Social The Study of Influences Essay half from July 1 of this year. But first, a discussion of the films. The production of large and small films alike has been booming over the past year. In 2005, a total of 85 local films were released in theaters, ranging from KT Kwak's action blockbuster Typhoon costing a record $18 million, to 17 low-budget films with budgets all under $1 million. The former is yet another example of the much-discussed Korean blockbuster -- high-concept, big-budget genre productions that over resource strategy, the past five or six years have failed more often than they have succeeded. The phenomenal success of Tae Guk Gi and Psychology: The Study of Influences, Silmido in spartacist uprising 2004 seemed to give the Korean blockbuster a second lease on life, yet 2005 must go down as yet another year in which most of the big, expensive pictures were outclassed and outgrossed by mid-sized fare.

Typhoon , a multi-lingual, globetrotting action film about a man planning a terrorist attack on North and South Korea, was released on The Study of Influences Essay December 14 on the same day as King Kong . Nonetheless, despite an resource, enthusiastic performance by Social of Influences Essay top-ranked actor Jang Dong-gun ( Tae Guk Gi, The Promise ), the film's impressive special effects and overseas location shooting in Thailand and Vladivostok failed to generate any excitement among viewers. The film ended up selling 4.2 million tickets -- certainly not small change, but not enough to ensure a profit, and much less than its distributor CJ Entertainment was hoping for when it opened the film on a record 540 screens. Kong, meanwhile, ended up with the last laugh when despite opening at #2, it hung on to eventually pass its competitor. (South Korea is one of the few countries in the world where King Kong was the highest-grossing Hollywood movie released in 2005) Other would-be blockbusters did even worse. Antarctic Journal , a fantasy/adventure/horror film centering around an expedition to Essay Doctrine the Point of Inaccessibility in Antarctica, cost $8.5 million to Psychology: of Influences Essay make but sold only about a million tickets. Spartacist Uprising Bbc Bitesize. Shot in New Zealand, the Psychology: of Influences film featured major stars Song Kang-ho ( Memories of Murder ) and Yu Ji-tae ( Oldboy ), but fans ridiculed the filmmakers for making a movie set in the Antarctic snow where nothing really happens. The biggest loss-maker of the year is likely to be the $10 million Blue Swallow , a film that is much more accomplished from a cinematic point of view than the hmv headphones two works mentioned above, but which only managed to Psychology: of Influences sell about words that rhyme mercy, 600,000 tickets.

A biopic of Korea's first civilian female aviator, who lived in Japan in the 1920s, Blue Swallow tried to entice viewers with its relevance to real-life history, but ended up being blindsided by Social of Influences Essay real-life history. Shortly before the spartacist uprising film's release, accusations surfaced on the internet that the film's protagonist had in actuality engaged in pro-Japanese publicity stunts. Whatever the subtleties of the real-life situation may have been, it ended up giving viewers one more reason to Social The Study of Influences Essay go see King and Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay, the Clown (released on The Study Essay the same day) instead. Yet there was one notable example of a blockbuster that soared above expectations, and indeed it became one of the top five grossing Korean films of strategy, all time. Welcome to Dongmakgol didn't have quite as high of a budget as the works mentioned above, but it was a film painted on a vast canvass with numerous special effects and extensive CGI. Psychology: The Study Of Influences. Based on a stage play by Jang Jin -- the Ella Fitzgerald: Queen of the Essay director of Guns Talks (2001) and Someone Special (2004), both of which were popular favorites in Udine -- Welcome to Dongmakgol was blockbuster in style but relied most heavily on the characterization and humor in Psychology: its script. Almost a textbook example of how to do an effective Korean blockbuster, Dongmakgol was an instant hit with viewers of merchants, all ages and eventually topped 8 million admissions. Yet except for this one example, it was mid-sized films that primarily held the spotlight. From the start of the summer until the Social Psychology: Essay end of the year, one or two films emerged in based strategy every month as a hot topic of Social Psychology: The Study, conversation among young Koreans. In June it was Rules of spartacist, Dating , a controversial and frank look at the line between lust and sexual harassment by debut director Han Jae-rim.

With standout performances by Gang Hye-jung ( Oldboy ) and Park Hae-il ( Memories of Murder ), the film's off-color dialogue and Psychology: Essay, unflinching attitude made it one of the year's standouts. In late July, Park Chan-wook's Sympathy for Lady Vengeance stole the spotlight, opening to record box office in its first weekend, but tailing off in the following week, when Dongmakgol was released. August featured both Dongmakgol and yet another film based on a stage play by strategy Jang Jin, this time directed by Jang himself. Murder, Take One is a look at the various personalities involved in a murder investigation, which a local broadcaster has decided to record on Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay air in real time. Jang's unique verbal humour and comic timing, which separates him from any other Korean director, was on full display in this film, and it became a robust hit. September featured two major hits: comedy sequel Marrying the spartacist bbc bitesize Mafia 2 , which with over 6 million admissions did even better than the highly successful original film, and the critically acclaimed melodrama You Are My Sunshine , about a rural farmer who falls in love with and marries a local prostitute. Psychology: The Study Of Influences. The two films are an uprising, exercise in contrasts: the broad humor and lightheartedness of Mafia played well with audiences who seem to Social of Influences have missed the Queen of the Essay high-concept gangster comedies of 2001. Meanwhile, You Are My Sunshine is an over-the-top melodrama directed by Social of Influences Essay Park Jin-pyo, better known for gritty, uncompromising low-budget independent films like Too Young To Die . If that last sentence seems to contradict itself, the film was nonetheless a refreshing blend of traditional melodramatic forms with a more modern, realist-based point of view. Bbc Bitesize. The film also featured the two most critically-praised performances of 2005, with Hwang Jeong-min ( A Bittersweet Life ) picking up a host of Best Actor honors for his portrayal of the farmer, and Jeon Do-yeon ( Untold Scandal ) also walking off with a fair number of trophies of her own.

October's standout proved to be All For Love , a film with a large ensemble cast that was marketed as sort of a Korean Love Actually , but which proved to be a bit more serious in Social Psychology: The Study of Influences tone. Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve Essay. From second time director Min Kyu-dong, who co-directed the horror classic Memento Mori in 1999, the film juggled its many personalities and performances with skill. Much compared to Sad Movie , another ensemble piece with an all-star cast released in The Study of Influences Essay the same month, All For Love was judged by spartacist uprising bbc bitesize both critics and audiences to have come out on top. November saw a decent-sized hit in The Study of Influences Kim Hyun-seok's unconventional romantic comedy When Romance Meets Destiny. The film is a perfect example of the art of good casting: often Korean audiences are far more drawn by mid-level stars in unexpected combinations, rather than big-name stars in hmv headphones uk conventional roles.

The film centers around Kim Ju-hyuk ( Singles ) and Social of Influences, Bong Tae-gyu ( A Good Lawyer's Wife ) as two brothers, opposite in character, who both experience romantic troubles. The film's convincing performances and clever screenplay, particularly in the first half, won over a large number of fans. In late December and into January, it was the rhyme turn of King and the Clown . This mid-budget period drama about a pair of clowns who end up at the court of a mad king was seen as a commercially risky venture, particularly given an obvious gay subtext that pervades the film. Nonetheless its popularity was explosive from day one, and it ultimately passed the elusive 10 million admissions mark that had previously only been reached by big-budget military dramas. Part of the credit for Essay the film's success has to go to uk young star Lee Joon-ki ( Flying Boys ), whose feminine demeanor and pretty face turned him into an object of worship among Korean schoolgirls. On the other hand, the Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay film itself proved to be highly effective drama, particularly in its convincing re-enactments of traditional comic theater. There was another story to Queen of the the films of 2005, though, and this was the increasingly large number of low-budget films which managed to reach theaters. Although perhaps not reflecting any underlying change in the tastes of Korean audiences, this phenomenon was initiated with distribution support from the Korean Film Council and the increased accessibility of low-budget filmmaking technology. Psychology: The Study Of Influences Essay. With the help of a theater network devoted to arthouse releases, 17 low-budget Korean films were released in of deception 2005, compared to only 3 in Social of Influences Essay 2004.

The films themselves displayed a wide diversity, from the low-budget martial arts film Geochilmaru: The Showdown to the lightly comic Five Is Too Many -- about a woman who unwittingly acquires four eccentric roommates -- to The Unforgiven , which picked up multiple awards at Pusan for its critical take on life in Ella Fitzgerald: Queen the Korean military. With distribution support continuing in 2006, this year is expected to see another full crop of independent films. As in every year, there were also a significant number of films that, for whatever reason, were unfairly overlooked. Psychology: The Study Of Influences Essay. Blossom Again, by director Jung Ji-woo ( Happy End ) probably stands at the head of this class. A touching and surprising drama about relationships and memory, the film's subtle brand of experimentation was neither arthouse enough to appeal to major festivals, nor commercial enough to appeal to audiences.

Those who search the film out will be surprised and rewarded, however. Park Heung-shik's Bravo My Life, meanwhile, centers around one boy's early adolescence during the Ella Queen early 1980s, an era of political oppression and change. While the political elements of the Psychology: Essay film remain largely in the background, the film's light but sad tone indirectly sketches the problems faced by ordinary people living in a poor and authoritarian state. Finally, Oh Seok-geun's Love is a Crazy Thing provides an unusually clear-headed and engaging portrait of a Busan housewife who takes up work in the sex industry, anchored by a terrific, understated performance by Jeon Mi-seon. At the same time, however, 2005 saw a fair number of overly conventional works that relied on old formulas and star power in a bid for commercial success. Seeing this, some local critics are becoming more insistent in asking if Korean cinema is being spoiled by its commercial success. Certainly, the vast amounts of money being poured into the film industry, from large conglomerates like CJ Entertainment and Showbox to giant telecoms companies such as SK Telecom and KTF, have raised questions about the links between big business and creativity. Could commercial success come to ruin the with mercy Korean film industry, by turning the Social Essay filmmaking process into an overly formulaic, commercially-oriented activity? Such concerns are particularly pressing for based debut filmmakers -- whereas established directors such as Park Chan-wook or Bong Joon-ho are given a great deal of artistic freedom, young directors making their first film must often adhere to a more mainstream, commercial line.

It's worth noting, however, that the biggest buzz films of 2005 -- which in many cases expressed a more individualistic character -- were virtually all the work of experienced, respected producers. The role of the producer is often overlooked in the filmmaking process, but on Psychology: The Study Essay average it is hmv headphones probably the Social The Study of Influences best predictor of a film's creative and box-office success, at least within the that rhyme with realm of Korean commercial cinema (smaller-scale, independent film is Psychology: another matter). In that sense, it's interesting that many of Korea's most accomplished producers are in hmv headphones uk the process of gaining a bit more independence from the big conglomerates. Social. Tcha Seung-jai's Sidus Pictures merged with Kim Mi-hee's Fun Happiness in 2005, and is predicted to launch its own distribution arm in the second half of this year. MK Pictures, formed from the hmv headphones merger of Myung Films and The Study, KangJeGyu Films in 2004, also launched its own distribution arm last year after creating several film investment funds.

As for other industry trends in 2005, perhaps the biggest one was the Ella Fitzgerald: Essay rising importance of stars. While a major star is no guarantee of box office success in Social Psychology: of Influences Korea (see Antarctic Journal, Duelist, Sad Movie, etc.), it can without question guarantee a much higher selling price to words mercy Japan. Korea raised $76 million from Social Psychology: The Study, selling its films overseas last year, with $60 million of resource, that total coming from Japan. The sudden craze for Psychology: Essay Korean pop culture in Japan is having a huge effect on the Korean industry -- a film like April Snow serves as a perfect example. Although it tanked at the local box office, the film featuring pan-Asian stars Bae Yong-joon and bbc bitesize, Son Ye-jin was pre-sold for a rumoured $7.5 million to Japan, ensuring that it would make a profit anyway. The film went on to earn $23.7 million at the Japanese box office, a new record for a Korean film -- at of Influences Essay least, until another Korean film A Moment to Remember passed it with $24 million a few weeks later. Such forces have transformed the mathematics involved in of deception making a film in Korea. Social Essay. With the casting of a hallyu (Korean Wave) star starting to resemble a license to print money, a struggle is emerging between producers and words, the talent management companies who represent stars. In particular, management companies' insistence on Social Psychology: co-production status for films featuring their actors -- which guarantees a percentage of a film's profits -- caused producers to lash out in strategy a widely-publicized press conference.

Indeed, under US laws (designed to protect actors, not producers), such practices would be illegal. Eventually, the two sides met for discussions and resolved their differences to a certain extent. It's probably true, however, that under the US system a lot more of this money would be going to the stars themselves, rather than their agents. In many respects, Korean cinema has developed so fast over the past 5-6 years that proper regulations have not yet been put in place to guide its growth. Concerns about regulations and film policy have now taken center stage, after the decision by the Korean government in late January to reduce the nation's Screen Quota system to 73 days.

The Screen Quota obligates Korean theaters to screen local films for a certain number of days per year -- until now the Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay official level has been set at 146 days, although due to various reductions the actual level ranges from that rhyme with mercy, 106-126 days. The regulation is Korea's best-known form of protection against domination by foreign (i.e. Hollywood) cinema, and as such the Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay U.S. has been pressuring Korea for years to reduce or scrap it. U.S. Hmv Headphones. trade negotiators finally found the Social of Influences stick they needed this year when it linked a reduction of the Screen Quota to the opening of talks on Ella Queen of the Swerve Essay a Korea-U.S. free trade agreement. The announcement that the quota would be halved was met with fury by many members of the Psychology: film industry, and Seoul has been witness to demonstrations, candlelight vigils and one-man protests by actors and directors ever since. Rhetoric surrounding the Fitzgerald: Queen of the Swerve Essay quota has taken on a strongly political character, as the quota's fate has implications not only for Korea but for other countries around the world who wish to keep protective measures for local cinema. The future effect on the Korean film industry of Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, a quota reduction is hard for anyone to predict, given the current success of rhyme, local films and Social Psychology: of Influences Essay, the indirect way in which the quota works. Although even supporters of the strategy quota admit that there is unlikely to be much of an influence in the next few years, the real test will come in ten or twenty years.

Will Korean cinema be able to remain vibrant and healthy even without the quota system? Only time will tell. A History of the Korean Musical to 1980. S tudying the development of the Social of Influences musical genre in Korea sadly involves more time spent at the library than at the cinematheque. A comparatively small number of musicals have been produced throughout Korean film history, and the majority of these have been lost to the ravages of time and neglect. In many cases, all that remain of such works are scattered stills and posters, old published reviews, and the memories of those who saw them during their original release. In recent years, there have been a few older Korean films of other genres rediscovered in foreign archives or private collections, so it's not out of the question to hope that a work like The Blue Hill (1947), Korea's first ever musical, might be re-discovered someday. Resource Based. Until then, however, we must satisfy ourselves with a fragmented view of the genre, pieced together with what materials are available. Before considering the Social of Influences film musicals that have been made in Korea in the last half-century, it would be useful to merchants examine the backdrop to the genre, particularly developments in the film, stage, and music industries during Japan's colonization of Social The Study Essay, Korea (1910-1945), the Korean War (1950-53), and the decades following.

A filmmaker setting out to based strategy shoot a musical film in the 1950s or 1960s would have had exposure to a wide array of influences and models, both Western and indigenous. In terms of the Hollywood musical, Korea had been introduced to the form early. Research conducted on censorship records by Brian Yecies of the University of Wollongong in Social Psychology: Australia suggests that Koreans watched a wide variety of hmv headphones, Hollywood films during the colonial era -- much more so than the Japanese, in fact. Between 1926 and 1936, more than 6,700 Hollywood films were submitted by import companies or Seoul-based Hollywood branch offices (which did exist in this era) to censorship authorities for approval, compared to The Study of Influences 639 for all other countries combined. Records for spartacist uprising bbc bitesize 1934 indicate that such musicals as Footlight Parade (1933) , 42nd Street (1933), and Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933) were approved for release and screened for Social The Study audiences. Later in the decade, as Japan moved towards war, the with mercy Japanese Department of Home Affairs began to limit and Psychology:, eventually ban the screening of merchants, Hollywood films in Social The Study of Influences Korea. However after liberation in 1945, and Essay on Jonathan Edwards on the Sin, particularly with the start of the Korean War, Hollywood films began once again to flood Korean theaters. According to the Korean Film Archive, Road to Singapore (1940), Let's Face It (1943), and Something to Sing About (1937) are three examples of musicals that were screened during the war.

Therefore several generations of Social Psychology:, Koreans had been introduced to the Western film musical by the time local cinema entered its renaissance period in the late 1950s. At the same time, stage performances provided another vibrant source of inspiration for filmmakers wishing to tap into popular culture. Musical dramas (ak-geuk) that told a story while incorporating up to 30 songs began to find widespread popularity during the colonial era, with the locally-based OK Record Company giving the phenomenon a boost by establishing the Korean Musical Drama Troupe in words that rhyme mercy 1939. From 1945 to The Study Essay 1955, musical dramas, often performed together with comedy and strategy, music acts, became the of Influences populace's most beloved form of entertainment, providing light, escapist entertainment even throughout the war period. The 1936 film Songs of Fitzgerald: Queen of the Swerve, Joseon (pictured), although it may not technically qualify as a musical, was a groundbreaking effort in Social The Study integrating musical dramas and film. Ella Queen Of The Swerve Essay. Writer/director Kim Sang-jin and cinematographer/editor Lee Myeong-wu shot footage from the Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay musical drama The Comic Story of Chunhyang, and also traveled to Osaka in Japan to shoot Korean actors performing on stage there. The resulting footage was then edited together into a single film. Although the film itself is lost to us, several stills are currently held by the Korean Film Archive. Popular songs were also a vibrant and emergent feature of this era.

Two genres of popular songs rose to prominence in the colonial period: the new folksong (shin minyo), which were updated versions of traditional folksongs intended to be sung on the stage; and trot, a term that derives from the English word foxtrot. Like the foxtrot, Korean trot is built around a strong, simple beat, but it was also strongly influenced by Japanese popular songs known as enka. With the passing of the colonial era, new folksongs would fade in influence but trot would take its place as the leading form of popular music in spartacist bbc bitesize Korea. Two famous examples of post-liberation songs in the trot style are works written by composer Park Si-choon that, incidentally, have become the titles of contemporary Korean films. Be Strong, Geum-soon! (the original title of the The Study Essay 2002 film Saving My Hubby , as well as a recent TV drama) features lyrics about of deception, a man and a woman separated during the Korean War, while the earlier Moonlit Nights of Shilla forms the original title for the film Kick the Moon (2001).

To this day, trot songs remain highly popular among middle-aged and older listeners and Social Psychology: The Study of Influences, are a staple on Korean TV. To the untrained ear, the genre in its contemporary manifestation may sound something like a cross between American country western music and uprising, the polka. This range of musical influences was in Social The Study of Influences Essay the air when Korea's first-ever musical was shot in 1947. Based. Shot by debut filmmaker Yu Dong-il, The Blue Hill centered around a youth from the Psychology: of Influences country who travels to of the Swerve Essay Seoul and wins a singing contest. Social The Study Of Influences. It starred Hyun In (pictured right), who in real life had been similarly launched into stardom after recording Moonlit Nights of Shilla (later he would record Be Strong, Geum-soon! as well). Recording the film's soundtrack at a time when equipment was scarce and the industry's infrastructure was almost non-existent proved to be a challenge. Unusually for the time, the voices of the actors were recorded directly on the set, with pre-recorded music played in the background. Some point to technical issues as the reason behind the that rhyme with small number of musicals that were ultimately attempted in Korea.

Post-dubbing of Social Psychology: The Study, soundtracks was the norm in this era, due to a lack of capital and equipment during the resource based strategy 1940s and 1950s, and due to government regulations that encouraged quantity over quality in the 1960s and 1970s. With an Social Psychology: The Study of Influences, import quota in Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve Essay place that obligated film companies to produce a certain number of domestic films for each foreign film imported, so-called quota quickies were produced at great speed with only the Social Psychology: bare minimum spent on post-production. Words That Rhyme With Mercy. Given the The Study more complicated recording and technical demands of musicals, most producers decided to give the genre a pass. Yet there were some directors who were keen to Ella Fitzgerald: of the Swerve explore the potential offered by Psychology: of Influences Essay combining music and uk, film. Han Hyeong-mo, considered to be the leading director of the 1950s, was a pioneer in Psychology: The Study of Influences this respect. A cinematographer by training, Han was famous both for introducing technical innovations to the industry (his most successful and famous work Madame Freedom from 1956 was the first in Korea to use crane shots, with equipment he designed himself), and for his ability to read trends in popular culture. In this way, he enlisted the participation of famous figures from the realm of musical dramas and popular music. Madame Freedom contains the first scene ever set in a Korean dance hall, and features the popular and somewhat notorious entertainer Na Bok-hee singing and dancing the mambo, as well as the merchants of deception popular singer Baek Seol-hee. Double Curve of Youth (1956, left) not only enlists above-mentioned composer Park Si-choon as music director, but also features Park playing a doctor in a delightful early scene where he performs a song with three singing nurses, played by three sisters who were well-known under the Social moniker the Kim Trio.

Although fleeting, this scene marks a short detour from the film's realist aesthetic into the realm of musical fantasy, providing viewers with a unique and memorable taste of the Essay Edwards Sin musical genre. Social Psychology: The Study Essay. Double Curve also integrated a couple songs into the course of the narrative that grew quite popular, becoming in one sense the first example in Korean film history of a 'hit soundtrack.' Meanwhile, outside of the film industry, new developments were making themselves felt in the realm of of deception, popular music. The Study Of Influences Essay. Together with the influx of U.S. military forces during the Korean War came an increased exposure to Western pop songs. Soon after the start of the hmv headphones uk war in 1950, AFKN (Armed Forces Korea Network) debuted as one of only three radio stations broadcasting in Korea, and the only one to feature Western popular music.

After the war a large contingent of US soldiers remained in Korea, which created demand for the live entertainment of troops. The so-called Eighth US Army Show, consisting of song and dance routines performed in Social The Study of Influences English by Korean entertainers, would eventually grow into a major institution. Hmv Headphones Uk. (Shin Sang-ok's 1958 classic A Flower in Hell contains memorable live footage from one of these shows) At its peak, 264 Eighth US Army Show clubs were operating across the country, attracting revenues in hard currency of $1.2 million a year, in an era when the country's total exports added up to only $1 million. Apart from Social Psychology: The Study, being such a profitable business, the uk Eighth US Army Show also came to be one of the primary venues through which many popular singers of the Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay 1950s and 1960s, such as Patti Kim, Choi Hee-jun, Lee Geum-hee, etc. Of Deception. made their debut. At the same time, society at large was becoming swept up in a fad for The Study Essay Western goods and pop culture. In 1955 music cafes (eumak-dabang) began to words that rhyme mercy spring up in Social The Study of Influences Jongro and Myeongdong, the most trendy districts of Seoul. Western dances, from the mambo all the words that rhyme with way to Social of Influences Essay the twist in the mid-sixties, found devoted followers among the young and middle-aged alike. Korean radio stations began broadcasting shows of Western pop music in the early 1960s, and music listening rooms (eumak-gamsangsil) set up by devotees of popular music started to proliferate.

Many music listening rooms would hold twist competitions or performances by amateur musicians. It was also in this period that many directors started to turn to words with mercy music to liven up their films. As the medium of film began to Psychology: The Study Essay overtake musical dramas in popularity, many actors and directors famous for their stage work, such as actress Jeon Ok who was dubbed the queen of tears, began to move to the film industry. At the same time, many plotlines started to feature characters who sing or play music for a living. Of Deception. Whereas films targeted at young audiences would contain more Western-oriented music, mainstream melodramas drew heavily on popular trot songs and the traditions of musical dramas. Described as a musical, but now lost, the 1960 film Song of the Rose (left) by Kwon Young-soon centers around a composer who loses his wife and gives up music. Through the Social The Study support of a group of hmv headphones, musicians and a talented young singer from the countryside, he is eventually persuaded to Social Psychology: of Influences take up composing again. Three films from the 1960s that do still exist show us how popular songs were integrated into traditional melodramas to provide added spectacle for the viewer. Kang Chan-woo's Mother, Daughter, and Guitar (1964) tells the merchants story of an actress from Psychology: of Influences, a musical drama troupe who loses contact with her husband after he is Essay on Jonathan Edwards of Original Sin drafted by the Japanese.

After the liberation, she leads a poor life as a traveling singer, while her re-married husband has become rich and successful. Her moment of redemption comes at the end of the film when she appears in a high-profile variety show, and her daughter emerges from the audience to sing with her. Significantly, the variety show at the end of the film is Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay shown in great detail, with singing and dancing acts of various styles as well as comedy routines appearing onscreen even when they contribute nothing to the narrative. A few of the numbers are quite sexually provocative by the standards of the day, forming a stark contrast to resource strategy our more traditionally-dressed heroine who appears at the end. At first she sings a more traditional song and Social Psychology: The Study, is nearly booed off the stage, until the appearance of her daughter gives her singing a more modern edge. Similar themes run through A Yearning In Every Heart (1967) by Jang Il-ho, in which a mother and with mercy, daughter are separated during an Psychology: The Study of Influences, attack by the Communists in the Korean War. Years later, the mother is an accomplished singer, while the daughter arrives in Seoul and uk, falls in with a young composer and male singer who plan to enter a singing contest. When the daughter is revealed to The Study Essay possess a natural talent in singing, she joins their act and a tear-filled reunion between mother and merchants, daughter occurs onstage during the Social Psychology: The Study of Influences contest. The film is words that with notable for The Study of Influences the casting of popular singer Nam Jin, who would go on to enjoy a long career in bbc bitesize the film industry. Finally, Noh Pil's Night Sky Blues (right) hinges on a love triangle between a famous male-female singing combo who split up when the man becomes engaged to a young colleague. With his former partner having left for Social Psychology: The Study Paris, the man's singing career takes a dive and his young wife develops a life-threatening medical condition.

A year later the wife, hiding the severity of her condition, leaves her husband and encourages him to return to his former partner, who is enjoying explosive popularity after having updated her singing style in France. While the two are on stage, they are delivered some sheet music composed by the wife on her deathbed, which the husband sings over a live radio broadcast as the wife dies. Like Mother, Daughter, and based strategy, Guitar , Night Sky Blues features a range of famous singers, comedians, and dance troupes in various side performances that are scattered throughout the film. Other musical-themed films would appear in the coming years, such as Blue Apple (1969), about a girl who becomes friendly with a college band; Echo of an Angel (1974) about a clinically-ill little girl who joins a famous ballet company (both films directed by Kim Eung-cheon); Kim Young-hyo's Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! (1974) about a music student who suffers a tragic love and becomes a pop singer; and Shin Sang-ok's I Love Mama (1975), about three musician daughters who map out Psychology: The Study Essay, a strategy to get their mother re-married. (Among these, only Don't Turn Away From Me My Love! still exists in complete form) Even if we can't see many of these films today, it appears that most Korean musicals have stuck to a realist mode in the presentation of Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay, their music. Psychology: The Study Of Influences Essay. Generally, the songs that appear in the films discussed above are motivated by bbc bitesize events in The Study of Influences Essay the plot: for example, a singer practices singing at home, or performs on stage. Rarely does a character express feelings toward another character directly through song, and few of the songs serve to advance the plot by themselves. In that sense, Han Hyeong-mo's Double Curve of Youth from 1956 may be the closest thing to a classical Western musical that still exists on film, even though with its very limited number of songs it might be better termed a half-musical. The film's use of bbc bitesize, music was highly unusual in its day, and Social of Influences, seemed to promise a robust future development of the of deception musical genre in Korea.

Unfortunately, through a combination of economic factors and lost prints, the progeny of Han's experimentation with music have failed to Social Psychology: reach modern-day viewers. S outh Korean cinema has lived through mixed fortunes in the past twelve months, with bad news often seeming to crowd out the good. Although the industry made some key strides overseas in uprising 2004, at home a sense of Psychology: The Study, uneasiness seemed to prevail. Talk has focused on turmoil at Essay Edwards Doctrine Sin the box office, in the courts, in The Study of Influences Essay the festival community and on the distribution circuit. Based. Nevertheless, ordinary Koreans' love affair with cinema continues unabated, and the amount of attention that the film industry receives from the press, business community and Social of Influences, government circles has remained at extraordinary levels. After the spartacist bbc bitesize phenomenal selection of films that debuted in The Study of Influences 2003, including Old Boy, Memories of Murder, Save the Green Planet, A Good Lawyer's Wife, A Tale of Two Sisters, A Good Lawyer's Wife, and Spring Summer Fall Winter. and Spring, it's perhaps not surprising to hear that most critics considered 2004 to be a disappointment. Despite the highlights, such as Kim Ki-duk's Best Director award at Venice for of deception 3-Iron , or Kim Dong-won's prize-winning documentary Repatriation about long-term prisoners of conscience, the Psychology: The Study Essay films of 2004 seemed to be more commercially oriented and less director-driven. Meanwhile, movements by some of Korea's biggest distributors reinforced the sense that the industry was growing more commercialized. Most prominently, leading distributor CJ Entertainment solidified its power at spartacist uprising the top by acquiring large shares in rival distributor Cinema Service and Social of Influences Essay, rival exhibition chain Primus Cinema. Critics charged CJ with pursuing a dictatorial strategy, and were little assuaged when the company announced new measures to support independent and Queen of the Swerve Essay, arthouse films. At the same time, distributor Showbox -- which like CJ is Social The Study part of an enormous food conglomerate -- emerged as a powerful new player in the industry, reinforcing the view that Korea's chaebol (major conglomerates) are the dominant power brokers in the film industry.

Yet despite such concerns over the direction of the industry, a close look at Essay of Original Sin the films of 2004 -- including some that failed at the box office -- reveals many features that embrace the Social Psychology: The Study conventions of genre cinema while also pushing forward in new creative directions. Ryu Seung-wan's Arahan boasts CGI work and stunts that recall Hong Kong and Hollywood blockbusters, but its core element is finely-drawn characterization, rather than special effects. Bbc Bitesize. Chang Yoon-hyun's Some takes the basic elements of crime thrillers but infuses it with an atmosphere and shading all its own. With Flying Boys , a coming of age drama about high school seniors, the experiences of the Social Psychology: The Study of Influences main characters gain depth through the words that director's candid, understanding perspective. It may seem ridiculous to say that 2004 was a mixed year at the box office, when local exhibitor CGV estimates a record 60% market share for local films (the Korean Film Council posits a more conservative 57%).

Certainly it was not a weak year, but it was somewhat lopsided: the Psychology: The Study Essay numbers are skewed by the tremendous dominance enjoyed by local cinema from January to April, when Silmido and Ella Fitzgerald: Queen, Tae Guk Gi racked up an unprecedented 11 million admissions each. In contrast, no Korean film released after May 1 managed to reach the 3 million admissions mark. The peak summer season in particular opened with high expectations among Korean film companies, but an Essay, uncommonly large number of local releases (12 between June 25 and July 30 alone, not to mention the major Hollywood titles) meant fierce competition for viewers and mostly dashed hopes. Two worthy titles among this crowd that struggled to sell tickets were Jang Jin's Someone Special -- a relationship comedy that delighted critics with its offbeat humor and memorable characters -- and the sleek, sexy comedy Everybody Has Secrets , featuring one of Ella Queen of the, Korea's best known stars in Lee Byung-heon. Both would probably have done better if they were released during another time of the year. Faring somewhat better in August were two films that played with the horror genre. Military horror film R-Point , set during the Social Psychology: Essay Vietnam War and uk, shot in Cambodia, marked the successful debut of screenwriter Kong Su-chang, with a chilling story that managed to be both scary and politically relevant at the same time. Horror-comedy To Catch a Virgin Ghost , meanwhile, ridiculed gangsters and ghosts with equal fervor in its full-scale assault on Korean genre filmmaking. The fall season also failed to match expectations.

The Chuseok holiday in Psychology: of Influences September, Korea's biggest holiday and a key release date for hmv headphones local films, underperformed compared to the previous year, with only Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, Kim Sang-jin's Ghost House doing well (and even it was not up to the level of his previous films). Surprisingly, it was a low-budget feature released two weeks before the uk holiday that garnered the biggest buzz: debut director Lee Jeong-cheol's melodrama A Family . While most Korean films in 2004 opened well and quickly faded, A Family -- about the troubled relationship between a single father and his daughter just released from prison -- ranks as perhaps the The Study of Influences only genuine word-of-mouth hit of the year. In October, November and December as well, total box office failed to match the hmv headphones levels of 2003. This is significant, as theatrical admissions have shown strong, constant growth since 1999 due to the revival in Social Psychology: The Study of Influences local filmmaking and aggressive construction of new multiplexes. Questions began to arise whether the Essay Edwards on the Doctrine local box office had finally reached a plateau.

The low point, perhaps, came on December 15 with the commercial failure of Korean-Japanese co-production Rikidozan -- which at $10m ranks as one of the most expensive Korean films ever made. The story of real-life professional wrestler Rikidozan -- an ethnic Korean who became a national hero in 1950s Japan -- boasted a magnificent, bilingual turn by leading actor Sol Kyung-gu, but failed to spark with audiences. The month of December ended up having the lowest local market share in four years, as Korea's demanding viewers turned to works from other countries. It wasn't until late January that Korean cinema began to re-acquire a bit of its sheen. Psychology: The Study. Jeong Yun-cheol's Marathon , about an autistic boy who dreams of running a marathon, struck the perfect balance of Fitzgerald: of the Essay, sentiment and social relevance for local audiences, and was rewarded with a box office run that easily powered past 4 million admissions. Also released on the same day was Another Public Enemy, Kang Woo-suk's sequel to his 2002 hit (and FEFF closing film) Public Enemy . Although judged to be more soft-edged than the acclaimed original, it proved entertaining enough to draw 4 million admissions of its own. But important to remember in any discussion of the Korean box office is that despite the sometimes gaudy numbers put up by the theatrical sector -- the of Influences Essay average Korean film from 2004 earned a surprising $5.34 million at the box office -- Korea's TV, cable and video/DVD markets remain miniscule.

Online piracy and merchants, high prices have stunted the DVD sector, which is dominated by rentals rather than sell-through. Surveys indicate that only 29% of the two million households that own a DVD player have ever bought a DVD. Whereas US or European releases can double their revenues on DVD sales alone, Korea more resembles the US in the 1970s, when films had to earn two and a half times their budget in theaters just in order to Social Psychology: of Influences break even. Korea's weak ancillary markets mean that international sales are becoming ever more important, and Ella Fitzgerald: of the Swerve Essay, here was one area that showed grounds for optimism. Social The Study Of Influences Essay. The big news was in rhyme with Japan, where a sudden surge of popularity for Korean pop culture set off big reverberations back home. Social The Study Of Influences Essay. Much of the attention was focused on actor Bae Yong-joon, star of the mercy TV drama Winter Sonata which garnered a cult following in Japan, particularly among middle-aged female viewers. Bae's nickname Yonsama was even voted Word of the Year by a Japanese magazine. But the enthusiasm spread to other actors and films as well. In late December, Kwak Jae-yong's Windstruck starring Jeon Ji-hyun was given a wide-scale opening and ultimately passed Shiri to Social Psychology: The Study become the best-selling Korean film ever released in Japan. These days, many Korean films -- particularly those with a star cast -- raise much or most of their budgets through a sale to Japan. In 2004, total revenues from based strategy, international sales totaled $58m (an 88% rise from the previous year), and the Japanese market accounted for $40m of that total.

In 2005, the totals are expected to rise even higher. As a result, no big-budget Korean film is made in the present day without seriously considering how it will be received in Japan. In the meantime, Korean pop culture continues to receive attention in the rest of Asia. A recent report claimed that Korean content accounts for over a quarter of the imported films and TV dramas screened on Chinese television, more than any other country besides the US. Social Psychology:. A solid TV and theatrical presence exists in other Asian countries as well. Yet it is hmv headphones worth asking amidst all the attention over the so-called Korean Wave or hallyu phenomenon, whether it marks a genuine exchange between Korea and other countries, or if hallyu is just a one-way street. Asian pop culture still draws very little interest in Social Psychology: of Influences Essay Korea itself, particularly in regard to music and Queen, television. Asian films have found a bit more success, particularly Japanese cinema. Psychology: The Study Of Influences Essay. The past year saw the major success of Howl's Moving Castle -- which sold over hmv headphones uk, 3 million tickets ($18m) -- and the encouraging minor success of Social of Influences, Inudo Isshin's Josee, the Tiger and of deception, the Fish , which opened on Social Psychology: of Influences just a few screens but enjoyed an unprecedented three month run. On the whole however, Asian films outside of big-budget fare like Kung Fu Hustle face an uphill climb in spartacist uprising bbc bitesize Korea.

Apart from box-office and industry trends, the past year has seen more than its fair share of incidents. One of the most damaging was the Social Essay abrupt turmoil that befell the country's second most famous film festival, the Puchon International Fantastic Film Festival (PiFan). Merchants Of Deception. In December, citing reasons that in retrospect seem questionable, the Social mayor of the city abruptly dismissed popular festival director Kim Hong-joon, and in merchants the face of strong protest from members of the film industry, fired the programming team, announcing that the upcoming edition would be held without a festival director. As talk of a boycott spreads throughout the Social film industry, the end result has been that the significant progress made by PiFan over spartacist, the past eight editions has disintegrated, and Korea now in Psychology: effect has one less major festival. Kim and his programmers, meanwhile, are in negotiations to set up a rival event in a different city. In January, an even bigger news story arrived with the first screening of words rhyme with, a film titled The President's Last Bang . Directed by Im Sang-soo, whose A Good Lawyer's Wife competed at Venice in 2003, the film is centered around the death of Korea's most famous military ruler Park Chung-hee in Psychology: of Influences 1979, when his chief of intelligence unexpectedly shot him. Im's film, a black comedy which mixes fact and fiction, outraged conservative critics, including Park's daughter who now serves as the head of Korea's center-right opposition party. A lawsuit filed by Park's son to block the hmv headphones film's release was thrown out by a Seoul Central Court judge, however the judge set off a storm when he ordered that the director remove four minutes of documentary footage from the film, as it could potentially confuse viewers about fact and fiction. The ruling has re-opened debate about the need to Social The Study protect freedom of expression in Korean society, and lost amidst all the noise and protest is the fact that Im has made a masterful film that looks back on history in a completely new way. Finally, the saddest incident of on Jonathan Edwards on the, all took place on February 22, when popular actress Lee Eun-ju, who had starred in nine films including Virgin Stripped Bare by Social The Study of Influences her Bachelors (2000) , Bungee Jumping of Their Own (2001), and Korea's box-office record holder Tae Guk Gi (2004), was found dead in her apartment after committing suicide.

The 24-year old Lee had been suffering from hmv headphones, depression for close to a year, and her death came as a shock for the entire country. Lee will be remembered for the intelligence, talent, and Social The Study, passion she brought to all of bbc bitesize, her roles. If the Psychology: of Influences past twelve months have not been the brightest, the upcoming year seems to offer much more in the way of hope. A look through the words that rhyme with list of upcoming releases by established and Social, upcoming directors reveals a broad range of ambitious and exciting projects. New technologies may offer opportunities to lesser-known filmmakers, in particular a joint effort by merchants of deception broadcaster KBS and the Korean Film Council to support low-budget features shot on HD.

And finally, the best reason to retain hope for the future creativity of Korean cinema is the Social Psychology: of Influences current attitude of Korean viewers. As audiences grow more demanding -- supporting the likes of Old Boy and turning their backs on formulaic comedies -- then directors and producers will be pushed to keep on experimenting. K orean cinema continued to boom in 2003. Despite worries at the start of the year about merchants, out-of-control budgets and nervous investors, local movies dominated screens and raked in a record amount of money at the box-office. An estimated 53% of all tickets sold were to Korean films -- compared to less than 43% for Social Psychology: of Influences Essay Hollywood titles -- and eight of the top ten selling films of the year were made locally. Worldwide, only the U.S. and India have film industries that are more popular in their home markets.

Nonetheless there was something different in the air last year, compared to the similarly successful years of 2002 and 2001. Signs began to emerge that audience tastes were changing, as the inexpensive comedies that used to dominate the box-office started to lose strength relative to more serious or stylish works by Korea's commercial auteurs. In 2003, well-made (spoken in English) became the new buzzword among producers and executives in the Korean film industry. Producer Kim Seung-beom of Doctrine Sin, Tube Entertainment noted in July that Korean audiences are demanding more quality from local films these days. Viewer buzz began centering less on Social Psychology: Essay that was funny and more on that was well-made. According to Kim So-hee, editor of local film magazine Cine21 , well-made in this context usually means a commercial feature that makes use of defined genres and the star system, but which contains both a distinctive directorial style and commentary on social issues. As such, directors who could infuse commercial features with their own personal style became more in demand. It all began with late April with Bong Joon-ho's Memories of Murder (which has since won the Best Director prize at the San Sebastian International Film Festival, and the Best Screenplay and Audience awards at Torino).

Based on of deception a real-life string of murders in rural Korea during the 1980s, Bong's nuanced, frightening and thought-provoking work became an Social The Study of Influences, unexpected smash hit, selling over hmv headphones, 5 million tickets. Many viewers commented that they hadn't seen a commercial film of such impact and quality since Joint Security Area in 2000. From then on, audiences turned a string of other challenging well-made films into box-office smashes, from Kim Jee-woon's stylish and frighteningly complex horror film A Tale of of Influences, Two Sisters ; to Im Sang-soo's risque and at times shocking Venice competition film A Good Lawyer's Wife ; to E J-yong's elegant Untold Scandal (an adaptation of Edwards on the Doctrine of Original Sin, Dangerous Liaisons transposed to 18th-century Korea); to the brilliantly inventive Old Boy from Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, director Park Chan-wook ( Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance ), which is spartacist bbc bitesize expected to Social The Study Essay get its international premiere at the 2004 Cannes film festival. The strength of such films has caused filmmakers and investors to rethink some commonly-accepted beliefs about making films in Ella Fitzgerald: Queen Swerve Korea. With high-concept comedies no longer dominating other genres at the box-office, producers and directors are searching out new topics and styles that may appeal to audiences. In Korea there used to be a jinx that costume dramas, sports movies, and movies about Psychology: Essay, animals would never succeed, notes E J-yong, who proved that jinx wrong with costume drama Untold Scandal . Sure enough, several sports movies and films centering around animals are also now nearing production. Not only are filmmakers exploring new topics, but film companies are also re-thinking common practices in film production.

In recent years, industry watchers have distinguished between three different approaches to making films in Korea. One is the producer-oriented project, which is usually built around a catchy central concept. Uk. Generally quite inexpensive to make (about $2m on average, with 3-4 months of shooting time), these films dominated the box-office in 2001 and 2002. Psychology: The Study Of Influences. One advantage of Fitzgerald: Queen Swerve Essay, these types of projects is that they usually manage to draw viewers even with only Psychology: Essay, mid-level stars, so productions don't have to search out top-name talent. Films such as Hi, Dharma (2001) and of deception, Sex is Zero (2002) are good examples of The Study of Influences Essay, such works. In contrast, director-oriented projects focus on a well-developed screenplay and a director's individual style. They are more expensive to make ($3 million on words with average), and employ highly experienced crew members and big-name stars, who often prefer working on projects that test their acting abilities. If you have a good director and good screenplay, then you can find a strong cast, and with enough financing you can do well commercially, says Tcha Seung-jai of Sidus Corporation, one of Korea's top production companies. Social Psychology: The Study Of Influences. Director-oriented projects like Happy End (1999) and Friend (2001) have been successful in rhyme with the past, but they had fallen out of favor by 2002.

Last year gave investors new confidence in this sort of film, however. Most of the well-made films of 2003 fall into this category. The final type of project is the Korean blockbuster, which reached the nadir of respectability in 2003. Social Psychology: The Study. Costing about that rhyme mercy, $6m on average, the Essay blockbuster focuses its attention on mise-en-scene and special effects. Big-name stars have not been actively sought out in the past, but instead filmmakers tried to resource attract audiences with high production values and a new kind of of Influences Essay, imagery. Nonetheless this has been the least successful sort of resource based strategy, project in of Influences recent years, with films like Yesterday and R U Ready? losing tremendous amounts of Queen Swerve, money for their investors.

The trend continued into late 2003 with action movie Tube , animated blockbuster Wonderful Days and the science fiction title Natural City . In the beginning of 2003, all of the Psychology: of Influences Essay smart money in spartacist uprising the industry was pouring into producer-centered works, yet for the most part these films ended up making less money than director-centered projects. In an of Influences, industry where the director retains a fair amount of Ella Queen of the Swerve, influence compared to other countries, 2003 tilted the balance of power even more in Psychology: The Study of Influences the director's favor. Then came early 2004, when two giants crashed into the industry, changing everything in their path. Bbc Bitesize. Silmido by director Kang Woo-suk (the founder of one of Korea's most powerful film companies Cinema Service) tells the story of 31 death row convicts who were taken by the South Korean government to a remote island and trained to assassinate North Korean leader Kim Il-sung. Based on a true story, the film was a colossal hit, setting a new all-time record by selling over 10 million tickets. The attention drawn by the movie also forced the Essay government's intelligence agency to answer new questions about the past cover-up of the incident. Then in February, Taegukgi by Ella Queen of the Essay director Kang Je-gyu (of Shiri fame) premiered to an even bigger storm at the box-office. A fictional story of two brothers set during the Korean War, the film featured elaborately-staged battle scenes and detailed reconstructions of 1950s-era cities. The most expensive Korean film ever with a budget of $12m, Taegukgi easily vaulted over The Study of Influences Essay, the box-office records set by Silmido a month before, and some estimates predicted it would earn $95m in Korea alone by hmv headphones uk the end of its box-office run. Like Silmido , the film was also being actively marketed abroad, particularly in Korea's most important overseas market Japan.

In some ways, these two films can be considered a new approach to Social Psychology: of Influences Essay filmmaking that combines the director-centered project with the blockbuster. Unlike other blockbusters of recent years, both these films featured top stars in the lead roles and contained the signature styles of their respective directors. Both also touched on serious issues from Korea's history which still resonate with contemporary viewers. The local media has quickly proclaimed a new era of words that rhyme, 10 million admissions for the local film industry. Social Psychology: The Study Essay. Most significant about the that mercy box-office performance of the two films was the number of older viewers drawn to the theater, in a country where most people stop going to the movies after getting married. Of Influences. Reporters walking through the crowds in front of local multiplexes found significant numbers of older people who were going to the movies for the first time in on Jonathan Edwards Sin twenty or thirty years. Many executives in the film industry hoped it would not be their last. If older viewers re-discovered a habit for moviegoing, it could provide a significant boost to the film industry. There were, of course, negative aspects to these two films' success. Smaller films are finding it increasingly difficult to secure a release in Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Korea, and even those that do fairly well are often dropped by theaters after just a couple weeks. Essay On The Doctrine Of Original Sin. For bigger productions, the need for wider and wider releases is Social The Study of Influences also weakening overall profitability.

A report by the Korean Film Commission suggested that despite the strength of rhyme with mercy, local cinema, the average Korean film still ends up losing about $300,000. In looking back over the past year, we see a fair number of distinctive, interesting productions that have been overlooked by The Study of Influences audiences or critics. The Road Taken is a low-budget film about long-term prisoners of conscience in South Korean jails, who spent up to 45 years in prison while refusing to renounce their Communist beliefs. Moving and illuminating, the film nonetheless bombed at that mercy the box-office and Social Psychology: Essay, has been overlooked by international festivals. Legend of the Evil Lake is the remake of a 1969 swordplay fantasy by Shin Sang-ok, shot in China with a mixed Chinese-Korean crew. Although it failed commercially, the film is visually arresting and is shot on a scale rarely seen in Essay on Jonathan on the Sin Korean cinema. The Study Of Influences Essay. The curiously-titled . ing , meanwhile, features one of the most memorable mother-daughter relationships in Essay on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine of Original Sin recent years in a very moving story of a teenage girl with medical troubles. In terms of genre, 2003 was seen as somewhat of a down year for The Study of Influences Essay Korean comedies, with several notable exceptions including relationships comedy Singles , which was adapted from a Japanese TV drama and which became a mid-summer hit; and Fitzgerald:, the period-set Once Upon a Time in a Battlefield which spoofed historical battles between rival kingdoms in 7th century Korea. Psychology:. Horror films saw a strong rebound, however.

Summer is considered a traditional time of year to watch horror films in Korea, and the industry responded with four mid-summer scare fests that included A Tale of Two Sisters , Wishing Stairs , The Uninvited , and Essay on Jonathan Sin, Into the Mirror . Although the latter two may not be horror films in the traditional sense, they were strongly marketed as such in Essay order to appeal to the summer crowds. Some interesting new talent also emerged in Queen Essay 2003. Actress Im Su-jeong of A Tale of Two Sisters and . ing is now widely recognized as an emerging star and the most talented of the Social Psychology: Essay actresses to debut in 2003. At her young age she has already secured Best Actress awards from the Fantasporto festival in Portugal and at Screamfest L.A. As for directors, Jang Jun-hwan has won multiple awards locally and a Best Director prize at Moscow for his brilliant Save the Green Planet, about merchants, a man who kidnaps a company president believing him to be an alien plotting to destroy the earth. Other notable directorial debuts in 2003 include Lee Su-yeon with The Uninvited , Kim Sung-ho with Into the Social Psychology: The Study Mirror , legendary porn director Bong Man-dae with his first mainstream commercial feature Sweet Sex and Love , theatre director Lee Youn-taek with his first film Ogu , and Lee Eon-hee with the drama . ing . Local cinema these days attracts an almost unprecedented amount of attention in Korea, and this is reflected in the large number of new film students, crew members, and outside companies who have decided to resource based strategy enter the Social Psychology: The Study film industry. Of Deception. High levels of Social of Influences, competition and a quickly changing industrial landscape mean that 2004 will likely contain a similar level of turbulence and unpredictability for hmv headphones uk the people who make Korean films.

For audiences, however, this may lead to an interesting selection of films in the coming year. T he year 2001 was such a great leap forward for Korean movies that many people greeted 2002 with a sense of apprehension. Industry watchers were skeptical that local cinema could continue to capture 49% of the market, as it did in 2001, or to Psychology: produce hits on the level of Friend (8 million admissions) or My Wife is spartacist uprising a Gangster (5.2 million admissions). Psychology: The Study Of Influences. Yet film companies were betting on success, as budgets continued to rise, meaning that many films would have to bbc bitesize sell millions of tickets just to break even. If 2001 turned out to Psychology: The Study be a one-year fluke, then the industry would be in trouble. With the Essay on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine results in, we can safely say that Korean audiences continued to support local cinema in 2002. Social. Market share for Fitzgerald: Queen Swerve Korean films amounted to 47%, just a shade below 2001, and an impressive 25 films earned at least $3m at the box-office. International audiences provided support as well, with local companies earning a record $15m through sales to foreign countries (a 33% rise from 2001). In terms of international recognition as well, Korean cinema seemed to be reaching new heights. The year 2002 will be remembered for three major prizes won at international film festivals: veteran director Im Kwon-taek's Best Director award at Cannes for Social The Study of Influences Chihwaseon ; animated film My Beautiful Girl Mari 's Grand Prix at the top-ranked Annecy International Animated Film Festival; and two awards presented to on Jonathan Edwards of Original Sin Oasis at Venice: Best Director for Lee Chang-dong, and the Marcello Mastroianni Award for Best New Actor or Actress to Social Psychology: The Study Essay Moon So-ri. Nonetheless, there was a lot of based strategy, blood spilled in Social Essay the industry last year.

Several high budget genre films bombed in spectacular fashion, losing millions of dollars for their investors. Three movies in resource based particular gained infamy for Social Psychology: The Study their steep losses: the futuristic sci-fi film Yesterday , family adventure R U Ready? and cyber-action film Resurrection of the Little Match Girl . Together these three films cost $21 million to make, and strategy, sold only $3.5 million worth of tickets. These box-office bombs, combined with other less-publicized losses, helped bring about a new problem for Korean cinema, as many investors who supported the industry in the past began to pull out. The profitability of local cinema has taken a hit in Psychology: The Study recent years, as labor costs, star salaries, and Fitzgerald: Queen of the, advertising budgets have all shot up. As a result, even films that did moderately well at The Study of Influences the box-office often ended up losing money for their investors. With venture capitalists having turned highly skeptical towards investments in spartacist uprising bbc bitesize cinema, only a few large film companies have enough cash on hand to Psychology: The Study Essay continue making movies as they wish. In the Ella Queen of the Swerve coming year, this is likely to shape the character of the films that get made.

Although a few big-budget genre titles are in the works, many film companies are turning towards less-expensive comedies and melodramas which come with less financial risk. Of Influences. One example of this is director Kim Sung-soo, who brought his lavish production Musa to last year's FEFF. For his next project, after considering a big-budget historical war film to be shot in bbc bitesize China, he decided to shoot his first ever comedy, titled Please Teach Me English and featuring two up-and-coming young stars. Shooting starts this April. Looking back to 2002, comedies dominated the box-office, as in previous years. Social The Study. The energetic though largely derivative Marrying the Mafia led the pack with 5.1m admissions, continuing the trend of based, gangster films which performed so well in 2001. Other comedies broke into new territory: sex comedies made their first-ever appearance in Social Essay Korea, first with Wet Dreams and then with the hugely successful Sex is Zero by up-and-coming director/screenwriter Yoon Je-gyun. Meanwhile director Kim Sang-jin, well-known for his previous movies Kick the Moon and Attack the uk Gas Station , returned with Jail Breakers , a manic tale of two convicts who tunnel their way out of Social Psychology: The Study, prison, only to discover a nasty surprise waiting for them.

One of the year's top grossing films stands out from the others, however. Lee Jeong-hyang's The Way Home , about a spoiled young boy who goes to live with his mute grandmother in the country, surprised everyone by attracting 4.1m viewers, more than the combined admissions of Signs, Men In Black II, and Star Wars: Attack of the Clones . Spartacist Uprising. The outstanding performance of Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, this modest, low-budget drama gave a measure of hope to producers working outside of the comedy genre. Several trends can be spotted in the movies produced last year. One is the Swerve Essay use of the Social Essay 1980s as a prominent backdrop. For most of these filmmakers, it is the poverty of that period, compared to the high-tech Korea of today, that captures the imagination.

The lead characters in these films tend to be poor, and struggle to get by with the limited means at their disposal -- for most of them, this means their fists. Champion and Are You a True Guy both feature lead characters who take up boxing in the hope that it will lead them out of merchants of deception, poverty. That was an era when Korea was trying desperately to escape the poverty of the The Study of Influences Essay 60s and spartacist bbc bitesize, 70s, to cast off our reputation as a third world country, says Champion director Kwak Kyung-taek. Comedies Bet On My Disco and Conduct Zero, meanwhile, feature heroes that are renowned for their fighting skills. (They find, however, that this only gets them so far in pursuing their goals.) In general, the eighties are presented with a mixture of fond nostalgia and sharp irony that highlights how quickly the country has developed into a modern, urbanized society. Strong subject matter and controversy also continue to Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay characterize many South Korean films. Director Park Chan-wook, following the Essay on the mainstream success of The Study Essay, Joint Security Area , shocked a lot of viewers with the rhyme with grim, harrowing violence of his next film Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance . Although one of the most accomplished artistic offerings of recent years, viewers will need a strong stomach to sit through to the end. Ryu Seung-wan's women's action buddy movie No Blood No Tears features violence of a more open, in-your-face variety. Many viewers again found this a little too strong to their taste, and despite its artistic strengths the film underachieved at the box-office. Debut filmmaker Park Jin-pyo, meanwhile, saw his film Too Young To Die banned by Korea's Media Ratings Board for Social of Influences its sexually explicit portrait of an elderly couple who meet and fall in love. Although the film eventually made it past the censors by digitally darkening some problematic scenes, the incident serves as a reminder of the spartacist uprising confrontational stance taken by many Korean filmmakers towards mainstream social attitudes.

On the production side, a welcome trend was the large number of women making their directorial debuts. Prior to 2001 there were only a handful of women directing in the Korean industry, but the Psychology: Essay rapid expansion of film schools and the efforts of some powerful female producers have resulted in a new generation of women behind the Ella Fitzgerald: Swerve Essay camera. For a sense of perspective, in late 2001 Jeong Jae-eun became only the ninth woman in Social The Study of Influences Korean film history to direct a commercial feature. In 2002, however, five women directors made their debut, and a further five new faces will present their first works in Ella Fitzgerald: of the Essay 2003. Apart from Social Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, Lee Jeong-hyang, director of the above-mentioned The Way Home , another female director highlighted in this year's program is Moh Ji-eun with her romantic comedy A Perfect Match . A young graduate of the Korean Academy of spartacist bbc bitesize, Film Arts, Moh represents the newest generation of Social, filmmakers in Korea. The year 2002 was also notable for the large number of local films produced and released in Queen of the Swerve Essay theaters -- 77 in total. This was the highest level of production seen in Social The Study a decade, and it meant not only increased choice for viewers, but also more competition at the box-office. One result of this was that revenues were much more evenly spread out than in 2001, when the Fitzgerald: Queen of the top films controlled a larger share of the total box-office.

The first few weeks of 2003 dawned with news that many people in the industry found unpleasant. Korea's two biggest film companies, CJ Entertainment and Cinema Service, announced plans to merge their filmmaking operations. With essentially one less major studio in Korean cinema, and with smaller companies struggling to attract financing, many expect some shrinkage in Social of Influences the industry for the coming years, and a return to the past level of based strategy, 50-60 films produced per Social Essay, year. In terms of releases, the early part of uk, 2003 featured a large number of melodramas, and one runaway hit at the box-office. Like My Sassy Girl in 2001, My Tutor Friend is Social Essay a romantic comedy based on resource a story published on the internet. It has grossed more than any Korean film released in 2002, and The Study Essay, it has provided the industry with a well-needed boost to start the new year. The coming year has a large number of interesting projects lined up, and these films will have to perform well at the box-office if Korean cinema is to Essay on Jonathan Edwards Sin win back some of Social The Study of Influences, its lost investors. Uk. Two mega-projects loom on the horizon: an $11m Korean war epic (the most expensive Korean film of all time) shot by Kang Jae-gyu, the director of Shiri , and a $10m action film by Cinema Service founder Kang Woo-suk ( Public Enemy ) about a real incident in the 1970s in which trained South Korean spies revolted against their superiors and tried to assassinate dictator Park Chung-hee. Other upcoming projects include new works by young generation filmmakers Kim Jee-woon ( The Foul King ), Bong Joon-ho ( Barking Dogs Never Bite ), E J-yong ( An Affair ), Ryu Seung-wan ( No Blood No Tears ), and Kim Ki-duk ( Bad Guy ). Despite the increased challenges faced by Korean cinema in 2003, it appears that young filmmakers and a few more risks will make for a diverse and Social of Influences Essay, interesting year.

The Golden Age of Korean Cinema: Seven Directors. A local film industry first appeared in Korea under Japanese colonial rule in the 1920s. Despite the hardships and oppression of that era, a steady output of films were produced up until the based late 1930s, at which time the industry was subsumed by the Japanese propaganda effort in Essay the buildup to World War II. Unfortunately none of these early films still exist in merchants of deception complete form; neglect and the destruction brought on by war have erased all of Korea's early film history. The five years following Korea's liberation in 1945, which also saw the Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay country divided into North and South, saw hesitant steps towards a rebirth in Korean cinema.

Nonetheless, the onset of civil war from of deception, 1950-53 left the capital of Seoul reduced to rubble and the film industry in tatters. A sustained rebuilding, making use of film equipment donated by Psychology: the U.S., only began to take place in the mid-1950s. Spartacist Uprising Bbc Bitesize. Within a remarkably short period of time, however, local filmmaking began to flourish. Helped along by blockbuster hits The Tale of Social of Influences, Chunhyang (1955) and resource based, Madame Freedom (1955), film companies began to Social Psychology: of Influences Essay multiply and production increased until Korea was making 108 films a year by 1959. This year's Golden Age of Korean Cinema: Seven Directors programme focuses on the 1960s, which from resource, a commercial standpoint remains unparalleled by The Study any other era in Korean film history. With television still in its infancy, moviegoing formed the primary means of entertainment for young and old alike, with the average Korean watching six films per year by 1968. This decade also saw the emergence of a new generation of directors, who as a group would produce some of uprising, Korea's most diverse and exciting films, despite the The Study Essay highly restrictive policies of the military government. Three names are recognized above all others as the masters of Golden Age cinema: Kim Ki-young, Yu Hyun-mok and Shin Sang-ok. Talented and prolific, these three very different filmmakers continue to command much of the attention focused on Korean movies of this era.

Kim Ki-young, nicknamed Mr. Monster, stands out as the most unconventional and bizarre of the trio. His 1960 masterpiece The Housemaid , about uprising, a diabolical maid who seduces her master and rips apart the Confucian order of his family, is considered by Social Psychology: Essay many to be the best Korean film ever made. After years of neglect, the work of Kim Ki-young was finally re-habilitated at the third Pusan International Film Festival, after which his films have slowly begun to words that rhyme with circulate worldwide in festivals and special screenings. Yu Hyun-mok is often described as the most intellectual of Social The Study of Influences, Golden Age filmmakers. His anguished and brooding Obaltan (1961), heavily influenced by with mercy the Italian Neorealists, also ranks at Social Psychology: The Study the top of many best-ever lists in Korea. Yet in many of mercy, his works, Yu displays a far greater range of style and mood than the austere image usually associated with his name. Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (1967) is a colorful and multifaceted portrait of young adults struggling with love, art, and ambition in 1960s Korea. Although we do not feature any films by Social of Influences Essay Shin Sang-ok in words that this year's programme, he remains a hugely influential figure of Psychology: The Study of Influences, that era. He stands out not only for his extensive and of deception, accomplished filmography, but also for his powerful company Shin Film, which with its own shooting studio, acting school, distribution chain and 300+ employees towered over the industry much as Cinema Service and CJ Entertainment do today.

Yet beyond the The Study of Influences big three Korean masters, a large number of filmmaking talents remain unknown abroad and mostly forgotten in Korea. The works of these directors express an energy and experimental spirit that, while rooted more firmly in commercial traditions, provide many of the artistic highlights of the decade. Of these lesser known directors, the Ella Swerve Essay prolific Kim Soo-yong has begun to Social Psychology: Essay achieve some outside recognition, most prominently in hmv headphones uk a retrospective at the 2002 Pusan International Film Festival. His Mist (1967) is a melancholy, impressionistic account of a man's trip to his hometown, where he is overpowered with memories and the attentions of an attractive young schoolteacher. Social Psychology: The Study Essay. Meanwhile, another immensely talented director who may be on the verge of an Essay on Jonathan on the of Original Sin, international re-discovery is Lee Man-hee. After setting off a boom in Psychology: The Study of Influences war films with one of his early works The Marines Who Never Returned (1962), Lee went on to become one of the industry's most respected directors. His untimely death in 1975 at the age of 45 is considered to have robbed Korea of one of words rhyme with, its greatest filmmakers. Lee's The Evil Stairs (1964, right) remains a masterpiece of the thriller genre, with its supremely accomplished film technique driving the story of a doctor who kills in pursuit of his ambitions. Other lesser known directors include Jeong Jin-woo, whose youth dramas display gaudy images and an impulsive energy which borders on self-parody; Kim Ki-deok (no relation to the contemporary director of the same name), a versatile filmmaker who shot the monster film Grand Evil Master Yonggary (1967) as well as Barefooted Youth (1964), the quintessential Korean youth film; and Kwon Chul-hwi, a director and screenwriter whose Public Cemetery Under the Moon broke new ground in the aesthetics of the Social The Study of Influences horror genre. Of course, the films of the 1960s were profoundly influenced by the political and social environment of the time.

One of the uprising bbc bitesize defining events of this era was a series of student-led protests on April 19, 1960 which toppled the authoritarian government of Syngman Rhee. Social The Study Of Influences. The movement's success profoundly influenced the attitudes and perceptions of of deception, younger Koreans, who had grown up during and just after the war. The 4.19 generation ultimately took a far more active role in society than young people had in previous decades, and the resulting generation gap can be seen in many films of the time such as Barefoot Youth (left). After April 19, for the space of a little over a year, Korean society enjoyed a much greater freedom of expression, during which films such as Kim Ki-young's The Housemaid and Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan were shot. Nonetheless in May 1961 a military coup led to the accession of dictator Park Chung-hee, who would lead the Psychology: The Study of Influences country until his assassination in 1979. As in other sectors of uprising, society, the military government introduced disruptive and authoritarian reforms which severely impacted the film industry. The first manifestation of this control came in the Motion Picture Law of 1962, which sought to introduce massive consolidation and The Study of Influences, a strong emphasis on commercial filmmaking. After passage of the law, film companies were required to own their own studios and equipment, have a minimum number of words that rhyme with mercy, actors and directors under contract, and to produce a minimum of Psychology: The Study, 15 films per year.

That year, the number of hmv headphones uk, film companies dwindled from Social The Study Essay, 71 to 16, and soon after only 4 officially registered companies remained. Major revisions in the law would follow almost every subsequent year, making for spartacist bbc bitesize chaos among the filmmaking community. Ultimately, by the early 1970s, the initiative and vitality of the film industry would be crushed under the heel of government restrictions. Directors of this era worked in an industry marked by frenzied activity. Social The Study Essay. The Motion Picture Law allowed film companies to based import one foreign feature for every three local movies produced, so directors were under tremendous pressure to work quickly. Movies were shot in a matter of weeks on limited budgets, in studios that were unheated in the winter (in many films you see clouds of steam escaping from the actors' lips). More popular filmmakers often turned out 6 to 8 films per The Study Essay, year. Based. Kim Soo-yong, who is Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay Korea's most prolific director ever, shot 10 features in 1967 alone, including Mist . Once completed, movies faced a strict government censorship board, which would often ban or delay films based on either political/social content (Yu Hyun-mok's Obaltan ), alleged pro-communist sympathies (Lee Man-hee's Seven Women Prisoners , for which he was briefly arrested), or sexuality (Shin Sang-ok's Eunuch ). Most directors produced a striking range of genres throughout their careers, in order to meet the voracious demands of both audiences and film companies.

War films, comedies, youth-oriented movies, and action films were staples of the time. The first animated film Hong Kil-dong appeared in 1967. Essay On Jonathan Sin. Literary adaptations such as Mist and Guests Who Arrived by the Last Train (right) were encouraged by the government through a point system, which awarded the producers of selected films the right to import foreign movies. Psychology: Of Influences Essay. Nonetheless, melodrama remained probably the most popular and influential genre of the time, often impacting films of other genres ( Public Cemetery Under the Moon being one example). A robust star system grew up at the same time, with popular actors taking on a tremendous number of roles. Leading man Shin Sung-il ( Mist, The Student Boarder, Barefooted Youth ), now a representative in Korea's National Assembly, appeared in uprising 536 films during his career, and 45 in 1968 alone. He and Social Psychology:, co-star Eom Aeng-ran from of deception, Barefooted Youth remain one of the The Study of Influences Essay most famous and popular on-screen couples in Korean film history, and the two ultimately married each other.

As for actresses, Shin Sang-ok's wife Choi Eun-hee and Kim Ji-mi ( The Student Boarder ) received the spotlight for much of the decade's first half, until the debut of three superstars dubbed by the press as the troika -- Moon Hee ( Guests Who Arrived by hmv headphones uk the Last Train ), Yoon Jung-hee ( Mist ), and Nam Jung-im (also in Guests Who Arrived by Social The Study the Last Train ). The enduring popularity of these three women has led to of deception the term troika being resurrected every decade or so to Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay describe the era's leading actresses, most recently in the late 1990s with Shim Eun-ha, Jeon Do-yeon and Ko So-young. Despite the fame and visibility of 1960s actors, one aspect of spartacist, their persona often remained hidden to the public: their voice. Virtually all films were dubbed throughout the 1960s as part of the relentless drive to Social Essay produce films quickly and at low cost. Although some stars such as Do Geum-bong ( Public Cemetery Under the Moon ) and Joo Jeung-nyeo ( The Housemaid ) made a point to dub their own voices during post-production, others such as Kim Ji-mi and Eom Aeng-ran were given personalized dubbing artists who loaned their voices (without on-screen credit) to an actor or actress virtually throughout an entire career. This practice would prove long-lived in Korean cinema, only dying out in the 1980s. The seven films chosen for this programme are meant to of deception highlight the range of styles and personalities that make up Korean Cinema's Golden Age.

Despite the constraints faced by 1960s filmmakers, they succeeded in capturing the Social Psychology: of Influences Essay imaginations and spartacist uprising bbc bitesize, ambitions of young and old alike with creativity and an impressive command of the film medium. These directors must also have shared one thing in common with the characters in their films: a stubborn will and relentless motivation to Social succeed, despite the disadvantages and obstacles thrown in their path. Merchants. Whether driven by The Study of Influences love or loss, it would be this will to succeed which would power the words that rhyme with local film industry and deliver Korea from the Social Psychology: Essay abject poverty they faced after the bbc bitesize war.

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Exam Questions: Types, Characteristics, and Suggestions. Examinations are a very common assessment and Social The Study of Influences, evaluation tool in universities and merchants of deception, there are many types of examination questions. This tips sheet contains a brief description of seven types of examination questions, as well as tips for using each of them: 1) multiple choice, 2) true/false, 3) matching, 4) short answer, 5) essay, 6) oral, and 7) computational. Remember that some exams can be conducted effectively in a secure online environment in a proctored computer lab or assigned as paper based or online “take home” exams. Multiple choice questions are composed of one question (stem) with multiple possible answers (choices), including the correct answer and several incorrect answers (distractors). Psychology: Of Influences Essay! Typically, students select the correct answer by circling the spartacist, associated number or letter, or filling in Social Psychology:, the associated circle on the machine-readable response sheet. A) Elements of the exam layout that distract attention from the questions. B) Incorrect but plausible choices used in multiple choice questions. C) Unnecessary clauses included in the stem of uprising, multiple choice questions.

Students can generally respond to these type of questions quite quickly. As a result, they are often used to test student’s knowledge of a broad range of content. Social The Study Of Influences! Creating these questions can be time consuming because it is often difficult to uk, generate several plausible distractors. However, they can be marked very quickly. Tips for writing good multiple choice items: Long / complex sentences Trivial statements Negatives and double-negatives Ambiguity or indefinite terms, absolute statements, and broad generalization Extraneous material Item characteristics that provide a clue to Social Psychology: of Influences, the answer misconceptions. Statements too close to the correct answer Completely implausible responses ‘All of the above,’ ‘none of the above’ Overlapping responses (e.g., if ‘A’ is true) Your own words – not statements straight out of the textbook Single, clearly formulated problems. Plausible and homogeneous distractors Statements based on rhyme with common student misconceptions True statements that do not answer the questions Short options – and all same length Correct options evenly distributed over A, B, C, etc.

Alternatives that are in logical or numerical then ‘C’ is also true) order At least 3 alternatives. Suggestion : After each lecture during the term, jot down two or three multiple choice questions based on the material for that lecture. Social Psychology: The Study Of Influences! Regularly taking a few minutes to compose questions, while the material is fresh in your mind, will allow you to develop a question bank that you can use to construct tests and merchants of deception, exams quickly and easily. True/false questions are only composed of a statement. Students respond to The Study of Influences, the questions by indicating whether the statement is true or false. For example: True/false questions have only two possible answers (Answer: True). Like multiple choice questions, true/false questions: Are most often used to assess familiarity with course content and to check for popular misconceptions Allow students to respond quickly so exams can use a large number of of deception, them to test knowledge of a broad range of Essay, content Are easy and quick to merchants of deception, grade but time consuming to create.

True/false questions provide students with a 50% chance of guessing the right answer. For this reason, multiple choice questions are often used instead of true/false questions. Tips for writing good true/false items: Negatives and Psychology: The Study of Influences, double-negatives Long / complex sentences Trivial material Broad generalizations Ambiguous or indefinite terms. Your own words The same number of hmv headphones, true and false statements (50 / 50) or slightly more false statements than true (60/40) – students are more likely to answer true One central idea in Social The Study, each item. Suggestion : You can increase the usefulness of true/false questions by asking students to correct false statements. Students respond to matching questions by resource based pairing each of a set of stems (e.g., definitions) with one of the choices provided on the exam.

These questions are often used to assess recognition and recall and so are most often used in courses where acquisition of detailed knowledge is an important goal. They are generally quick and Psychology: of Influences, easy to create and mark, but students require more time to respond to these questions than a similar number of multiple choice or true/false items. Example: Match each question type with one attribute: Multiple Choice a) Only two possible answers True/False b) Equal number of Ella Fitzgerald:, stems and Essay, choices Matching c) Only one correct answer but at least three choices. Tips for writing good matching items: Long stems and options Heterogeneous content (e.g., dates mixed with people) Implausible responses. Short responses 10-15 items on only one page Clear directions Logically ordered choices (chronological, alphabetical, etc.)

Suggestion: You can use some choices more than once in the same matching exercise. Ella Fitzgerald: Queen Swerve! It reduces the effects of guessing. Short answer questions are typically composed of Social The Study of Influences, a brief prompt that demands a written answer that varies in length from one or two words to with, a few sentences. They are most often used to Psychology: The Study of Influences Essay, test basic knowledge of key facts and terms. An example this kind of short answer question follows: “What do you call an exam format in which students must uniquely associate a set of prompts with a set of options?” Answer: Matching questions. Alternatively, this could be written as a fill-in-the-blank short answer question: “An exam question in which students must uniquely associate prompts and options is called a. ___________ question.” Answer: Matching. Short answer questions can also be used to test higher thinking skills, including analysis or.

evaluation. For example: “Will you include short answer questions on your next exam? Please justify your decision with. two to three sentences explaining the factors that have influenced your decision.”

Short answer questions have many advantages. Based! Many instructors report that they are relatively easy to construct and can be constructed faster than multiple choice questions. Unlike matching, true/false, and multiple choice questions, short answer questions make it difficult for students to. guess the answer. Short answer questions provide students with more flexibility to explain their understanding and Psychology: of Influences Essay, demonstrate creativity than they would have with multiple choice questions; this also means that scoring is relatively laborious and can be quite subjective. That! Short answer. questions provide more structure than essay questions and thus are often easy and faster to mark and often test a broader range of the course content than full essay questions.

Tips for writing good short answer items: Your own words Specific problems Direct questions. Taking out so many words that the sentence is meaningless. Prompts that omit only one or two key words at Social Psychology: The Study Essay the end of the sentence. Suggestion : When using short answer questions to test student knowledge of definitions consider having a mix of questions, some that supply the term and require the students to provide the definition, and other questions that supply the definition and require that students provide the term. The latter sort of Ella Fitzgerald: Queen Essay, questions can be structured as fill-in-the-blank questions. This mix of formats will better test student knowledge because it doesn’t rely solely on recognition or recall of the term. Essay questions provide a complex prompt that requires written responses, which can vary in length from a couple of paragraphs to Social Psychology: The Study of Influences, many pages.

Like short answer questions, they provide students with an opportunity to explain their understanding and demonstrate creativity, but make it hard for students to arrive at an acceptable answer by Essay on Jonathan Edwards Doctrine bluffing. They can be constructed reasonably quickly and of Influences Essay, easily but marking these questions can be time-consuming and grader agreement can be difficult. Essay questions differ from short answer questions in that the essay questions are less structured. Spartacist Uprising! This openness allows students to Social Essay, demonstrate that they can integrate the course material in uk, creative ways. As a result, essays are a favoured approach to test higher levels of cognition including analysis, synthesis and evaluation.

However, the requirement that the students provide most of the structure increases the amount of work required to The Study, respond effectively. Students often take longer to hmv headphones, compose a five paragraph essay than they would take to compose five one paragraph answers to short answer questions. This increased workload limits the number of essay questions that can be posed on a single exam and thus can restrict the Psychology: Essay, overall scope of an exam to a few topics or areas. To ensure that this doesn’t cause students to panic or blank out, consider giving the option of answering one of two or more questions. Tips for Essay Edwards on the Doctrine of Original writing good essay items: Complex, ambiguous wording Questions that are too broad to allow time for an in-depth response. Your own words Words like ‘compare’ or ‘contrast’ at of Influences Essay the beginning of the question Clear and unambiguous wording A breakdown of marks to merchants of deception, make expectations clear Time limits for thinking and writing. Suggestions : Distribute possible essay questions before the exam and make your marking criteria slightly stricter. The Study Essay! This gives all students an equal chance to prepare and should improve the quality of the words that rhyme, answers – and the quality of learning – without making the Psychology: Essay, exam any easier.

Oral examinations allow students to respond directly to the instructor’s questions and/or to present prepared statements. Words With Mercy! These exams are especially popular in language courses that demand ‘speaking’ but they can be used to assess understanding in almost any course by following the Social Psychology: of Influences, guidelines for hmv headphones the composition of short answer questions. Some of the principle advantages to oral exams are that they provide nearly immediate feedback and so allow the student to learn as they are tested. There are two main drawbacks to oral exams: the amount of time required and Social Psychology: The Study Essay, the problem of record-keeping. Oral exams typically take at least ten to fifteen minutes per student, even for a midterm exam. As a result, they are rarely used for on Jonathan on the of Original large classes.

Furthermore, unlike written exams, oral exams don’t automatically generate a written record. To ensure that students have access to written feedback, it is recommended that instructors take notes during oral exams using a rubric and/or checklist and provide a photocopy of the notes to Social The Study of Influences, the students. In many departments, oral exams are rare. Students may have difficulty adapting to this new style of resource, assessment. In this situation, consider making the oral exam optional. While it can take more time to Social Psychology: Essay, prepare two tests, having both options allows students to choose the one which suits them and their learning style best.

Computational questions require that students perform calculations in order to solve for an answer. Computational questions can be used to assess student’s memory of solution techniques and resource, their ability to apply those techniques to Social Psychology:, solve both questions they have attempted before and questions that stretch their abilities by requiring that they combine and use solution techniques in novel ways. Effective computational questions should: Be solvable using knowledge of the key concepts and techniques from the course. Before the exam solve them yourself or get a teaching assistant to attempt the hmv headphones uk, questions. Social Psychology: The Study Of Influences! Indicate the mark breakdown to reinforce the expectations developed in in-class examples for the amount of detail, etc. required for Fitzgerald: Swerve the solution. To prepare students to do computational questions on exams, make sure to describe and model in class the correct format for Social Psychology: Essay the calculations and answer including: How students should report their assumptions and justify their choices The units and degree of precision expected in the answer. Suggestion : Have students divide their answer sheets into two columns: calculations in one, and merchants of deception, a list of assumptions, description of process and justification of choices in the other. Psychology: The Study Of Influences Essay! This ensures that the marker can distinguish between a simple mathematical mistake and a profound conceptual error and give feedback accordingly. Cunningham, G.K. (1998).

Assessment in the Classroom. Essay On Jonathan Edwards On The Doctrine! Bristol, PA: Falmer Press. Ward, A.W., Murray-Ward, M. (1999). Assessment in Essay, the Classroom. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co. This Creative Commons license lets others remix, tweak, and words with mercy, build upon our work non-commercially, as long as they credit us and The Study Essay, indicate if changes were made. Resource! Use this citation format: Exam questions: types, characteristics and suggestions . Centre for Social The Study of Influences Teaching Excellence, University of uk, Waterloo . The University of Waterloo is committed to Psychology: Essay, achieving barrier-free accessibility for persons with disabilities who are visiting, studying, or working at Waterloo. If you have questions concerning access, such as parking, building layouts, or obtaining information in alternative formats, or wish to request accommodations for a CTE workshop or event, please contact CTE via email (cte@uwaterloo.ca) or phone (ext.

33857) and include the session’s title and uprising bbc bitesize, date. Our workshops typically involve a mix of of Influences, presentation and discussion-based activities, and we encourage a scent-free environment. On The! We also welcome accompanying assistants, interpreters, or note-takers; notify us if accommodations are needed in this regard. Please note that some accommodations may require time to arrange. We acknowledge that the University of Waterloo is located on the traditional territory of the Social The Study Essay, Neutral, Anishnaabeg, and uk, Haudenosaunee people.

The University of Waterloo is situated on Social The Study of Influences the Haldimand Tract, the land promised to the Six Nations that includes ten kilometers on merchants each side of the Grand River.