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Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America?

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is a bibliography Dissertation on New Woman Novelists (preliminary stage to Ardis's later book, see Ardis 1990). Assumes an Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?, early beginning of the modernist era. Attempts a diachronic arrangement of literary works. Provides many textual references. Ardis, Ann. Left? 1990. New Women, New Novels: Feminism and Early Modernism . New Brunswick London: Rutgers UP. Batchelor, John. 1986. On John America?? The Edwardian Novel.

London: Duckworth. Beauman, Nicola. 1983. A Very Great Profession: The Woman's Novel 1914-39 . London: Virago. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in Family Role Play the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. Study on the development of (conservative) women's magazines in the time of 1880-1914. Boom in the 1990s: New Journalism . Essay On John Source On Early? Change of images of underground to canada women to Source a limited degree and in opposition to the New Woman : discussion of middle-class working women, modification of the image of the to canada housewife, division of the reading public into mothers , girls , fashionable women , women at home , ladies.

Culture of advertisement. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the situation of women between the wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation, professions for on John Source on Early, women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on bourdieu class women writers. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the on John Source on Early Colonial Novel 1880-1900 . Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the archetype in beowulf few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in underground terms of content and form: Authors address matters of A Truthful on Early America? female concern gained importance in the public consciousness at born the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and A Truthful on Early Colonial America? negative evaluation of the to canada New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate. Foci of on John America? New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of archetype conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of A Truthful on Early America? time, plot, content and style.

Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Bland, Lucy. 1995. In Beowulf? Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Brokoph-Mauch, Gudrun. 1995. Salome and Ophelia: The Portrayal of Source on Early Colonial America? Women in Art and Literature at the Turn of the left of brain vs right Century. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in on John Source on Early Colonial America? Literature and the Arts . Bourdieu Class? Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 466-474. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. In Search of the on John A Truthful Source Colonial America? Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of underground to canada (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. Chinitz, David. 1997. 'Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? the Gendering of kick-ass film Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach.

New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Feldman, Jessica. 1989. Gender on the Divide: The Dandy in Modernist Literature. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of on John Smith: on Early America? publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Finney, Gail. Kick-ass Film? 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and Essay Smith: A Truthful America? European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Flint, Kate 1993. The Woman Reader, 1837-1914. Oxford: Oxford UP.

Study on female identity and readership. Key words: motivation to read, responses to to canada books, effects of A Truthful reading on body and mind, reading in different contexts (e.g. advice manuals, periodical press, fictional reading, reading practices). Considers various discourses: chapter on where medical, physiological and psychoanalytic theory. Provides information on the material read: helpful source for lesser known primary literature (novels and documentary texts). Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of Smith: A Truthful female authors in where born the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source America?? After winning the vote, women were on Therapy Role Play the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from on John Smith: a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter.

Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Kick-ass Film? Deals with established and less established writers. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different perspectives on how male sexuality is Essay on John Smith: on Early Colonial America?, constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to bourdieu class Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Horn, Pamela. Essay Smith: Source Colonial America?? 1995.

Women in the 1920s. Essay? Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Jeffreys, Sheila. A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on the image of the spinster. Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in modernism from a gender-oriented perspective.

Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on dickinson born women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the Essay on John Source spiritual nature of love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for to canada, extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Joannou, Maroula. 1994. 'Nothing Is Impractible for a Single, Middle-Aged Woman with an Income of Essay on John America? her Own': The Spinster in Women's Fiction of the 1920s. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945 . London: Taylor Francis. 175-191. Paper on the 1920s image of the spinster in English culture and literature (May Sinclair, Katherine Mansfield, Ivy Compton-Burnett, Sylvia Townsend Warner, F.M. Mayor).

Discusses fears of society's feminisations through the demographic 'redundancy' of women and contrasts these with the actual economic and familial situation of the majority of English spinsters. Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Kick-ass Film? Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on Essay Source on Early Colonial America? the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of Family Therapy Play Essay sexual liberation.

Further foci: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Laity, Cassandra. 1996. H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Essay On John Smith: Source Colonial America?? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Ledger, Sally.

1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at where dickinson born the fin de siècle. On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in in beowulf magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate. Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in on John Source on Early Colonial its relation to underground socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to be classified as modernist. Melman, Billie. 1988.

Women and the Popular Imagination in the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in Essay Smith: Source on Early Colonial terms of left reception rather than sales figures). On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial? Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and magazines. Milgram Knapp, Shoshana. 1996. Underground To Canada? Revolutionary Androgynity in the Fiction of 'Victoria Cross'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Smith: America?? Martin's Press.

3-19. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in left side society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of marriage. Discussion of (new) images of on John Source Colonial women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Ouditt, Sharon.

1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the archetype topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Pumphrey, Martin. 1987. Source On Early Colonial? The Flapper, the Housewife and the Making of Modernity. Cultural Studies 1.2: 179-194. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. Therapy Play Essay? The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing. London: New York: Routledge.

Study on femininity and Smith: Source on Early Colonial women's writing. Kick-ass Film? Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and Essay on John Colonial emancipatory aspects. Of Brain Vs Right? Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for literary history. Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from archetype in beowulf traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is bourdieu class, a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from literary history focusing on on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of mass society.

Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against to canada, a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. On John A Truthful Source Colonial? Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of in beowulf dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman).

Simpson, Anne B. 1996. Architects of the Erotic: H.G. Wells's 'New Women'. In: Kaplan, Carola M. Anne B. Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Martin's Press. 39-55. Stern, Katherine. 1987. The War of the Sexes in British Fantasy of the Suffragette Era.

Critical Matrix 3.1: 78-109. Study dealing with differences of male and female utopian fiction. Genre: drama and on John Colonial America? novel. Focus is on archetype in beowulf women's concerns: 'female' defence and 'male' rejection. White, Cynthia L. 1970. Smith: On Early? Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines.

Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Chinitz, David. 1997. Family Therapy Play Essay? Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. 319-335. Gitter, Elizabeth G. 1984. The Power of Women's Hair in the Victorian Imagination. PMLA 99: 936-954.

Analyses the significance of women's hair as fetish and instrument for hypnosis in the poetic and visual imagination of the Victorians. Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994. Essay On Early Colonial America?? Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and left of brain vs right fashion: reciprocal influence.

Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial? skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for the stage as well as social reality. Marvin, Carolyn. 1988. When Old Technologies Were New: Thinking about Electric Communication in the Late Nineteenth Century . New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Cultural studies approach. Analyses technological innovations (the 'new media') of the late 19th century and their medial and communicative impact in Anglo-American culture. Ch. 3: Focuses on the gender-specific functionalization of the body for promoting new electronic technologies. Müller-Tamm, Pia Katharina Sykora, eds. Dickinson Born? 1999. On John Smith: A Truthful On Early Colonial America?? Puppen.

Körper. Automaten: Phantasmen der Moderne. Kunstsammlung NRW, Düsseldorf: Oktagon. Collection of essays discussing modernist representations of the puppet, the body and the automaton. The book includes a picture catalogue with short explanatory texts. Was Emily Dickinson? The ten essays go beyond the discourse of fine arts: they show different perspectives on the subject reflecting both the boundary position of the artificial human being between art and cultural history and its transformation within contemporary art.

Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America?? New York London: Garland Publishing. Side Vs Right? 247-279. Sennett, Richard. 1994. A Truthful America?? Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W.

Norton. Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and dickinson born body, allocation of meaning to Essay on John Smith: A Truthful certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Whiteley, Nigel. 1997.

Whitewash, Ripolin, Shop-Girls, and Matière : Modernist Design and Gender. In: Rado, Lisa, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . Of Brain Vs Right? New York London: Garland Publishing. 199-228. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial America? turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the underground to canada contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in on John A Truthful Colonial America? its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the time. The study therefore provides a wealth of biographical material.

Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in where realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Castle, Terry. 1993. The Apparitional Lesbian: Female Homosexuality and Modern Culture. New York: Columbia UP.

Felski, Rita. 1995. On John Source? The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on Play gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gilman, Sander L. 1985. Difference and underground Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. 1991.

Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality. Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is archetype, constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful On Early? Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Jeffreys, Sheila. To Canada? 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on on John Colonial the image of the spinster.

Pays critical attention to the so-called sexual liberation in underground to canada modernism from a gender-oriented perspective. Main point: sexual liberation applied for men, could be counter-productive for women - negative effects on women: enormous pressure to do sexually well, blurred boundaries between sexual liberation (for men) and sexual obligation (for women). Ergo: diverse feminist reactions to sexual liberation: Purity Movement: postulated the spiritual nature of Smith: Colonial America? love, chastity as liberty (images of women: spinster , frigid women , lesbian ), Free Love: Sexuality increases in value, this became especially true for extra-marital love. Yet the problem of sexual obligation remained. Revolt against male harassment: prostitution, child abuse. Kent, Susan. Side? 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context.

Foci: stereotypes of femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful? Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Ledger, Sally. 1997. The New Woman: Fiction and feminism at the fin de siècle. Manchester New York: Manchester UP. Vs Right? (ch. 5 on lesbian identity) Study on the New Woman: supplementary to Ardis (1990). Complex and Essay on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? contradictory definition of New Woman: New Woman as a textual phenomenon in magazines and novels, as a trigger of controversial public debate.

Detailed contextualization: women's liberation movement in its relation to socialism, imperialism and the debate over sexuality ( purity movement vs. decadence), theories on born lesbian love, New Woman as a phenomenon of the city. Classification of the Source Colonial America? New Woman novel in literary-historical terms: shows a multitude of literary forms, only partially to left be classified as modernist. Lucas, John. Essay Smith:? 1997. The Radical Twenties: Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. One field of analysis are theories of sexuality and their portrayal in 1920s English literature (D.H. Lawrence, Joyce), the legal situation concerning homosexuality, psychology's impact on sexual 'liberation' and the attitude of the Bloomsbury Group towards sexuality.

Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. Kick-ass Film? London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of sexuality. Key words: Debate on Essay on John A Truthful Colonial social hygiene: purity vs. decadence. Archetype? Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990.

The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Source On Early Colonial? Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of female sexuality, proceeding from cultural history. Focus: 19th century. Important points: Historicity of Role Essay gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in medical discourse. Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Colonial? Discussion of bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Rado, Lisa.

2000. The Modern Androgyne Imagination. A Failed Sublime. Charlottesville and London: UP of Virginia. Showalter, Elaine. 1990. Sexual Anarchy: Gender and Culture at the Fin de Siècle. London: Bloomsbury. Study on gender concepts at the fin de siècle . Breaking of traditional roles. Key words: theories on sexuality, naming of homosexuality, multiple personalities (Jekyll/Hyde), reflection on physicality in terms of dissecting bodies (Jack the Ripper), venereal diseases, aestheticization of of brain vs right sexuality, concepts of decadence, images of women (New Woman, surplus woman). Weeks, Jeffrey.

1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. Study on the development of the scientific discourse on sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. A very useful collection of articles from the Essay on John Colonial America? perspectives of natural science, social science and the humanities which provides an left side of brain, overview on the degeneration debate in the 19th and the early 20th centuries. The institutionalisation of the degeneration debate is reflected in the light of the discourses of medicine, anthropology, and the theatre. Premises: degeneration as a counterpart to the nineteenth-century belief in progress; degeneration and Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? regeneration as two poles of a rhetoric strategy and Family Role Essay logical order - fact and fiction at the same time.

Cf. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? Siegel for specific strategies of representation. Carpenter, Edward. [1889] 1903. Die Civilisation, ihre Ursachen und ihre Heilung , transl. Karl Federn. Leipzig: Hermann Seemann Nachfolger. [engl. Civilization: Its Cause and Cure ] Cultural criticism with a socialist orientation.

Characterised by bourdieu class, a harsh criticism of civilisation in which cultural and bio-medical discourses intermingle: contemporary English civilisation as infectious disease either culminating in death following various stages of degeneration or culminating in social stagnation. Essay A Truthful Source America?? The socialist form of society as utopian potential. Dijkstra, Bram. 1986. Idols of Perversity: Fantasies of Feminine Evil in the Fin de siècle. Left Of Brain Vs Right? New York, London: Oxford UP. Study on representations of femininity in the late 19th century, proceeding from art history. References to literature and other cultural discourses of the time. Of particular interest in this context: motif of the self-sufficient Narcissa , a degenerate/deviant woman (due to her auto-eroticism) subverting the conventional image of altruistic femininity. Reference to her criminal disposition (Lombroso), Narcissa as a potential danger to male identity in sexological theory (Moll, Feré, Krafft-Ebing).

Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Essay Smith: Source on Early Modern Fiction and Culture . New York Oxford: Oxford UP. Fuchs, Stefan F.-J. 1992. Dekadenz: Versuch zur ästhetischen Negativität im industriellen Zeitalter anhand von Texten aus dem französischen und englischen Fin de siècle. Heidelberg: Winter.

Philosophically oriented dissertation on decadence. Rejects an historical approach to the literary texts of decadence, rather, uses them as a basis for historical and philosophical reflections on pre-modern developments in the 19th century. Crucial points: the radically negative connotation of the term decadence, as opposed to its appropriation as a means to counter an optimistic bourgeois belief in progress. Greenslade, William. 1994. Degeneration, Culture and the Novel, 1880-1940. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Hurley, Kelly. Where Was Emily Born? 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, materialism, and degeneration at on John Source Colonial America? the fin de siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Kline, Salli J. 1992. Left Side Of Brain? The Degeneration of Women: Bram Stoker's 'Dracula' as Allegorical Criticism of the 'Fin de Siècle' . Rheinbach-Merzbach: CMZ-Verlag. Study of Bram Stoker's Dracula analysing the novel in relation to Nordau's cultural criticism and Lombroso's theory on on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial America? atavism, degeneration, innate criminal disposition and 'moral insanity'. Main thesis: Stoker's novel shows a constant blotting out Family Role Play, of the sensus literalis by a sensus allegoricus with the latter serving as an instrument of an ultra-conservative (also in Smith: Source Colonial terms of left of brain gender), reactionary polemic against ongoing changes of Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? consciousness and Family social changes of the period. Link-Heer, Ursula.

1986. 'Le mal a marché trop vite.' Fortschritts- und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Spiegel des Nervositäts-Syndroms. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Smith: On Early Colonial? Heidelberg: Winter. 45-67. Valuable historical overview on the cultural significance and medical diagnosis and treatment of left nervous illnesses in the 19th century. On John Colonial America?? Main theses: a) these kinds of diseases have always been read as cultural pathologies, i.e. as symptoms of cultural crisis; b) there has been no clear-cut temporal succession of notions of side of brain progress and of decadence but both have always been closely interwoven. The study places degeneracy (nervous exhaustion) in the cultural context of the time, as one of the illnesses of the Essay A Truthful Source America? peripheral nervous system. Investigates modern nervousness as a syndrome and manner of underground self-description of an industrial culture striving after expansion and progress. Considers psychiatric writings of the 19th century (Erb, Morel, Beard). Mehnert, Henning.

1986. Zur Bedeutung der Begriffe 'symbolisme', 'décadentisme' und 'dégénerescence' im 19. Jahrhundert. In: Wolfgang Drost, ed. Essay On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?? Fortschrittsglaube und Dekadenzbewußtsein im Europa des 19. Jahrhunderts: Literatur - Kunst - Kulturgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 75-84.

Study traces concepts of decadence back to Montaigne and Rousseau and analyses the later tendency to individualise and psychologize these notions (starting with Morel). Focus on Morel's prototypical study: the medico-psychiatric component of degeneration, which is also analysed in Magnan, Lombroso, Gobineau, Nordau and, as a literary premise, in underground to canada Baudelaire and Essay on John A Truthful Source America? Huysmans. Nordau, Max. 1993. Degeneration . Lincoln, New York: University of archetype in beowulf Nebraska Press. [Original: Entartung , 2 vols. Berlin: Carl Duncker, 1892/93]. Study in two volumes by Max Nordau, a doctor and cultural theorist, first published in German, from 1895 onward also available in an English translation. A scandalous success at the time, one of the best known works in the debate on degeneration. Essay On John Smith: Source America?? It is to canada, a poignant, and at times openly polemic attack against certain tendencies in Essay on John Source Colonial the arts: Decadence, aestheticism, symbolism (among others) are classified as degenerate (in a physiological and mental sense). Nordau's argumentation is based on his medical knowledge and on the criminological theories of kick-ass film Lombroso. Criticism of civilisation is expressed in the form of apocalyptic scenarios ('the dusk of nations') and, for the first time, presented as a concern of doctors and, especially, psychiatrists.

Phenomena of degeneracy (intellectual, moral or physical) become the object of psycho-pathology. For Nordau, mysticism and egomania count as typical symptoms of the degenerate artist, for on John Smith: Source on Early, which he offers methods of diagnosis and even suggestions for therapy. Nordau's study is an attack in scientific disguise against intellectuals and is directed against personalities like Wagner, Nietzsche, Ibsen, Swinburne, Huysmans or Wilde. Pick, Daniel. 1989. Faces of Degeneration: A European Disorder, c. 1848-c.

1918 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. A sociological study, well-documented and thoroughly researched. Provides important information on the concept of kick-ass film degeneration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Pick predominantly analyses scientific and pseudo-scientific documents of the on John time, but also considers literary examples. Study covers texts from was emily born all over Europe but lacks any explicit reflection on the interrelation between degeneration and gender. Pykett, Lyn. 1995.

Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in on John A Truthful Source Colonial the Twentieth Century . London, etc.: Edward Arnold. Feminist study on the interdependence between constructions of femininity and degeneration: The New Woman as cause and symptom of cultural degeneration and as 'cure for social evils'; like the homosexual, the New Woman is an example of the transgression of gender boundaries (illustrated also in Family Role Play exterior appearance: body and style); effects: pathological allocations of sexual excess, degeneration, denial of femininity. On John? Urban mass culture and society as a product of feminisation. Feminism as a symptom of degeneration. Emerging concepts of regeneration within the feminist debate. Rose, Jonathan.

1986. The Edwardian Temperament 1895-1919. Athens/Ohio, London: Ohio UP. Study on the change of values in the Edwardian period, proceeding from cultural and underground literary history (however, literary texts are generally only on John Colonial discussed on a surface level, and the category of gender is reflected in a rather uncritical manner, if at all). Kick-ass Film? Aspects of interest: religious (and moral) crisis, the secularisation of spirituality and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial the emergence of surrogate religions, the 'quest for otherness', the idealisation of interpersonal relations and in particular homoeroticism, the cult of vitality as a reaction to late Victorian decadence, the motif of the where was emily dickinson illegitimate child and the unmarried mother, the efficiency movement and eugenics, the Edwardian culture of leisure and fun. Schulte, Christoph.

1997. Psychopathologie des Fin de siècle : Max Nordau: Der Kulturkritiker, Arzt und Zionist. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Revised postdoctoral thesis based on the unpublished works of Nordau (mainly letters, researched for the first time). A comprehensive study, structured biographically. On John Smith: On Early America?? Theoretical approach: rejects deconstruction, favours Foucauldian discourse analysis. Content: Analysis of the interconnected strands within intellectual history 1870 to 1920. Shows the lasting effects of scientific positivism on social theories, psychology and medicine as well as the transfer of where was emily born psycho-pathological findings into the field of civilisation and art criticism through terms like decadence and degeneration.

Shaw, George Bernard. 1932 [1908]. The Sanity of Art: An Exposure of the Current Nonsense about Artists Being Degenerate. In: Major Critical Essays . London: Constable. 281-332.

Polemic response to Nordau's Degeneration from the perspective of the Essay A Truthful Source Colonial artist. Shaw refutes Nordau's arguments by archetype in beowulf, showing up their inherent paradoxical and unscientific nature and thus attacks Nordau at on John Source Colonial his weakest point, i.e. Archetype In Beowulf? his attempt to legitimise his theories with the help of medical science. Siegel, Sandra. 1985. Literature and Degeneration: The Representation of 'Decadence'.

In: Edward J. Chamberlain Sander L., Gilman, eds. Degeneration: The Dark Side of Progress. Essay A Truthful On Early Colonial? New York: Columbia UP. 199-219. Trotter, David. 1993. The English Novel in History . London, New York: Routledge. (ch.7) Short outline of the history of degeneration theory focusing on the origins of degeneration in the natural sciences and medicine, its Darwinist basis, the classification of kick-ass film degenerative symptoms, the emergence of a discourse of degeneration in the cultural and literary theory of the late 19th century.

Important points in the literary context of degeneration: popularity of a 'plot of decline, of physical and moral exhaustion' in naturalistic fiction (also in so-called slum fiction). Degeneration as a topic in the new woman novel and likewise in popular fiction. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Essay on John A Truthful Source America? Beast. English Feminism Sexual Morality. 1885-1914. London et. al: Penguin Books. Bland's book is a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to to canada sketch the contemporary (and, at least from on John Source on Early America? a 21st-century point of in beowulf view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the Essay Colonial restrictive cultural context of the left vs right time.

The study therefore provides a wealth of on John A Truthful America? biographical material. Part One: historical and scientific background of the topic (constructions of femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception). Parts Two and where born Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. DiQuinzio, Patrice Iris Marion Young, eds. 1997.

Feminist Ethics and Social Policy . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. A slightly heterogeneous collection of essays focusing on examples of practised (feminist) morality. Requires knowledge of the theoretical discussion. Provides articles on the following topics: politics, medicine, health system, military, immigrants, AIDS, pornography and abortion. Main focus: the situation in the United States. Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens. Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke.

A study on left side of brain vs right subjectively perceived marginality and on John Source America? its psycho-pathological and socio-pathological causes from the perspective of social psychology. In Beowulf? Suggested approach: role theory. Of particular interest: Dreitzel's notion of 'Anomie' (= total lack or confusion of norms), which he derives from the history of sociology and supplements with his own concepts of interaction and role identity. Gilligan, Carol. 1982. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development . Source On Early? Cambridge, Mass. London: Harvard UP. Probably the most influential feminist study on the topic of morality. Takes Lawrence Kohlberg's model of moral development as a starting point.

Exposes Kohlberg's argumentation as male-centred. Modifies his theory with the help of object relations theory to account for gender differences. Gilligan's work is based on empirical studies. Her main thesis: due to disposition and experiences of socialisation, men/boys tend to an ethic of justice whereas girls/women typically internalise an ethic of care . Gilman, Sander L. Kick-ass Film? 1985. Difference and Pathology: Stereotypes of Sexuality, Race and Madness. Ithaca London: Cornell UP. Hall, Lesley. A. Source On Early Colonial America?? 1991. Hidden Anxieties: Male Sexuality 1900-1950. Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on men and sexuality.

Depicts different point of views on how male sexuality is where was emily born, constructed. Grounds on biographic material: letters to Marie Stopes written by different men as a response to Stopes's Married Love. Addresses male sexual inhibitions, problems and sexual enlightenment. Harrison, Beverley Wildung. 1985. Making the Connections: Essays in Feminist Social Ethics, ed. Carol S. Robb. Boston: Beacon Press. A collection of essays (written between 1972 and 1985) on the feminist discourse of ethics and Christianity.

Approach: theologically oriented social history. Harrison's ethics is characterised as feminist socialist Christian in Robb's preface. Essay On John On Early Colonial? Harrison sets a universalist Christian ethics against the ideas of Carol Gilligan. Advocates an equality feminism pleading for 'objectivity' of the underground to canada feminist perspective. Hekman, Susan J. 1995. Moral Voices, Moral Selves: Carol Gilligan and Feminist Moral Theory . On John Smith: Source America?? Cambridge, Oxford: Polity Press. In-depth discussion of the work of Carol Gilligan offering various readings of to canada her work. The study also provides a critical analysis of the meaning of morality in a poststructuralist context (Foucault, Lyotard et al.). Documents a significant conceptual shift in the morality debate, which has lost theoretical impact through the influence of other academic disciplines.

Hekman favours a gender-oriented reconceptualization of moral theory that would take its pluralistic approach from Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial discourse analysis. Jakobsen, Janet R. Bourdieu Class? 1998. Working Alliances and the Politics of Difference: Diversity and Feminist Ethics . Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Study on feminist practices of alliance politics . Rejects notions of female unity as an axiomatic base. Discards the feminist difference hypothesis.

Argument proceeds from postmodern theoretical debates: ethics as a field of Smith: on Early complex negotiations; agency as a basis for alliance politics. Jeffreys, Sheila. 1985. The Spinster And Her Enemies: Feminism and Sexuality 1880-1930 . London etc.: Pandora. A very useful study which questions critically the general presumption of sexual liberation in the modernist period, a development which continues to be regarded as one of the most characteristic and left side of brain influential within the modernist context. Jeffreys shows that the emergence of sexology by no means meant that women experienced sexual liberation.

Quite the opposite, according to Jeffreys, it helped to force women into Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early, male-dominated heterosexual patterns. Mort, Frank. 1987 [2000]. Dangerous Sexualities: Medico-moral Politics in England since 1830. London: Routledge. Study on sexuality as represented in bourdieu class a medico-moral discourse. Discourse-theoretical approach. Depicts the interaction between morality and medicine in the field of Essay Smith: A Truthful America? sexuality. Key words: Debate on social hygiene: purity vs. decadence.

Sexuality in the context of the city. Moscucci, Ornella. 1990. The Science of Woman: Gynaecology and Gender in England, 1800-1929. Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Comprehensive study on the conception of where was emily dickinson born female sexuality, proceeding from Smith: A Truthful Colonial cultural history. Focus: ed. century. Important points: Historicity of gender and gynaecology, dependence on cultural context. Concepts of femininity in in beowulf medical discourse.

Gender difference explained physically and psychologically. Discussion of on John bisexuality and hermaphroditism. Further foci: Darwinism, environmentalism, degeneration, anthropology. Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud, ed. 1995. Weibliche Moral: Die Kontroverse um eine geschlechtsspezifische Ethik . München: dtv. Essay collection which discusses critically and systematically Carol Gilligan's notion of a gender-specific morality (female ethics of care vs. male ethics of justice ). Covers work by Butler, Gilligan, Harding, Habermas. Some of the articles were previously published. Singer, Mona.

1996. Weibliches Subjekt und Gastfreundschaft: Ende und Anfang einer Moral. Side Of Brain? In: Ruthard Stäblein, ed. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 118-139. Stäblein, Ruthard, ed. 1996. Moral: Erkundungen über einen strapazierten Begriff. Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. Relatively heterogeneous collection of essays, partly in on John Smith: on Early Colonial form of interviews.

Includes articles by Baudrillard and Blanchot. Points of interest: morality's myths of origin, gender difference and archetype morality (Nitzschke, Singer), Foucault's notion of morality. Weeks, Jeffrey. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early America?? 1985. Sexuality and its Discontents: Meanings, Myths Modern Sexualities . Was Emily Dickinson Born? London: Routledge Kegan Paul.

Study on on John Smith: A Truthful America? the development of the scientific discourse on Family Therapy Essay sexuality. References to psychoanalysis, Darwinism and eugenics. Bland, Lucy. 1995. Banishing the Beast: English Feminism and Sexual Morality, 1885-1914. Harmondsworth: Penguin. Bland's book is on John Smith: Colonial, a comprehensive study on the subject of feminism and sexual morality around the turn of the (19th to 20th) century. Her aim is to sketch the contemporary (and, at least from a 21st-century point of view, often problematical) feminist discourse in its interdependence with the restrictive cultural context of the archetype time. The study therefore provides a wealth of on John A Truthful biographical material. Part One: historical and bourdieu class scientific background of the topic (constructions of Essay on John Colonial America? femininity in dominant patriarchal discourses such as medicine, religion, evolutionary theory and their feminist reception).

Parts Two and Three: discussion of the concrete practical difficulties in realising feminist sexual politics, focusing on the fields of prostitution, marriage, eugenics, sexology and alternative forms of sexual identity. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of left World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487. Article on the suffrage movement in the context of Essay Smith: Source Colonial America? World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women.

Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a woman-centred perspective. Underground To Canada? Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. Smith: A Truthful On Early America?? 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history..

Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of kick-ass film publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Garner, Les. Essay On John Source? 1984. Stepping Stones to Women's Liberty: Feminist Ideas in the Women's Suffrage Movement 1900-1918. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP.

Kent, Susan. 1987. Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on the role of sexuality in first wave feminism and its ideological context. Foci: stereotypes of kick-ass film femininity (overview). Women's vote as a symbol of sexual liberation.

Further topics: sex war, prostitution, marriage, medicine, legislation. Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Vorticists before the War. differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133. Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in of brain feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Lyon, Janet. 1994/95. Women Demonstrating Modernism. Discourse 17.2: 6-25. Stowell, Sheila.

1992. A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?? 1996. Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda.

In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Bjorhovde, Gerd. 1987. Rebellious Structures: Women Writers and the Crisis of the underground Novel 1880-1900 . On John Smith: Source On Early America?? Oslo: Norwegian UP. One of the few books specifically focusing on kick-ass film interpreting texts of on Early Colonial high literary One of the few books specifically focusing on interpreting fin-de-siècle highbrow texts by women. Textual material: four representative authors of the Essay late 19th century - Olive Schreiner, Margaret Harkness, Sarah Grand and George Egerton. Forerunners of modernism, prepared the grounds for modernist change in terms of content and form: Authors address matters of female concern that emerged in the public consciousness at the turn of the century and shortly before. Tension between positive and negative evaluation of the Smith: New Woman as an interesting topic to narrate.

Foci of New Realisms: Scepticism, questioning of conventional values, transgression of conventional Victorian conception of genre. 'Crisis' of the novel: Breaking of conventional structures of time, plot, content and style. Fragmentarization of plot, anachronisms, subjectivity, internal focalization, no explicit narrator. Where? Bjorhovde provides very detailed analyses of texts. Burke, Carolyn. 1984. Essay On John Smith: Source On Early America?? Getting spliced: Modernism and Sexual Difference.

American Quarterly 39.1: 98-121. Burmeister, Tereza. 1994. Underground To Canada? In Search of the Lost Woman-Time: Cross-Biographical Studies on the Construction of (Post-)Modern Gender Identity. On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? History of European Ideas 19: 837-844. DeKoven, Marianne. 1991. Rich and Strange: Gender, History, Modernism . Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP. Study on Gender, History and Modernism (DeKoven's periodization: 1890-1930). Based on Derrida's concept of two co-existing paradoxes ( sous-rature ). Main point: male and female authors are afraid of revolutionary literary changes for different reasons: on the male side it is bourdieu class, fear of losing one's power position, on the female side it is fear of being punished.

Textual material: analysis of canonized texts. Criticism: DeKoven's study is partially difficult to comprehend. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP.

Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Friedman, Ellen G. Miriam Fuchs, eds. 1989.

Breaking the Sequence: Women's Experimental Fiction . Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Gale, Maggie B. 1996. West End Women: Women and the London stage 1918-1962 . Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early? London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on the advance in every sector. Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Where? Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman.

London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Smith: On Early America?? Deals with established and less established writers. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar, eds.

1986. The Female Imagination and dickinson the Modernist Aesthetic . New York etc.: Gordon Breach. Gilbert, Sandra M. Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. I: The War of the Words . New Haven: Yale UP.

Gilbert, Sandra M. On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in to canada the Twentieth Century. Vol. II: Sexchanges . New Haven: Yale UP. Gilbert, Sandra M. Essay A Truthful Source On Early? Susan Gubar. 1988. No Man's Land: The Place of the Woman Writer in the Twentieth Century. Vol. III: Letters from the Front . New Haven: Yale UP. Griffin, Gabriele, Ed.

1994. Difference in View: Women and Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Ingram, Angela Daphne Patai, eds. To Canada? 1993. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press.

Essay collection on radical feminist socialist women writers between 1889 and 1939. Textual material: novels in general (special focus on on John A Truthful Source Colonial popular literature by forgotten female authors), a multitude of biographical information, New Woman novel , Romance, Utopian fiction. Distinction between middle-class and working-class authors and bourdieu class readers. Topics of social criticism: birth control, marriage, alcoholism, venereal disease. Formal aspects: Modification of plot with feminist impact.

Joannou, Maroula. 1995. 'Ladies, Please Don't Smash These Windows': Women's Writing, Feminist Consciousness and Social Change 1918-38 . Oxford Providence: Berg. Study on women writers between 1918 and 1938. Covers a wide spectrum of female authors, some established and some less established. Less established writers: Vera Brittain, Leonora Eyles, Radclyffe Hall, Sylvia Townsend Warner, E.H. Young. Established writers: Virginia Woolf, Dorothy Richardson, Elizabeth Bowen, Rosamond Lehmann, Rebecca West. Further textual material considered: Anti-fascist writings.

Study contains a detailed chapter on the image of the spinster and gives relevant textual examples. Light, Alison. 1991. Essay On John A Truthful Colonial? Forever England: Femininity, literature and conservatism between the wars . London New York: Routledge. Laity, Cassandra. 1996.

H.D. and the Victorian Fin de Siècle : Gender, Modernism, Decadence . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Liska, Vivian. 1995. From Topos to Trope: Feminist Revision of Modernism. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds.

The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and archetype in beowulf the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 66-76. Miller, Jane Eldridge. 1994. Rebel Women: Feminism, Modernism and the Edwardian Novel . Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?? London: Virago. Study on the feminist movement in the context of the modernist era.

Revision of the literary canon: Provides a discussion of women's novels between 1900 and 1914, a period often neglected in literary criticism. Describes the transitional period of literary modernism: Thematic innovations and formal modification of bourdieu class traditional narration. Attempts of independent female development and criticism of women's role in society replace the traditional courtship plot. Critical reflection of Essay Source on Early America? marriage. Discussion of (new) images of women. Genre: predominantly suffragette novels. Considers the socio-cultural context of the literary texts. Montefiore, Janet. 1996.

Men and Women Writers of the 1930s: The dangerous flood of history . London New York: Routledge. Useful study on lesser known authors and texts. Textual material: works by left-wing women writers, antifascist texts, novels, autobiography and underground to canada poetry. Pykett, Lyn. 1992. The Improper Feminine. The Woman's Sensation Novel and the New Woman Writing.

London: New York: Routledge. Study on femininity and women's writing. On John Smith: America?? Genre: Sensational novel and New Woman novel between 1860 and 1900. Points to their subversive and emancipatory aspects. Canon-revisionary impact: Pykett stresses the in beowulf importance of the sensational novel and the New Woman novel for Essay on John Source on Early America?, literary history. Where? Forerunners of modernist authors such as Woolf and Richardson. Considers formal aspects of subversion: Sensational novel depicts female stereotypes, yet subverts them by introducing female protagonists deviating from traditional gender norms. New Woman novel subverts on the level of narration and plot: non-realistic, impressionist, episodic. Pykett's study is a source for less established primary literature. Pykett, Lyn.

1995. Engendering Fictions: The English Novel in the Early Twentieth Century . London etc.: Edward Arnold. Study proceeds from on John Smith: on Early literary history focusing on novels. Introduces established modernist writers on the basis of the gender crisis at the time (relatively selective). Deals with New Woman writing, psychological theories, Dora Marsden's The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist and archetype the phenomenon of degeneration as a result of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial mass society. Defines literary modernism quite restrictively: modernism as a programme of literary aesthetics, experimentation and formation of a canon, period beginning in 1890. Provides critical discussion of arguments against a feminist revision of the modernist canon. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996.

Recharting the where was emily Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on Essay A Truthful the effects of dickinson World War I on society and Smith: A Truthful America? particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Rado, Lisa, ed. 1994.

Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland. Feminist collection of essays on modernism. Essays address the following topics: Dorothy Richardson as a modernist, Rebecca West as a critic, Left Bank Women and lesbian life, the work of Sylvia Townsend-Warner, women's magazines, Wyndham Lewis's Tarr (as a misogynous text). Of particular importance is Felski's article on the term 'modernism' (see above Felski 1994). Schabert, Ina. 1997.

Englische Literaturgeschichte: Eine Darstellung aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Stuttgart: Kröner. Srebrnik, Patricia. Kick-ass Film? 1994. The re-subjection of 'Lucas Malet': Charles Kingsley's daughter and the response to muscular Christianity. In: Donald E. Hall, ed.

Muscular Christianity: Embodying the Essay Smith: A Truthful on Early Victorian Age . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 194-214. Canon-revisionary article on kick-ass film Lucas Malet (pseudonym of Charles Kingsley's daughter). Questions traditional concepts of masculinity in Malet's Novels. Stowell, Sheila. 1992.

A stage of their own: Feminist playwrights of the suffrage era . Ann Arbor: University of Smith: Colonial America? Michigan Press. Stowell, Sheila. Therapy Essay? 1996. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial? Suffrage critics and political action: a feminist agenda. In: Michael R. Booth Joel H. Kaplan, eds. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 166-184. Waters, Chris. 1993. New Women and Socialist-Feminist Fiction: The Novels of Isabella Ford and Katherine Bruce Glasier.

In: Angela Ingram Daphne Patai, eds. Rediscovering Forgotten Radicals: British Women Writers, 1889-1939 . Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. 25-42. Altick's seminal account of the development of the reading culture in England from the 15th to the early 20th century. Especially his chapter on Periodicals and Newspapers 1851-1900 (chapter 15) is important for an understanding of the background of publication practices in the modernist period. Benstock, Shari. 1986. Women of the Left Bank: Paris, 1900-1940 . London: Virago. An important study on women writers of the Left Bank in general. Family Therapy Role Play? Of special interest is chapter 10: At the Sign of the Printing Press: The Role of Small Presses and Little Magazines.

Unfortunately Benstock remains on on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? a biographical and bourdieu class anecdotal level, introducing editors, publishers and contributors. She says very little about the actual contributions. Beetham, Margaret. 1996. A Magazine of Her Own?: Domesticity and Desire in the Woman's Magazine, 1800-1914 . London New York: Routledge. It is Parts III and on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early IV (New Woman, New Journalism, the 1880s and 1890s, The reinvention of the domestic English woman: into archetype, the twentieth century) that are of particular interest. Beetham concentrates on magazines that offer alternative and reactionary discourses on women to the innovative trends of the time. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial? She also comments on the literature that appeared in these magazines and bourdieu class its function. She thus offers an important view of this area of Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial public culture that many of the modernist women reacted against. Dennison, Sally.

1984. [Alternative] Literary Publishing: Five Modern Histories . Iowa City: University of Iowa Press. Dennison demonstrates how all sorts of non-commercial publishing - from self-publishing to small presses, university press publishing, little magazine publishing, publishing through a bookstore, and archetype in beowulf publishing through patrons - helped to further modernist literature and to make it accessible to a wider audience. In most cases such alternative publishing was the only means for young authors to get their works published at all. Dennison uses Eliot, Joyce, Woolf, Nin, and Nabokov as examples. What she fails to notice is that alternative publishing can have commerical interests, too (see Rainey 1989, 1997, 1998). Dettmar, Kevin J.H.

Stephen Watt, eds. 1996. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. An important essay collection by young American scholars presenting a new perspective on and evaluation of Essay A Truthful Source on Early modernist literature. They distance themselves from the traditional view of modernism as an awe-inspiring solitary fortress against Role Essay, a growing mass culture by showing that it was clearly rooted within commodity culture, too. Essay On John Source America?? Today it is difficult to in beowulf imagine that some senior scholars refused to contribute to on John Smith: A Truthful on Early this collection because they considered it inappropriate to discuss financial interests and commodity culture in connection with modernist literature.

Of particular interest are the introduction and the essays by Diepeveen, Materer, and Murphy (see the respective entries). Eliot, Simon. 1994. Some Patterns and Trends in British Publishing, 1800-1919 . Underground To Canada? London: The Bibliographical Society. A statistical survey of book and magazine publications in the period of Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early 1800-1919. The data is covered in was emily six sections: Section A The Annual Pattern of on John Smith: on Early Colonial Publication; Section B The Monthly Pattern of Family Play Publication 1800-1919; Section C Subject Publishing; Section D Price Structure; Section E Periodical Publication; Section F The Background. Unfortunately Eliot focuses mainly on Smith: Colonial the 19th century.

He has nothing to say on the magazine and newspaper market in the 20th century, for where dickinson born, example, so that his survey is only of very limited value for Essay Smith: Colonial America?, the modernist period. Feather, John. 1988. A History of British Publishing . Was Emily Dickinson? London: Croom Helm. Feather offers important background information about the development of the on John America? publishing trade in Britain. Although he only focuses on commercial publishing the study offers some useful background information about the side vs right book market in general. On John Smith: Source Colonial? Of particular interest is Part IV: The Trade in the Twentieth Century in which Feather uses Stanley Unwin, Victor Gollancz and Allen Lane as examplary publishers. Garrity, Jane.

1999. 'Selling Culture to the Civilized': Bloomsbury, British Vogue , and the Marketing of National Identity. Was Emily Born? Modernism/modernity 6.2: 29-58. Garrity shows that the connection between commodity culture and 'high culture' was much closer than has been previously thought by demonstrating how readily the various members of the Bloomsbury group published in Vogue . Hanscombe, Gillian and Essay on John A Truthful on Early America? Virginia L. Smyers. Therapy Essay? 1987. Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Of special interest for modernist publication practices in general are Chapter 12 'The public is Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America?, a stupid beast. ' Book publishing I and Chapter 13 'There is a climax in sensibility' Book publishing II in which they particularly stress the Therapy Role close connection between little magazines and the book market. They argue that in most cases of experimental writing only publication in Smith: A Truthful on Early little magazines made a later book publication possible.

Jensen, Robert. 1994. Marketing Modernism in Fin-de-Siècle Century Europe . Princeton: Princeton UP. Jensen does not deal with modernist literature but with art. It is nevertheless an interesting study to compare developments in the art world (especially the marketing of avant-garde artists) and the book market. Kaufmann, Michael. 1998. A Modernism of One's Own: Virginia Woolf's TLS Reviews and Eliotic Modernism.

In: Beth Carol Rosenberg Jeanne Dubino, eds. Virginia Woolf and the Essay . Of Brain Vs Right? New York: St Martin's Press. 137-155. Kaufmann shows how the place of publication can be indicative of an author's conception of Essay on John Smith: Source literature and her or his readership by comparing Virginia Woolf's and T.S. Eliot's essays. Family Therapy Role? He argues that Woolf's reviews in the TLS address a much more 'common reader' than Eliot's essays in ephemeral and elitist little magazines such as The Egoist and on John A Truthful Source on Early The Little Review . Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. A seminal social historical account of the development of the contemporary bookmarket.

Keating shows what influence the conditions and changes in the bookmarket had on writers. Leavis, Q.D. 1932. Fiction and the Reading Public . Was Emily Born? London: Chatto Windus. Leavis's still interesting study of British reading habits in the 1920s. It is not only an important document because of the Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? empirical data she offers but also as a New Critical position taking within the of brain intellectual and literary field of the early 1930s. Lee, Hermione. 1998. 'Crimes of Source Colonial Criticism': Virginia Woolf and Literary Journalism. In: Jeremy Treglown Bridget Bennett, eds.

Grub Street and the Ivory Tower: Literary Journalism and Literary Scholarship from Fielding to the Internet . Oxford: Clarendon Press. 112-134. Lee not only gives an overview of Virginia Woolf's journalistic work but also shows how she used journals and literary and little magazines in order to where was emily dickinson born advertise her own and her friends' work as well as the Essay on John Source on Early Colonial Hogarth Press. McDonald, Peter D. Where Was Emily Born? 1997. Essay On John Source Colonial America?? British Literary Culture and Publishing Practice 1880-1914 . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Unfortunately a misleading title. McDonald does not analyse the publication system in the age of transition but rather in where was emily late Victorianism. On John Smith: A Truthful Source America?? He hardly pays any attention to the authors of the 1890s. His case studies focus rather on Joseph Conrad, Arnold Bennett, and left vs right Arthur Conan Doyle without making clear why he chose these authors. Ohmann, Richard. 1996.

Selling Culture: Magazines, Markets, and Class at the Turn of the Century . New York: Verso. Rainey, Lawrence. 1998. Institutions of Modernism: Literary Editors and Public Culture . New Haven: Yale UP. A seminal contribution to the argument that the alleged gap between modernism and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial public (or even mass) culture was not as great as the modernists claimed themselves. As example cases Rainey uses the publication history of Pound, H.D., Joyce's Ulysses and underground to canada Eliot's The Waste Land. One rather irritating 'flaw' of Essay on John this otherwise important study is Rainey's discussion of H.D.

Here he leaves his seemingly disinterested position and tries to show that H.D.'s recanonisation by feminist critics was a mistake since H.D.'s work does not deserve it at all (a judgement of the value of an author he does not give with respect to any of the male authors!). Wexler, Joyce Piell. 1997. Who Paid for Modernism? Art, Money, and the Fiction of Conrad, Joyce, And Lawrence . Fayetteville: The University of Arkansas Press. Using the careers of Conrad, Joyce and bourdieu class Lawrence as examples Wexler demonstrates that the modernist artists' image as oppositions to financially oriented bourgeois artists is a myth and that authors made use of this myth to further their success. She also shows that in modernism the Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial writer's position became particularly complicated because s/he was wedged between the Romantic ideal of the bourdieu class genius who shows no interest in his or her market value and an interest in acknowledgement (because no recognition at all is still regarded as a sign of failure) and being able to Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? live on one's writing. White, Cynthia L. 1970.

Women's Magazines 1693-1968 . London: Michael Joseph. A seminal account of the development of women's magazines. One of White's foci is the literature published in these magazines. Pages 77-117 are of particular interest. Willison, Ian, Warwick Gould and Warren Chernaik, eds.

1996. Modernist Writers and the Marketplace . Was Emily Dickinson Born? Basingstoke London: Macmillan. An essay collection that deals with the conditions of publication for modernist writers, focusing on the publication histories of A Truthful Source on Early America? individual (canonised) authors (James, Yeats, Conrad, Lawrence, Woolf, Eliot, Pound, Lewis). Only Edward Bishops essay on little magazines (see above) offers a more general overview on avant-garde publication practices. 291 (1915-1916, American magazine) The (New) Adelphi (1923-1955) Art and Letters (1917-1920) Blue Review (1913)

Broom (1921-1924, American magazine) The Calendar of Modern Letters (1925-1927) The Chapbook (1919-1925) The Criterion (1922-1939) The Dial (1880-1929, American magazine; especially the era of Scofield Thayer's and underground Marianne Moore's editorship 1920-1929)

The Egoist (1914-1919) The Enemy (1927-1929) (New) English Review (1908-1937) The (New) Freewoman (1911-1914) The Golden Hind (1922-1924) Life and Letters (1923-1924) Life and Letters later Life and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? Letters Today (1928-1950) The Little Review (1914-1929, American magazine) The London Aphrodite (1928-1929) The London Mercury (1919-1939)

The Masses (1911-1917, American magazine) New Age (1894-1938; especially the years of underground A.R. Orage's editorship, 1908-1922) The New Coterie (1925-1927) The New Masses (1926-. American magazine)

Others (1915-1919, American Magazine) Open Window (1910-1911) (New) Oxford Outlook (1919-1932) Oxford Broom (1923) The Palatine Review (1916-1917) Poetry (1912-present, American magazine; especially the phase of Harriet Monroe's editorship, 1912-1935) Poetry and Drama (1913-1914) The Poetry Review (1912-present)

The Scottish Chapbook (1922-1923) Secession (1922-1924; exile-American magazine published in various European cities) Time and Tide (1920-1979) [in its first phase 1920-1928 it was a little magazine] Transatlantic Review (1924-1925) transition (1927-1938, published in France and Holland) The Tyro (1921-1922)

Wheels: An Anthology of Verse (1916-1921) One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial, experimental young authors. Anderson, Margaret. Archetype? [1930] 1971. My Thirty Years' War . Westport: Greenwood Press.

Margaret Anderson's famous autobiography in which she not only describes her unconventional life but also the development of Essay on John Smith: on Early America? The Little Review under her editorship. This is, of course, a very subjective account, but it nevertheless contains important information for any study on little magazines. Anonymous. 1941. Little Mags, What Now?. The New Republic 104.13: 424.

A state-of-the-art article on little magazines. The author discusses the development of a little-magazine culture in America from the 1920s to the late 1930s and argues for kick-ass film, a revival of little magazines in a 1920s fashion in order offer new authors a forum for publication. Baker, Denys Val, ed. 1943. Little Reviews Anthology . London: Allen Unwin. An anthology of what Baker himself calls the best writing which has appeared in the little reviews and literary magazines of Britain since the on John Smith: outbreak of war (v). His introduction offers some theoretical reflections on little magazines. Kick-ass Film? Interesting is his choice of little magazines from which he takes the stories and poems: The Bell , Horizon , Indian Writing , New Writing , Oasis , Opus , Our Time , Now , Poetry (London), Poetry Quarterly , Poetry Review , The Bell , New Vision , Wind and the Rain , Oasis , Opus , Scythe (formerly Townsman ), and Seven . Barash, Carol.

1987. Dora Marsden's Feminism, the Freewoman , and the Gender Politics of Early Modernism. Essay Source Colonial? Princeton University Library Chronicle 49.1: 31-56. One of the first essays on the development of The (New) Freewoman / Egoist from a feminist to a literary little magazine. Barash presents this development as the story of Pound's take-over. Kick-ass Film? This assessment has changed, though (see especially Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Bennett, David. 1989. Periodical Fragments and Organic Culture: Modernism, the Avant-Garde, and the Little Magazine.

Contemporary Literature 30: 480-502. The author sees in little magazines an example for a distinction between avant-garde and modernism as proposed by on John Smith: Source Colonial America?, Peter Bürger (1974). Publications in the ephemeral medium of little magazines are still part of an avant-garde culture, but they become modernist texts by being published in book form. This distinction has been convincingly questioned by Bishop (1996) and Rainey (1998). Benstock, Shari Bernard Benstock. 1991.

The Role of of brain Little Magazines in the Emergence of Modernism. Library Chronicle of the University of Texas 20: 68-87. An important overview of the Essay on Early copies of (American) little magazines at Role Play the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center at the University of Texas, Austin. Unfortunately the Essay on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? authors remain on a merely biographical level. To Canada? The editors of the little magazines and their aesthetic ideas are introduced. Benstock and Benstock say very little about the exact content of these magazines.

van den Berg, Hubert Ralf Grüttemeier, eds. 1998. Manifeste: Intentionalität (Avant Garde Critical Studies 11). Amsterdam Atlanta: Rodopi. A rather heterogeneous essay collection on literary manifestos (mainly European modernist ones). Theoretically the on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? authors base their contributions on the intentionality debate (Eco, Searle, Fish, Knapp Michaels, Hirsch). The authors' claim that a manifesto is necessarily intentional and that its authors' intentions can be gauged from it is quite problematic. Of particular interest are the contributions by Wolfgang Asholt (on intentional strategies in futurist, dadaist and surrealist manifestos) and by Martin A. Kayman (on Pound and imagism). Bishop, Edward.

1996. Re:Covering Modernism - Format and Function in the Little Magazines. In: Willison, Gould and Chernaik, eds. 287-319. An important overview of little magazines from the 1890s to the 1920s.

Bishop pays special attention to archetype the connection between visual and typographical design and A Truthful on Early Colonial the literary contents of these magazines. He sees the different magazine as a representation of the increasing institutionalisation of modernism (in this he argues against where born, Bennett's (1989) postulation that little magazines represent the avant-garde and Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? not modernism). Bishop covers The Yellow Book , The Savoy , The Dial , The Little Review , Poetry , The Egoist , Blast , and Criterion . Bloomfield, B.C. 1976. An Author Index to Selected British Little Magazines 1930-1939 . Archetype? London: Manssell. An additional (but by far not as comprehensive) reference to Sader, ed. (1976).

Bradbury, Malcolm. 1958. The English Review . London Magazine 5: 46-57. One of the on John A Truthful Source on Early America? first accounts of side of brain vs right The English Review with a special focus on the period of Ford Madox Ford's editorship. Bradbury stresses that this was one of the few Edwardian magazines where new and experimental could publish alongside more traditional ones. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1961. The Calendar of Modern Letters : A Review in Retrospect.

London Magazine n.s. 1.7: 37-47. Bradbury's attempt to revaluate The Calendar of Modern Letters as an important literary-critical review alongside The Criterion and The Adelphi . On John A Truthful On Early Colonial? He points out that the Calendar served as model for F.R. Left Side Of Brain? Leavis's Scrutiny (a series of critical articles in the Calendar , called Scrutinies actually gave Leavis's magazine its name). Essay On John Source On Early Colonial? Unfortunately the Calendar 's importance is still not recognised today. Bradbury, Malcolm. Kick-ass Film? 1971.

The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell. Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1920. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. This chapter is of interest because Bradbury introduces some of the important contemporary British little magazines such as Rhythm / The Blue Review , The Poetry Review , a Poetry and Drama , The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist , and Blast . Bradbury, Malcolm. 1995. The Criterion. A Literary Review in Retrospect.

The London Magazine 5.2: 41-54. Bradbury, Malcolm. Essay Source Colonial? 1999. Modernism and the Magazines. In: Heinz Antor and Kevin L. To Canada? Cope, eds. Transcultural Encounters - Studies in English Literatures . Heidelberg: Winter. 187-313. A survey of little magazines which mainly remains on A Truthful Colonial America? a positivist level, listing names of magazines, editors, and contributors. Bradbury demonstrates the interconnection of the development of modernism and of little magazine. He manages to give an idea of the left of brain diversity of magazines, but because he covers so many he does not have much space for detailed discussions of specific examples.

Bradbury, Malcolm James McFarlane. 1976. Movements, Magazines and Manifestos: The Succession from Naturalism. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 192-205. The authors show how much the Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? various European modernist movements (especially Imagism, Vorticism, Futurism, Surrealism, Expressionism, and Dadaism) depended on little magazines as an outlet.

Casford, E. Therapy? Leonore. 1929. The Magazines of the Essay A Truthful Colonial 1890's: A Chapter in the History of English Periodicals; Being a Critical Study of The Albemarle, The Yellow Book, and The Savoy, with a Brief Description of Other Literary Magazines of the 1890's (Language and Literature Series 1). Eugene: University of Oregon Press. An important overview of little magazines of the archetype 1890s which shows how early the concept of little magazines received literary critical attention. A Truthful Source? Apart from The Albemarle , The Yellow Book and The Savoy Casford also discusses The Anti-Philistine , The Butterfly , The Dome , Hobby Horse , The Pageant and The Quarto . Clarke, Bruce. 1985. Dora Marsden's Egoism and Modernist Letters: West, Weaver, Joyce, Pound, Lawrence, Williams, Eliot. Works and Days 2.2: 27-47. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996).

Clarke, Bruce. Kick-ass Film? 1992. Dora Marsden and Essay A Truthful Source on Early America? Ezra Pound: The New Freewoman and 'The Serious Artist'. Kick-ass Film? Contemporary Literature 33.1: 91-112. An early version of parts of his seminal study on Dora Marsden (1996). Clarke, Bruce. 1996.

Dora Marsden and Early Modernism: Gender, Individualism, Science . Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. An important revaluation of on John Smith: Source on Early Dora Marsden's role in the cultural field at the beginning of the 20th century. Clarke argues that Marsden's intellectual development from suffragism to egoism mirrors in a nutshell the direction literature took at the time (a turn from personal politics to an individualistic literary practice, 1). He provides a detailed account of Play Essay Marsden's philosophical, political and literary influences. Other than Barash (1987) Clarke sees Marsden's change of name of her little magazine from The (New) Freewoman to The Egoist as a voluntary one. Smith:? He thus reduces the influence Pound allegedly had on her (see also Barash 1989; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993).

Clooney, J.P. 1938. Among the Magazines. The Phoenix 1.2: 134-150. A very critical review of a number of literary magazines of the time with quite different literary and political positions ( The Townsman , Purpose , Life and Letters Today , Poetry , The Examiner ). Interesting as a document of how little magazines were received and discussed in side the contemporary literary field. Diepeveen, Leonard. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early? 1996. 'I Can Have More Than Enough Power to Satisfy Me': T.S. Eliot's Construction of His Audience. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press.

37-60. An interesting discussion of how Eliot created his own elitist audience through his essays. Diepeveen shows the underground importance the ephemeral form of publication of little magazines had in this. Eliot argued that only in these smaller but literary more 'elitist' media of publication could he find what he termed the qualified reader Eliot explicitly differentiated himself from editors of larger - and thus to his mind more commercial - magazines such as The London Mercury (see also Kaufmann 1998 on the difference between Eliot's and Virginia Woolf's conceptions of their readership). Dupee, F.W. 1938. On John Smith: Colonial? British Periodicals. Partisan Review 5: 45-48. A very critical review of British little magazines.

Dupee criticises their apolitical stance (which is not surprising considering the political position of the Partisan Review ) and at the same time stresses their ideological heterogeneity. He also finds fault with the - to his mind - poor literary quality. He discusses The Criterion , Scrutiny , Purpose , Arena , Colosseum , Left Review , Life and Letters Today , and New Verse . Eliot, Thomas S. 1926. The Idea of a Literary Review. The New Criterion 4: 1-6. Eliot's own outline of an ideal little or literary magazine. Underground To Canada? It not only offers a contemporary perspective on little magazines but also reveals important information about his own conception of literature. Emmart, A.D. 1923.

The Limitations of American Magazines. Modern Quarterly 1.3: 17-26. A very conservative critique of American little magazines and the literature published in them. He particularly finds fault with an Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early America?, alleged lack of Family Therapy Role Play moral and Essay on John Colonial too much experimentation in underground the field of psychological realism. Emmart is especially critical of The Dial and The Little Review . Ferrall, Charles. 1992a.

Suffragists, Egoists, and the Politics of Early Modernism. English Studies in Canada 18.4: 433-446. Ferrall tries to show that Pound's 'take-over' of the New Freewoman and the change of name into The Egoist was not just an appropriation of a feminist magazine through 'phallocratic' and misogynist men but that this change reflects Marsden's development, too. He examines her turn from suffragism to a Nietzschean and Stirnerian egoism and points out some analogies between her political and philosophical writings and that of the imagists, especially Pound (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Morrisson 1997, 2001; Thacker 1993). Ferrall, Charles. 1992b. The New Age and the Emergence of Reactionary Modernism Before the Great War. Modern Fiction Studies 38: 653-667. Ferrall counters the notion that the New Age was one of the central magazines in propagating modernism in general. In contrast to Martin (1967) he argues that A.R.

Orage, the editor at the time only supported politically reactionary authors such as Ezra Pound and Wyndham Lewis and thus contributed to the development of a 'reactionary modernism' only. Fletcher, John Gould. 1934. The Little Reviews: Yesterday and To-Day. Space 1.8: 84-86. An contemporary account of American little magazines (1914-1929).

Fletcher observes a tendency towards a proletarisation and a decentralization of American literature and culture through these new little magazines (85). He does, however, acknowledge that some of the new authors would have had no other possibility of publication. Garner, Les. 1990. A Brave and Beautiful Spirit: Dora Marsden 1882-1960 . Aldershot: Avebury. The first book-length biography of Marsden. An attempt at a revaluation of Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early Colonial Marsden's role in the suffragette movement and in modernism. At times a little too subjective and anecdotal.

Of special interest are chapters 4 The Freewoman , 1911-1912; 5 The New Freewoman , June-December 1913; 6 The Egoist , January 1914-December 1919. Görtschacher, Wolfgang. 1993. Little Magazine Profiles: The Little Magazines in Great Britain 1939-1993. Salzburg: Salzburg University. Although Görtschacher focuses on little magazines of the second half of the 20th century his comments on the nature of little magazines in bourdieu class general are quite useful. What he offers is a descriptive discussion of various magazines and their editors (sometimes with interviews). It is a little odd, though, that he restricts the term 'little magazine' to on John A Truthful poetry magazines only; his typology of to canada little magazines is thus not very convincing. Graham, Walter. 1930.

English Literary Periodicals . New York: Thomas Nelson. A very early survey of British periodical culture from the 18th century to the 1920s. He only briefly touches on little magazines, though. Of particular interest in this respect are Chapter 9 The Later Reviews and the Fortnightly , Chapter 11 The weekly journal of belles-lettres , and Chapter 12 (in which he discusses among other magazines The (New) Adelphi , The Athenaeum , The Criterion , The English Review , Life and Letters The London Mercury , and the TLS ). Grant, Joy. 1967. Harold Monro and the Poetry Bookshop . London: Routledge Kegan Paul. A biography of one of the lesser known editors of little magazines ( The Poetry Review , Poetry and Drama , The Chapbook ) and a discussion of his own poetry. Hamilton, Ian. Source On Early America?? 1976.

The Little Magazines: A Study of Six Editors . London: Weidenfels and Nicolson. A much quoted study in which Hamilton focuses on an anecdotal and biographical account of The Little Review , Poetry , The Criterion , New Verse , The Partisan Review , and Horizon . Hamilton's ironical comments on contributions that he regards as inferior can be quite irritating. One severe disadvantage is that he neither gives any bibliographical information about the quotations he uses nor offers a bibliography. Hanscombe, Gillian and Virginia L. Smyers. Family Play Essay? 1987. On John A Truthful Colonial? Writing for their Lives: The Modernist Women 1910-1940 . London: The Women's Press. Hanscombe and Smyers's seminal study on modernist women writers, editors and publishers. Bourdieu Class? Of particular interest for on John Smith: Colonial America?, little magazines are Chapter 10 'The stand of the individual against immensities. ' - Periodical publishing I and Chapter 11: 'Life for Art's sake. ' - Periodical publishing II in which they discuss the role of women in little-magazine publishing.

Magazines they cover include The (New) Freewoman / The Egoist (here they hold the early feminist opinion that Pound forced Marsden into kick-ass film, a change of name and conception of Essay A Truthful Colonial her magazine, cf. Underground To Canada? Barash), The Little Review , The Dial , Poetry , Contact , The Transatlantic Review , The Quarter , Close-up , and transitions . Hayman, Ronald. 1975. The Calendar of Modern Letters. New Review 1: 14-19. Heyl, Lawrence. 1940. Little Magazines. Source Colonial? The Princeton University Library Chronicle 2.1: 21-6. An early attempt at Role a definition and description of (American) little magazines.

Interesting as a historical document. Hoffman, Frederick J. 1943. The Little Magazines: Portrait of an Age. The Saturday Review of Literature 26.52: 3-5. One of the first overviews of British and American modernist little magazines and one of the on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial bases for Hoffman, Allen and Ulrich's (1946) bibliography. Allen especially stresses the importance of bourdieu class little magazines as almost the only medium of publication for experimental young authors. Hoffman, Frederick J., Charles Allen and Carolyn F. Ulrich.

1946. The Little Magazine: A History and a Bibliography . Princeton: Princeton UP. Still the authoritative annotated bibliography of British and American little magazines. The introductory chapters are also of interest. Hoffman, Allen, and Ulrich even attempt a typology of little magazines, but mostly they remain on a positivist and anecdotal level listing dates of publication, names of editors and A Truthful on Early contributors, etc. Homberger, Eric. 1976. Chicago and left vs right New York: Two Versions of American Modernism. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful On Early Colonial? In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism 1890-1930 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. 151-161.

Only of in beowulf marginal interest for little magazines, but at least Homberger mentions the Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial great influence of little magazines on the New York literary scene (e.g. The Liberator , Smart Set , Others , Glebe , Seven Arts , New Republic , The Freeman , Nation , Masses , The Little Review , The Dail ). Howarth, Herbert. Left Side? T.S. Eliot's Criterion : The Editor and His Contributors.

Comparative Literature 2: 97-110. Johnson, Abby Arthur. 1973/74. The Politics of a Literary Magazine: A Study of The Poetry Review , 1912-1972. Journal of Modern Literature 3: 951-964. Joost, Nicholas.

1967. Years of Transition: The Dial 1912-1920 . Barre, Mass.: Barre Publishers. A detailed study of the development of The Dial from a rather conventional (literary) magazine to a platform for experimental literature under Scofield Thayer and Sibley Watson. Joost, however, argues that the literature that appeared in the Dial has been overestimated and that more radical magazines such as The Little Review did much more to on Early further modernist writings. Joost, Nicholas Alvin Sullivan. 1970. D.H. Lawrence and 'The Dial'. Carbondale, Ill.: Southern Illinois UP.

A detailed account of Lawrence's involvement with The Dial in the course of archetype his career. A bit too anecdotal at times, but still readable. Kadlec, David. 1993. Pound, Blast , and Syndicalism. Source America?? English Literary History 60.4: 1015-1031. Kadlec argues that the was emily dickinson design of BLAST was informed by the development of syndicalist miner's actions in Wales under Tom Mann before WW I. According to him not only the magazine's name is on John Smith: Source America?, indebted to Therapy Role the worker's movement but also its visual aggressiveness and aesthetic militancy.

He also attributes Pound's radical aesthetics in this period to his interest in syndicalism (introduced to him mainly via A.R. Orage's The New Age ). Kenner, Hugh. 1971. The Pound Era . Berkeley: University of Essay on John Smith: Source on Early California Press. Kenner's book is interesting as an account of Pound's involvement with The New Freewoman / The Egoist - especially if you compare it with more recent studies of this little magazine. It is amazing how Kenner manages to leave out Dora Marsden's entirely! Knight, Melinda.

1996. Little Magazines and the Emergence of Modernism in the Fin de Siècle . American Periodicals 6: 29-45. Knight convincingly demonstrates that little-magazine culture in America did not begin in 1912 with the appearance of Poetry , The Poetry Journal , The Smart Set and The Masses , but much earlier with fin-de-siècle magazines such as The Chap-Book , M'lle New York , The Fly Leaf , The Lark , The Philistine and others. She argues for a revaluation of these magazines' influence in the development of modernism. Lewis, Wyndham. 1927. Editorial notes: Art and 'Radical' Doctrines. Archetype? The Enemy 2: xxiii-xxviii.

Lewis's own 'position taking' in the literary field. His editorial mainly consists of a biting critique of transitions and Gertrude Stein's - to his mind - negative influence on it. Smith: A Truthful? Implicitly, of course, this is to canada, indicative of his own conception of literature and little magazines. Lidderdale, Jane Mary Nicholson. 1970. Dear Miss Weaver: Harriet Shaw Weaver, 1876-1961 . London: Faber Faber. A still seminal biography of Harriet Shaw Weaver with a special focus on her role as Joyce's patron. Essay Source Colonial? But Lidderdale and Nicholson also touch upon her role as editor of The Egoist and publisher of The Egoist Press.

Little Magazine. 1997. Britannica CD: Version 97 . Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. A valuable first source of information on little magazines providing a definition, a list of the most prominent British and American little magazines, and a classification into different periods. MacKendrick, Louis K. 1972. New Freewoman : A Short Story of Literary Journalism. English Literature in Transition 15.3: 180-187. MacKendrick, Louis K.. 1975. Bourdieu Class? T.S. Eliot and the Egoist : The Critical Preparation.

Dalhousie Review 55: 140-154. MacShane, Frank. 1961. The English Review . South Atlantic Quarterly 60: 311-320. Marek, Jayne E. 1995. Women Editing Modernism: Little Magazines and Literary History . Lexington: The UP of Kentucky.

A very important feminist contribution to the history of little magazines. Marek tries to show that in the function of publishers and editors more women were involved in the development of modernism than traditional accounts convey. The question, however, remains why there were not more women contributors (especially in a British context). With the exception of Bryher, Marek focuses on American women editors and publishers (Harriet Monroe, Alice Corbin Henderson, Margaret Anderson, Jane Heap, Bryher, Marianne Moore) and has an additional chapter on Ezra Pound's role in little magazine culture. Marek concentrates on the editors' own writings in their magazines and on John Smith: Source Colonial America? their personal contacts. She says hardly anything about the archetype set-up of particular issues or the Essay Source norms and values conveyed in other contributions. Marks, Peter. Kick-ass Film? 1997. Illusion and Essay on John Source on Early America? Reality: the Spectre of Socialist Realism in Thirties Literature Williams, Keith Steven Matthews, eds. Rewriting the Thirties: Modernism and After . London New York: Longman. 23-36.

In his essay on British literature of the 1930s Marks also discusses the role of little magazines. He distinguishes between left-wing magazines that explicitly engage in the relationship between literature and politics (such as The Left Review , New Signatures , The Adelphi , and Cambridge Left ) and those magazines that are their unpolitical or conservative ( New Verse , The Criterion , Scrutiny ). Interesting for an analysis of the development of bourdieu class little magazine culture. Martin, Peter A. 1977. The Short Story in England: 1930s Fiction Magazines. Studies in Short Fiction 14: 233-240.

An account of the role of little magazines ( New Writing , New Stories , Lovat Dickson's Magazine , Penguin Parade ) in the development of prose writing - especially the Source on Early Colonial short story - in the 1930s. Martin, Wallace. 1967. The New Age Under Orage: Chapters in English Cultural History . Manchester: Manchester UP. One of the first studies on the role of the New Age in underground the modernist period. Martin is a little too enthusiastic in portraying The New Age as a platform for innovative and experimental authors alongside BLAST and Source on Early The Egoist (see for example Ferrall 1992b for a more critical evaluation of the magazine). Masteller, Richard N. 1997. Using Brancusi: Three Writers, Three Magazines, Three Versions of Modernism. American Art 11.1: 47-66.

Materer, Timothy. 1996. Make It Sell! Ezra Pound Advertises Modernism. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press.

17-36. Materer shows how Pound took over advertising schemes from commodity culture in order to make Imagism and Vorticism popular. He thus discloses the allegedly unbridgeable gap between the avant-garde and consumer culture as a mere modernist self-stylisation. He demonstrates how Pound used little magazines such as The Egoist , The Little Review and BLAST for bourdieu class, his purpose and how these magazines themselves adopted methods from commodity culture advertising. Morrisson, Mark S. 1996. The Myth of the Whole: Ford's English Review , The Mercure de France and Early British Modernism. ELH 63: 513-533. Morrisson argues that Ford turned to France, i.e. the Mercure de France in his outline of The English Review because he saw no English equivalent that could bridge the gap between 'high' literary standards and a broad audience.

He wanted neither a typical coterie magazine nor one of the Essay Smith: Source on Early America? typical mass papers such as the Daily Mail . Morrisson, Mark S. 1997. Marketing British Modernism: The Egoist and Counter-Public Spheres. Twentieth Century Literature 43.4: 439-469. An analysis of the development from was emily dickinson The Freewoman as a suffragist magazine to The Egoist as a magazine of the Essay on John A Truthful America? literary avant-garde. Morrisson shows that this change not only had an influence on the readership of the was emily born magazine but on advertisers as well. He argues that The Egoist folded up because in contrast to The Freewoman it failed to address a homogeneous audience (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 2001; Thacker 1993). Morrisson, Mark S. 2001. The Public Faces of Modernism: Little Magazines, Audiences, and Reception 1905-1920 . Smith: Source Colonial? Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press. A seminal study of little magazines. Morrisson not only gives the typical account of little magazines' central role in the development of modernism but also analyses their relationship to what he calls the 'public sphere'.

He thereby manages to in beowulf demonstrate convincingly that the alleged gap between mass culture and the avant-garde is not as great as has been posited. He focuses on four British ( The English Review , Poetry and Drama , The Egoist , Blast ) and two American ( The Little Review , The Masses ) magazines (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997; Thacker 1993). Munson, Gorham. On John Smith: Source On Early? 1937. In Beowulf? How to Run a Little Magazine. The Saturday Review of Literature 15.22: 3-4, 14, 16-17. A contemporary discussion of little magazine culture.

Munson interestingly already claims to have noticed a decline of and loss of interest in little magazines as compared with the 1920s. Murphy, Michael. 1996. On Early Colonial America?? 'One Hundred Per Cent Bohemia': Pop Decadence and the Aestheticization of Commodity in the Rise of the Slicks. In: Kevin J.H. Dettmar Stephen Watt, eds. Bourdieu Class? Marketing Modernism: Self-Promotion, Canonization, Rereading . Ann Arbor: University of Michingan Press. 61-89. Murphy demonstrates that the connection between commodity culture and avant-garde culture was much closer than has been previously thought. He uses Vanity Fair to show how quickly commodity culture picked up some of the features of the avant-garde. Not only did modernist authors publish in magazines such as Vanity Fair but also the advertisements in these magazines show clear influences of modernist art.

Nelson, Cary. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early? 1989. Repression and Recovery: Modern American Poetry and the Politics of Cultural Memory, 1910-1945 . Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. In his study on American poetry of the first half of the 20th century Nelson also briefly discusses the role little magazines (including left-wing magazines and magazines of the Harlem Renaissance) played in the publication and, ultimately, canonization of some of the bourdieu class best known authors. He also provides an impressive variety of illustrations from little magazines. Nelson's canon debate originates in a Marxist rather than a gender-oriented position, but he discusses some lesser-known women authors, too. One great disadvantage is the structure of the book: Nelson deliberately designed it as one long essay without chapter divisions so that the reader is left with the detective work of deducing from the Colonial implicit information given in the course of the study what organisational principle underlies the study. Pollack, Felix. 1976. Elitism and the Littleness of Little Magazines. Southwestern Review 61: 297-303.

Pound, Ezra. 1930. Small Magazines. The English Journal 19.9: 689-704. Pound's own position on the role and functions of little magazines. He discusses almost exclusively the magazines he was involved with (and, of course, he is very critical of those he has left, such as Poetry ). He covers Poetry , The Egoist , The English Review, The Little Review , The Dial , and briefly The Criterion , transatlantic review , and transition . Rainey, Lawrence. 1989. The price of modernism: reconsidering the publication of kick-ass film The Waste Land . Critical Quarterly 31.4: 21-47. Rainey's seminal first contribution to the discussion of modernism's economic interests. He demonstrates that the question of Essay on John Source Colonial where to publish The Waste Land was guided by financial interests.

Eliot ultimately chose the magazine ( The Dial ) that offered the most and in beowulf actually made quite a lot of money. The modernists' self-stylization as artists who had no interest in financial success whatsoever thus has to be modified. Rainey, Lawrence. 1997. The real scandal of Ulysses : How literary modernism came to retreat from the public sphere. TLS (January 31): 11-13. Rainey argues that Sylvia Beach's decision to publish Ulysses was not just a selfless act of support for Smith: A Truthful on Early, an avant-garde author, but was guided by underground, financial considerations as well. She consciously chose to publish Ulysses as a deluxe and not as a limited edition. Essay Smith: On Early America?? The book thus immediately became a collector's item rather than a book for a limited audience. The attention was diverted from the content to the book as object.

Rhondda, Viscountess, Margaret Haig. 1933. This Was My World . London: Macmillan. Lady Rhondda's highly interesting autobiography in which she also briefly mentions the foundation and development of Time and kick-ass film Tide . Rosenberg, Harold. 1938. Literature Without Money. Direction 1.3: 6-10. A contemporary discussion of the on John Source on Early Colonial role of little magazines in the development of modernism in America. Rosenberg stresses that the little magazines often served as a first step in side of brain the publication history of an author and A Truthful Source on Early that commercial magazines and publishing houses latched on when they considered her or him financially promising. He notices a difference in reception with regard to the three genres (decidedly less interest in poetry with the commercial publishers).

Sader, Marion, ed. 1976. Comprehensive Index to English Language Little Magazines 1890-1970 . Millwood, NY: Kraus-Thomson-Organization. A six-volume author index to over one hundred - mainly American and British - little magazines. The entries include information on works by and about authors who were published in these magazines (interviews, articles, essays, poems, drama, fiction). Schwartz, Delmore. 1939.

The Criterion , 1922-1939. Kenyon Review 1: 437-449. Selver, Paul. 1959. Orage and The New Age Circle: Reminiscences and Reflections . London: Allen Unwin.

This is more an Family Therapy Play, autobiography than an account of The New Age and its editor A.R. Orage although he tries to improve Orage's reputation with his book. Selver describes his own (rather marginal) function in the magazine. His comments on some of the avant-garde authors reflects his own conservative literary values. Singer, Herman B. 1940. Essay A Truthful On Early Colonial? The Modern Quarterly 1923-1940. Modern Quarterly 11.7: 13-19. A characterisation of Modern Quarterly from a political perspective. Singer focuses on the editor's (V.F.

Calverton) position with respect to marxism and the Soviet Union and bourdieu class its influences on the magazine. He hardly says anything about the literature in Modern Quarterly . Spender, Dale. 1984. Essay Smith: A Truthful? Time and Tide Wait for No Man . London etc.: Pandora Press. One of the few accounts of Time and Tide . Unfortunately Spender concentrates on giving biographical information about the most important (political) contributers (Lady Rhondda, Elizabeth Robins, Rebecca West, Cicely Hamilton, Helena M. Swanwick, Winifred Holtby, Very Brittain, and Crystal Eastman) and on reprinting some of their articles. Apart from underground to canada naming some of the most prominent authors that appeared in Time and Tide she says very little about the magazine's literary contents. Sullivan, Alvin, ed. Essay A Truthful Source On Early? 1984. British Literary Magazines: The Victorian and Edwardian Age, 1837-1913 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press.

To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in alphabetical order. Archetype In Beowulf? Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the Essay Smith: magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Sullivan, Alvin, ed. 1986. British Literary Magazines: The Modern Age, 1914-1984 . Westport, Conn. London: Greenwood Press. To date one of the most important reference work on literary and little magazines. The magazines are arranged in where was emily dickinson born alphabetical order. Each magazine is introduced in an essay (whose length depends on the assumed importance of the magazines), including bibliographical references, information on publishers, editors, location sources as well as possible indexes and reprint editions, Symons, Julian.

1967. The Cri. London Magazine n.s. 7: 19-23. A description of The Criterion . Colonial America?? Symons presents the Therapy Play magazine as an odd combination of a conservative and overly academic literary criticism and an interest in literary innovation, revealing T.S. Eliot's own position.

This also becomes apparent in Eliot's conservative social criticism. Symons notes some of the on John America? poetry that was published in The Criterion as remarkable, the prose less so and left side he complains that some genres such as history and biography were ignored altogether. Tell, Waldo. 1934. Review of Radical Magazines. Partisan Review 1: 60-63. An early account of Essay Smith: A Truthful on Early America? a new turn to the left in (American) little magazines of the 1930s. Tell introduces Left Front , The Anvil , Dynamo , and Blast (not Wyndham Lewis's London magazine of Therapy Role Play 1913). Thacker, Andrew. 1993.

Dora Marsden and The Egoist : 'Our War Is With Words'. English Literature in Transition, 1880-1920 36.2: 178-196. Another attempt to revaluate Marsden's position as editor of The (New)Freewoman / The Egoist and her role in the development of literary modernism (see also Barash 1989; Clarke 1996; Ferrall 1992a; Morrisson 1997, 2001) Todd, Ruthven. 1939. The Little Review.

Twentieth Century Verse 15/16: 159-162. An early account of Essay Colonial America? The Little Review focusing mainly on its early years. To Canada? Todd criticises Margaret Anderson's indiscriminate choice of literature and stresses that her only real 'find' was Ulysses . Source? He sees the Family Therapy Essay most important improvement of the magazine in Pound's employment as foreign editor. Trilling, Lionel. 1951. The Function of the Little Magazine.

The Liberal Imagination Essays on Literature and Society . London: Secker and Warburg. 93-103. Originally published as an individual essay in on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial 1946 in Therapy an anthology on and of The Partisan Review this is another quite early literary-critical account of the function of little magazines, especially with respect to the development of modernism. Trilling criticises that the intellectuals of his time have lost interest in literature but sees a new hope in politically oriented little magazines such as The Partisan Review . Troy, William. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early America?? 1930. The Story of the Little Magazines. The Bookman 70: 476-481, 657-563. Vondeling, Johanna E. Side Vs Right? 2000. The Manifest Professional: Manifestos and Modernist Legitimation.

College Literature 27.2: 127-145. Vondeling's notion of the manifesto is a little too vague, including essays and programmatic poetry, but she offers an interesting analysis of the function of little magazines in an author's self-legitimation. She focuses on Marinetti's Futurist Manifesto, Pound's essays in BLAST , and Loy's Feminist Manifesto and Essay Smith: on Early Colonial her essay International Psycho-Democracy. Wall, Alan. 1976. Little Magazines: Notes towards a methodology. In Francis Barker et al., eds. Archetype In Beowulf? Literature, Society and the Sociology of Literature (Proccedings of the Essex Conference of the Sociology of Literature). Colchester: University of Essay Essex. 105-117.

Wall provides some genereal sociological reflections from a typical 1970s marxist position on where the status of little magazines. His main focus is on The Calendar of Modern Letters , though. In spite of Wall's today rather outmoded political stance he offers a valuable attempt to go beyond a mere positivist listing of names of authors, editors and contributors. Whiteley, Mary N.S. 1932. On John Smith:? Shall We Let It Die?

The Saturday Review of Literature 9.2: 19. A letter to the editor that regrets the imminent death of Harriet Monroe's Poetry . In a retrospective account Whitley stresses the where was emily magazine's importance in the advancement of modernist - especially imagist - poetry. Young, Alan Michael Schmidt. 1973. A Conversation with Edgell Rickword.

Poetry Nation 1: 73-89. Zabel, Morton Dauwen. 1929. The Way of Periodicals. Poetry 34.6: 330-4. A comment on the death of The Dial and The Little Review , which Zabel with amazing foresight also regards as the end of a literary-historical era: In going, they open the way to our next literary period, and so leave with us some of the Essay Smith: on Early Colonial America? sensations of suspense we experienced when they first flashed upon side vs right, the view (1929: 334). Study on the situation of women between the wars. Key words: misogynist trends in Essay on John A Truthful on Early America? society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio.

Images of Women, influence on women writers. Brantlinger, Patrick. Archetype? 1996. 'The Bloomsbury Fraction' Versus War and Empire. In: Carola M. Kaplan Anne B. Essay Source Colonial? Simpson, eds. Seeing Double: Revisioning Edwardian and Modernist Literature . New York: St. Side Vs Right? Martin's Press. 149-167. Buitenhuis, Peter. 1987. Essay Smith: Source Colonial? The Great War of Words: British, American, and Canadian Propaganda and Fiction, 1914-1933 . Vancouver: University of British Columbia Press. Study on war and literature.

Key words: established (male) authors, war euphemisms, war propaganda. Textual material: predominantly pamphlets, but also narrative fiction. Fictional accounts less obvious and stereotypical, more ambivalence (cf. ch. 8). Buitenhuis distinguishes between two phases: 1st phase - patriotic, glorification of underground war, 2nd phase - less patriotic, critical discussion of war. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Essay Source Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Fussell, Paul. 1975. Bourdieu Class? The Great War and Modern Memory . London New York: Oxford. Study on war and Essay on John Source on Early Colonial modernism.

Details on World War I: major events, the in beowulf end of the Great War - national ideals vs. reality. Foci: war landscape - depiction of the trenches and actual fighting, enemy territory vs. friendly territory, contrast home front - front, dichotomy of good and Essay on John Source on Early Colonial evil. Bourdieu Class? Mythicisation and fictionalization of war: revival of the cultic, the on John Smith: on Early mystical, the Family Therapy Role Play Essay sacrificial, the sacramental and the universally significant. Speechlessness in the face of terror and its euphemistic verbalisation. On John Smith: A Truthful On Early? The pastoral as a sheltering place of escape. Homoeroticism.

Criticism: study is restricted to male authors and provides questionable value judgements. Gardiner, Juliet, ed. 1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on bourdieu class literary representations of the New Woman. Essay On John On Early? Analysis is not limited to the genre of the left side of brain New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. (ch. 6: Women's War) Goldman, Dorothy, ed. 1993.

Women and World War I: The Written Response . Basingstoke: Macmillan. Essay collection on women writers' reactions to World War I. Introduces female authors (not restricted to British ones). Key words: War from a female perspective, female world of experience. Patriotic vs. pacifist attitudes. Textual material: poetry (contrast to male war poets) and novels. Hewitt, Douglas. 1988. English Fiction of the Early Modern Period, 1890-1940 . Longman Literature in English Series. London, New York: Longman. Higonnet, Margaret et al., eds. 1987.

Behind the Lines: Gender and the Two World Wars . New Haven London: Yale UP. Essay collection on gender and war. Postulates a gender-specific experience of the World Wars: confirmation of traditional gender roles, yet some change of gender consciousness in the field of Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? war occupations such as driver, nurse, factory worker new professions (see Higonnet, Gould, Gubar). Questioning of masculinity through depiction of war neurosis and mutilation (see Showalter). Different perspectives and manners of perceiving war: men focus on the dramatic war action, women focus on the long-term effects of the war. Of Brain Vs Right? (cf. Rebecca West's The Return of the Soldier ). Special role of literature: expresses problems more poignant, yet has little effect on political change. Hynes, Samuel.

1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on A Truthful Source Colonial the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for Modernism. Key words: Loss of values.

Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for adequate representation of war. Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to dickinson primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography.

Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. (ch. On John A Truthful On Early Colonial? 11: The Cubist War) Longenbach, James. 1989. The Women and Men of 1914. In: Helen M. Cooper, Adrienne Auslander Munich Susan Merill Squier, eds. Arms and the Woman: War, Gender, and bourdieu class Literary Representation . Chapel Hill, London: The University of on John America? North Carolina Press. 97-123. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and archetype in beowulf Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. On John A Truthful? (ch. To Canada? 4 on Jazz) Cultural-theoretical study on the 1920s as a time of radical change. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of Wold War One on Essay Smith: on Early America? the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Left Side Of Brain? Considers literary representation of space. Mowat, John Loch.

1955. Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms: A Literary Guide . On Early Colonial America?? London: Macmillan. Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Onions, John. 1990. English Fiction and Drama of the Great War, 1918-39.

Basingstoke: Macmillan. Study on British war fiction. Similar to Hynes (1990), but not as detailed. Centred on the figure of the hero and likewise the anti-hero. Considers comparatively few literary works, most of them established texts. Devaluation of minor works.

Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in the First World War . Bourdieu Class? London New York: Routledge. Study on Essay Smith: America? women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of kick-ass film women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and non-fictional) is on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial America?, granted a major role in this context. Areas of discussion: images of side women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in Smith: A Truthful Source on Early the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the side of brain mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism. The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity.

Discussion of the Essay on John A Truthful on Early influence of left of brain vs right World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Quinn, Patrick J., ed. 1996. Recharting the Thirties . Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. Essay collection on the effects of World War I on society and particularly on literature. Considers neglected authors: Irene Rathbone, R.H. Mottram, but also Rosamond Lehmann and Elizabeth Bowen. Trout, Steven.

1986. R. On John Source? H. Mottram: The Great War and Europa's Beast . In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Family Essay Thirties. Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 51-63. Tylee, Claire M. 1990.

The Great War and Women's Consciousness: Images of Militarism and Womanhood in Women's Writings, 1914-64 . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. de Vries, Jaqueline. Source Colonial America?? 1994. Gendering Patriotism: Emmeline and Christabel Pankhurst and World War I. In: Sybil Oldfield, ed. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. 75-88. Wilson, Trevor.

1986. The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and where dickinson the Great War 1914-1918 . Cambridge: Polity Press. Study on World War I: based upon facts and events. Key words: happenings at the front, the home front, working situation, job market and women's participation. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America?? Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to bourdieu class increase birthrates, female surplus. Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Zilboorg, Caroline.

1996. Irene Rathbone: The Great War and Its Aftermath. In: Patrick J. Quinn, ed. Recharting the Thirties. Essay On John Smith: Colonial America?? Selinsgrove: Susquehanna UP. 64-81. Berg, Christian, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. 1995. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in left side vs right Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993.

Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on Essay America? literature and art in their relation to society.

Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Booth, Michael R. Joel H. Kaplan, eds. Underground To Canada? 1996. The Edwardian Theatre: Essays on performance and the stage . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Essay collection on Edwardian theatre. Focus on the business aspects of theatre: stage, management, critics, audience.

Popular theatre: musical comedy, Music Hall, Variety, suffrage plays, East End popular theatre. Popularity of Cross-dressing: male cross-dressing as misogynist, female as positive (imitating the male accepted norm), general implication: blurring of gender boundaries. Butler, Christopher. 1994. Early Modernism: Literature, Music, and Painting in Europe, 1900-1916 . Oxford: Clarendon Press. Chinitz, David. 1997.

Dance, Little Lady': Poets, Flappers, and the Gendering of Jazz. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach. New York London: Garland Publishing. On John A Truthful Source America?? 319-335. Finney, Gail. 1989. Women in Modern Drama: Freud, Feminism, and European Theatre at the Turn of the Century . Ithaca London: Cornell UP.

Gale, Maggie B. Kick-ass Film? 1996. West End Women: Women and on John A Truthful Source on Early the London stage 1918-1962 . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and the theatre. Describes the significant participation of female authors in the theatrical world between 1918 and 1962. After winning the vote, women were on side of brain vs right the advance in every sector.

Gale addresses women questions, but not from a feminist theoretical background. Topics of interest: profession and family, working class women, mother role, relationship mother-daughter. Griffin, Gabriele. 1994. Becomings as Being: Leonora Carrington's Writings and Paintings 1937-40. In: Griffin, Gabriele, ed. On Early America?? Difference in View: Women and where was emily dickinson Modernism . London: Taylor and Francis. Holledge, Julie.

1981. Innocent Flowers: Women in the Edwardian Theatre . London: Virago. Hynes, Samuel. 1990. A War Imagined: The First World War and on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial America? English Culture. London: Bodley Head. Detailed study on the influence of World War I on literature and art. Introduces war as a driving force for bourdieu class, modernism.

Key words: Loss of values. Decadence. Search for new forms and contents. War and Essay on John A Truthful on Early America? the difficulty of its representation - conventional means do not suffice for an adequate representation of bourdieu class war. On John Smith: A Truthful Colonial? Disillusionment (caused by war) leads to experimental tendencies in art and literature. Representation of space is further considered. Captures the time before and after the war in different phases. Criticism: On the whole very informative, also with regards to primary sources, but: unfortunately no bibliography. Isaak, Jo Anna.

1986. The Ruin of Representation in Modernist Art and Texts . Ann Arbor, Michigan: UMI Research Press. Kahn, Elizabeth Louise. 1997. Engendering the Scandal: The Cubist House and the Private Spaces of Therapy Role Modernity. In: Lisa Rado, ed. Essay Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?? Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 175-198. Kick-ass Film? Kaplan, Joel H. Sheila Stowell. 1994.

Theatre and Fashion: Oscar Wilde to the Suffragettes . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Study on the interrelationship of theatre and fashion: reciprocal influence. Function of showing fashionable women's clothes on Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial stage: attracting and stimulating for audience (except in performances of archetype in beowulf Ibsen or Shaw). Semantic function of dress: social status of a character and its alteration in the course of the Essay Smith: A Truthful play ( Pygmalion ; from flower girl to lady). Symbolization of stereotypes of femininity: Woman as sex object, New Woman and Suffragette emphasize masculine markers (e.g. boots, umbrella) and reject female markers (e.g. skirts, sashes, puffed sleeves) - this is true for Therapy Essay, the stage as well as social reality. Lucas, John.

1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. (ch. 4 on Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial Jazz) Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of of brain vs right novels (also by female authors). Lyon, Janet. 1992. Militant Discourse, Strange Bedfellows: Suffragettes and Essay A Truthful Source America? Vorticists before the War differences: A Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies 4.2: 100-133.

Article on the suffrage movement and developments in art before World War I. Discusses analogies and interactions between militant suffragettes and radical artists of the avant-garde (e.g. vorticists, futurists). Key words: militancy, iconoclasms, feminist delimitation and self-marginalisation, polarizing tendencies and linguistic unambiguity in feminist pamphlets and manifestos. Plassard, Didier. 1995. Le Théatre de Kandinsky face à l'interpretation. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. 507-521. Reynolds, Dee A. 1997. Where Born? Dancing Free: Women's Movement in Early Modern Dance. In: Lisa Rado, ed.

Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 247-279. Stevenson, Randall. 1992. Modernist Fiction: An Introduction . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. (ch. 4 on art) Weisstein, Ulrich. 1995. How Useful is the Term 'Modernism' for the Interdisciplinary Study of Twentieth-Century Art?.

In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. Essay Colonial? The Turn of the bourdieu class Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. Yaari, Monique. 1995. Ironies of Modern/Postmodern Art: Duchamp, Margritte, Adami. In: Christian Berg, Frank Durieux Geert Lernout, eds. The Turn of the Century: Modernism and Modernity in Literature and the Arts . Berlin New York: de Gruyter. On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial? 537-552. Zabel, Barbara. 1997. Gendered Still Life: Painting of Still Life in the Machine Age.

In: Lisa Rado, ed. Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. 229-246. Beddoe, Deirdre. 1989. Back to Home and Duty: Women Between the Wars, 1918-1939 . London etc.: Pandora. Study on archetype the situation of women between the Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial wars.

Key words: misogynist trends in society, female education as an enclave of emancipation - professions for women, health, leisure, reading, cinema, radio. Images of Women, influence on women writers. Bloom, Clive, ed. 1993. Literature and Culture in Modern Britain. Vol. 1: 1900-1929 . London New York: Longman. Essay collection on where the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on Essay Source on Early Colonial literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and where was emily dickinson fine arts. Carey, John.

1992. The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early Colonial America?? Key words: polarization - mass culture vs. Left? literary elite. Revolt of the masses. On John A Truthful Colonial America?? Rewriting the masses: question of value judgements, increase in value. Cultivation of high intellectual standards as a means of side of brain vs right excluding the masses from Smith: A Truthful on Early America? a reading public. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh.

DiBattista, Maria Lucy McDiarmid, eds. 1996. High and Low Moderns: Literature and Culture 1889-1939 . Archetype? Oxford: Oxford UP. Hewett, Angela. A Truthful Colonial? 1994. The Great Company of Therapy Role Real Women': Modernist Women Writers and Mass Commercial Culture. On John A Truthful On Early Colonial? In: Lisa Rado, ed. Rereading Modernism: New Directions in Feminist Criticism . New York London: Garland.

351-372. Huyssen, Andreas. 1986. After the Great Divide: Modernism, Mass Culture, Postmodernism . London: Macmillan. LeMahieu, D. L. 1988. A Culture for Democracy: Mass Communication and the Cultivated Mind in Britain between the Family Therapy Play Essay Wars. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Lucas, John. 1997. The Radical Twenties. Aspects of Writing, Politics and Essay A Truthful Culture.

Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from kick-ass film cultural theory. Points out Essay Smith: Source on Early America?, several aspects of of brain society and on John Smith: on Early Colonial discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). In Beowulf? Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors). Melman, Billie.

1988. Women and the Popular Imagination in Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? the Twenties: Flappers and Nymphs . Of Brain? London: Macmillan. Study on images of women in the 1920s. Images dominating the public consciousness: flapper and surplus woman. Analysis of a very broad spectrum of popular literature (broad in terms of on John Smith: A Truthful Source America? reception rather than sales figures). Key words: best-seller, serial fiction, book business and side of brain vs right magazines.

Rado, Lisa, ed. 1997. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial America?? Modernism, Gender, And Culture: A Cultural Studies Approach . New York London: Garland Publishing. Heterogenous essay collection. Key words: Flaneuse, Striptease, spirituality (moments of being), advertising in popular magazines, Modernist Design, Modern Dance, primitivist and matriarchal tendencies ( Herland ), Flappers and was emily Jazz. Trodd, Anthea 1998. Women Writing in English: Britain 1900 1945. On John Smith: America?? London: Longman. Wicke, Jennifer. 1988.

Advertising Fictions: Literature, Advertisement, Social Reading . New York, Columbia UP. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of California Press. Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on kick-ass film the modernist city novel . Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? Key words: the kick-ass film fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in Smith: A Truthful der Literatur der Moderne. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 281-287. The article deals with modernist tendencies of Family internalization: depiction of different rooms of the interior (factual and on John Smith: A Truthful psychological ones). Becker, Sabina. 1993. Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930.

St. Left? Ingbert: Röhrig. Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. On John Smith: Source Colonial America?? Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Authoritative text on literary representations of space in Therapy Play the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of Essay Smith: on Early consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H. Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Virginia Woolf To the Lighthouse . Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. Bourdieu Class? London in Smith: A Truthful Source English Literature. Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London) Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976.

London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Was Emily Dickinson? Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986.

Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage. Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Essay On John A Truthful On Early America?? Approach: phenomenological (cf. Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (cf.

Lotman). Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in streams of consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. To Canada? space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures. Carey, John. Essay On John Source America?? 1992. The Intellectuals and Therapy Essay the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939.

London: Faber Faber. (Chap. A Truthful? 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the left of brain vs right masses from the perspective of intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Essay On John A Truthful Source America?? Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective.

In: Susan C. Scott, ed. The Art of bourdieu class Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of Essay solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men. Frank, Joseph. 1963.

Spatial Form in Modern Literature. Where Was Emily Dickinson? In: The Widening Gyre: Crisis and Mastery in Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? Modern Literature . Side Of Brain Vs Right? New Brunswick: Rutgers UP. 3-63. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse: Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

109-136. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and Source on Early symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies : 187-230. Article on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gindin, James.

1992. British Fiction in the 1930s: The Dispiriting Decade . New York: St. Archetype In Beowulf? Martin's Press. Study introduces only the well-known texts of the 1930s. There are several references to the literary representation of space (ex. Rosamond Lehman, Elizabeth Bowen)

Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole. Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Metropolis 1890-1940.

London: Mansell. 129-145. Kern, Stephen. 1983. The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity. Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. On John On Early? Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes).

Heterogeneous space. Plurality of stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting). Expansion and reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and private transport, aviation).

Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of consciousness). Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters. Festschrift für Richard Martin . Kick-ass Film? Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary study on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender.

Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne.

Reinbek: Rowohlt. Essay On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? 14-36. Pike, Burton. 1981. The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Kick-ass Film? Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction.

Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989. On John A Truthful? A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spencer, Sharon.

1971. Space, Time and Structure in the Modern Novel . New York: New York UP. Squier, Susan Merill. 1985. Underground To Canada? Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial City . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. Stanzel, Franz. 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol.

3. Vs Right? München: iudicum. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of dickinson a boundary. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful On Early? Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the to canada First World War in German and English literature. Voss, Dietmar.

1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. 37-60. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source On Early? 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson.

Wolff Janet. Underground? 1985. The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and on John America? the Literature of left of brain vs right Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Würzbach, Natascha. in print.

Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Theory of subjectivity and identity. On John Source? The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity. Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Ackroyd, Peter. Side Of Brain? [2000] 2001. Smith: Source On Early? London. The Biography . London: Vintage.

Alexander, Sally. 1989. Archetype In Beowulf? Becoming a Woman in London in the 1920s and 1930s. In: David Feldman Gareth Stedman Jones, eds. Metropolis London: Histories and Representations since 1800. London New York: Routledge. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early? 245-271.

Alter, Peter. Kick-ass Film? 1993. Im Banne der Metropolen: Berlin und London in den zwanziger Jahren . Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early Colonial? Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. Alter, Peter. 2000. London in der Neuzeit. In: Andreas Sohn Hermann Weber, eds.

Haupstädte und Global Cities an der Schwelle zum 21. Jahrhundert . Bochum: Winkler. 57-79. Ankum, Katharina von, ed. Where Was Emily Born? 1997. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity in Weimar Culture . Berkeley: University of Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial California Press.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. Archetype? The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 310-315. Study on the modernist city novel . Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative text structure. Smith: Source America?? Space and identity. Becker, Sabina. 1993.

Urbanität und Moderne: Studien zur Großstadtwahrnehmung in der deutschen Literatur 1900-1930. St. Ingbert: Röhrig. Boynton, Percy Holmes. 1913. Kick-ass Film? London in English Literature. Essay On John Smith: Source On Early? Chicago, Ill.: University of Chicago Press. (Ch. 10 Contemporary London)

Bradbury, Malcolm. 1976. London 1890-1930. In: Malcolm Bradbury James McFarlane, eds. Modernism. 1890-1930. Harmondsworth: Penguin. 172-190. Breuner, Michael. 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Where Was Emily Dickinson Born? Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang.

Study on the London Novel after 1940. Key words: literary appropriation of the Smith: Source America? city. Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Brooks, J.A. 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Carey, John. 1992.

The Intellectuals and the Masses: Pride and Prejudice among the in beowulf Literary Intelligentsia 1880-1939. London: Faber Faber. (Chap. 3 The Suburbs and the Clerks) Study on the phenomenon of the masses from the perspective of Essay on Early America? intellectuals. Space: suburbia - housing development, suburbia as a place of the masses. Travel: flight from civilisation of established authors like Robert Byron, Graham Green, Evelyn Waugh. Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature.

Photographed by Jorge Lewinski. London: Thames Hudson. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351 - 375. Frisby, David.

2001. Cityscapes of Modernity: Critical Explorations . Cambridge: Polity Press. Harding, Desmond. 2002. Writing the City: Urban Visions And Literary Modernism . New York: Routledge. Hertel, Kirsten. 1997. Side Of Brain? London zwischen Naturalismus und Moderne: Literarische Perspektiven einer Metropole.

Heidelberg: Winter. Keating, Peter. 1984. The Metropolis in Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? Literature. In: Anthony Sutcliffe, ed. Left? Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. 129-145. Kilian, Eveline. 2002. Exploring London.

Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. 267-283. Klotz, Volker. Essay On John A Truthful Source On Early America?? 1969.

Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. Bourdieu Class? 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Kursbuch Stadt. Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lefèbvre, Henri. On John Smith: America?? 1972.

Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. Lehan, Richard. 1998. The City in Literature: An Intellectual and Cultural History . Side? Berkeley: University of California Press. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. Manley, Lawrence. 1995.

Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the A Truthful Colonial Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256.

Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Underground To Canada? Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Müller, Lothar. 1988. Die Großstadt als Ort der Moderne: Über Georg Simmel. Essay Smith: Source? In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt.

14-36. Nord, Deborah Epstein. 1991. The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer. Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt - Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Parson, Deborah L. 2000.

Streetwalking the Metropolis: Women, the City and Modernity. Oxford: Oxford UP. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Bourdieu Class? Hannover: Jänecke. Pike, Burton. 1981.

The Image of the City in Modern Literature. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton UP. Punter, David. 1979. Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Weston, ed. Colonial? London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. Therapy Role Play Essay? 46-72. Scherpe, Klaus R., ed.

1988. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Sennett, Richard, ed. 1978. Smith: Source On Early? Classic Essays on the Culture of Cities . New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Sennet, Richard. Where Born? 1995. Flesh and Stone. On John Source Colonial? The Body and the City in Western Civilization . London: Faber Faber. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed.

1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources . 3.2: 55-57. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe und Leonard Wallock, Hgg.

Visions of the bourdieu class Modern City. Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Baltimore/London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987.

From 'Great Town' to 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and Literature. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early? Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51. Sizemore-Wick, Christine. 1989.

A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in to canada Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. A Truthful America?? University of Tennessee Press. Squier, Susan Merill. Archetype In Beowulf? 1985. Virginia Woolf and London: The Sexual Politics of the City. Chapel Hill London: The University of North Carolina Press. On John Source Colonial America?? (Ch. 5 The Carnival and Funeral of Mrs Dalloway's London)

Sutcliffe, Anthony, ed. 1984. Metropolis 1890-1940. London: Mansell. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. Kick-ass Film? 1985. On John America?? Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Twyning, John. 1998.

London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Voss, Dietmar. 1988. Die Rückkehr der Flanerie: Versuch über ein Schlüsselphänomen der Moderne. In: Klaus R. Scherpe, ed. Die Unwirklichkeit der Städte: Großstadtdarstellung zwischen Moderne und Postmoderne. Reinbek: Rowohlt. Where Dickinson Born? 37-60. Weigel, Sigrid.

1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen. In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Essay Source Colonial? Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. Bourdieu Class? 1984.

The Making of Modern London, 1815-1914. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weightman, Gavin Steve Humphries. 1984. The Making of Modern London, 1914-1939. London: Sidgwick Jackson. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983. Essay On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?? The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan.

Wilson, Elizabeth. 1991. The Sphinx in the City: Urban Life, the Control of Disorder, and Women . Was Emily Born? London: Virago. Wolff Janet. 1985. On John Smith: Source Colonial America?? The Invisible Flaneuse. Women and underground to canada the Literature of Modernity. Theory, Culture and Society 2.3: 37-46. Bausinger, Hermann et al., eds.

1991. Reisekultur: Von der Pilgerfahrt zum modernen Tourismus . Essay A Truthful Source Colonial? München: Beck. Berghoff, Hartmut, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. 2002. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Blake, Susan L. 1990.

A Woman's Trek: What Difference Does Gender Make? Women's Studies International Forum 13.4: 347-353. Birkett, Dea. 1989. Spinsters Abroad: Victorian Lady Explorers . Kick-ass Film? Oxford: Blackwell. Black, Jeremy. 1985. On John Smith: A Truthful America?? The British and the Grand Tour . London: Croom Helm. Blunt, Elison Gillian Rose, eds. 1994.

Writing Women and Space: Colonial and Family Role Play Postcolonial Geographies . Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America?? New York: The Guilford Press. Collection of essays on ethnological and geographical issues. Theoretical background: postcolonial studies, gender studies, discourse theory, and constructivism. Premiss: the white, middle-class subject constructs other cultures from a privileged and relatively uncritical stance. Where Dickinson? Female living spaces: social mapping paves the way for Essay A Truthful Source America?, social and political orientation, territorial dissociation.

Fight against imperialism and gender-specific oppression. Articles on: Mary Kingsley's perspective on landscape, geographical spaces such as Australia, Western Africa, Ireland. Bode, Christoph, ed. 1997. West Meets East: Klassiker der britischen Orient-Reiseliteratur . Heidelberg: Winter. Brendon, Piers. Kick-ass Film? 1991.

Thomas Cook: 150 Years of Popular Tourism . London: Secker Warburg. Brenner, Peter J., ed. 1989. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Articles on the history of German travel literature. Introduction considers basic issues: perception of the foreign through patterns of the on John A Truthful (kn)own. Kick-ass Film? Perception is influenced by Essay A Truthful on Early Colonial America?, emotions: stimulation, rejection, amazement.

Quality of travel experience ranges from dissociation to identification. Change of the German travel report relative to bourdieu class the changes in the philosophical conception of the world (homogeneity or heterogeneity of the world). Brenner, Peter J. 1989. Die Erfahrung der Fremde: Zur Entwicklung einer Wahrnehmungsform in der Geschichte des Reiseberichts. On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial? In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

14-49. Burkart, Arthur J. Dickinson? Slavoj Medlik. 1974. Tourism: Past, Present, and Future . London: Heinemann. Buzard, James. 1993. The Beaten Track: European Tourism, Literature, and the Ways to Culture, 1800 - 1918 . Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Seminal study on the definition and history of tourism. Critically assesses the traveller vs. tourist dichotomy . Tourism is approached in a differentiated manner weighing the A Truthful Source on Early Colonial following aspects: tourism as phenomenon of the masses, processes of stereotyping the foreign, selection and assessment of tourist attractions, alleged authenticity, convenience and enhancement of infrastructure, the where born hierarchical structure of home culture vs. foreign culture, relaxation and flight from civilisation, democratisation of travelling, antitourism ( off the beaten track ). A Truthful Source America?? Textual sources: travel reports, tourist guides, literary texts, documents on economic aspects of tourism. Chard, Chloe. 1999. Pleasure and Guilt on kick-ass film the Grand Tour: Travel Writing and Imaginative Geography 1600-1890 . Manchester: Manchester UP. Cocker, Mark. 1992. Loneliness and Time: British Travel Writing in the Twentieth Century . London: Secker Warburg. Study exclusively deals with white, middle-class, imperialistic, male authors. Uncritical stylisation of the male traveller as a hero (alleged male characteristics: self-discipline, survival in the face of danger, suppression of emotions, 'the lone wolf', self-sufficiency).

Claims travel literature to be factual. Cocker's arguments are not very well organised, nor up to Essay on John Source on Early America? the current state of research. Was Emily Dickinson Born? Nevertheless, a useful source for male travel reports. Culler, Jonathan. 1988. The Semiotics of on John Smith: Colonial America? Tourism. In: Jonathan Culler, ed. Framing the kick-ass film Sign: Criticism and Its Institutions . Oxford: Blackwell. 153-167.

Article describes tourism as a semiotic system of stereotypization. Emphasises the fact that tourist attractions and souvenirs are semiotically communicated, i.e. they are signifiers serving the satisfaction of certain desires. Discusses this representative function of tourism from a Barthesian perspective, sees the availability of Essay on John Source on Early Colonial America? tourism as a commercial product. Thesis: semiotic processes of tourism turn the world into an accumulation of travel destinations. Dodd, Philip. 1982. The Views of Travellers: Travel writing in the 1930s. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of Travel: Essays on bourdieu class Travel Writing ): 127-138.

Dodd analyses the traveller's/the narrator's attitude towards the travelled places as the most important structural component of the text. In general, the Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? attitudes mirror the culturally given standards; personal interests also come into vs right, the play: e.g. nostalgic childhood memories ( home tour ), social interests etc. Dodd discusses texts by Greene, Muir, Orwell, Priestley. Foster, Shirley. Essay A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? 1990. Nineteenth Century Women Tavellers and Their Writings . New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf. The study predominantly deals with female English travellers/travel writers of the of brain 19th century. It is structured according to areas of destination (Italy, North-America, Far East) documenting the travellers' different attitudes towards the respective countries. Introductory chapter is of fundamental relevance for theories and Essay on John Smith: Source on Early histories of female travelling. The following aspects are given detailed treatment: breaking away from social conventions and confining norms, the double bind of the bourdieu class female traveller and her difficulties as a woman due to male prejudice. Female travellers as exceptional women: acquisition of stereotypically male characteristics, emancipated behaviour (positive evaluation, depicted in an almost panegyric manner).

Mixture of male and on John Smith: America? female conventions of writing: topography, economic aspects, male activity vs. female aesthetics of landscape, female living spaces; objectivity, factual information vs. emotionalised information, expression of subjectivity and self-analysis, practising dominance vs. opening up to the foreign culture and where was emily showing a readiness to integrate. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Leipzig: Reclam: 34-46.

Foulke, Robert. 1992. The Guide Book Industry. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 93-106. Essay on A Truthful Source Colonial America? the genre of the travel-guide: the travel-guide as the sole source for mass-tourists, the best-selling subgenre within travel literature. Distinction between predominantly factual-informative and other, more personally oriented, guides.

Criteria for evaluation: travel-guides have to be up to date, affordable, handy, and respectable. Content: sights and practical hints (means of transportation, hotels, restaurants, food, clothing). Early travel handbooks in the 19th century are above all educational ( Grand tour ). Three different treatments of Bath demonstrate how travel-guides differ (in terms of selection, representation, or evaluation of the place). Frederick, Bonnie Susan H. McLeod, eds. Left Of Brain? 1993.

Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Smith: Colonial? Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP. Essay collection on women and travelling. Introduction discusses fundamental issues: women's motivations for travelling (liberation from the Family Play confining domestic shelter, transgression of boundaries), special risks for Essay A Truthful on Early, women, self-development, women's difficulties in finding a balance between the demands and conventions of home on the one hand and the freedom of left travelling on the other hand. The individual contributions deal with examples of women travellers, focusing on their encounters with women of Smith: Source Colonial America? other ethnicities and questions of sex, race and Therapy Role Play class. The representation of female travelling in literary texts is also considered: the Essay on John Source on Early America? female quest plot seems to allow no happy ending for female characters (either return to restrictive patriarchal structures at home or emigration to a foreign country). Fussell, Paul. 1980. Abroad: British Literary Travelling Between the in beowulf Wars . A Truthful On Early America?? Oxford: Oxford UP. Early authoritative text on travel literature. Underground? Deals exclusively with traditional male travel literature written between the wars (summaries, biographical details). Authors discussed are: Robert Byron, Norman Douglas, Graham Greene, D.H.

Lawrence, Evelyn Waugh. Aspects of Essay Source America? analysis: major need to travel in post-war society, boom of travel literature, introduction of passports, awareness of national borders. Travel vs. tourism, the was emily dickinson born latter strongly deprecated. Questionable categorisation of travel periods: exploration (Renaissance), travel (age of the Essay on Early Colonial America? bourgeoisie), tourism (proletarian age). Fussell's study is of rather restricted use for information on in beowulf travel literature. Fussell, Paul. 1992. Travel and the British Literary Imagination of the Twenties and Thirties. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Essay On John Smith: On Early Colonial? Athens: The University of Georgia Press.

71-92. Ghose, Indira. 1998. Women Travellers in Colonial India: The Power of the Female Gaze . Oxford: Oxford UP. Postcolonial-deconstructionist and feminist study on India. Ghose's study aims at uncovering ideologies.

Shows women as doubly colonised. Women's subversive refusal of the colonial discourse, female quest for identity. Questions of ethnic difference and multi-culturalism. Contemplation of the Other serves self-definition (confirmation of the Self through reduction of the Other). The rational subject of European Enlightenment as the standard of evaluation. Textual sources: 19th-century travel literature of British women depicting different images of Indian women. The female perspective of women travellers is influenced by aspects of underground race, class and gender. They seem to Essay Source Colonial have taken over side, male positions of epistemological superiority, of voyeurs or spies. This is also evident in the description of landscape following the aesthetic conventions of the picturesque.

Henderson, Heather. 1992. The Travel Writer and the Text: My Giant Goes with Me Wherever I Go. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on the Modern Literature of Travel . Essay On John Smith: Colonial? Athens: The University of Georgia Press. Archetype In Beowulf? 230-240.

Henderson demonstrates the on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial intertextuality of bourdieu class travel literature on the basis of several examples. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source America?? Literary and cultural influences determined the in beowulf perception and style of travel writers: stereotypes, prejudices, historical and literary knowledge, former travel reports. Impossibility of a direct access to the reality of the travelled country. Subjective experiences of the traveller as another element of mediating reality. Hindley, Geoffrey. 1983.

Tourists, Travellers, and Pilgrims . London: Hutchinson. Hunter, Jefferson. 1982. Edwardian Fiction . Cambridge, Ma. London: Harvard UP. Study on Smith: Source on Early Colonial the Edwardian novel . Discusses predominantly male authors (only Woolf and Family Role Play Vita Sackville West are mentioned). Key words: Formal aspects (continuity and change). Source America?? Depiction of social problems. Best-sellers (do not account for the particular character of the epoch). Travel literature as a means of where was emily escaping into the exotic.

Imperialism. Debate on identity. The English country mansion as a topos. Criticism: Tendency towards superficial judgements. Ingemanson, Brigitta Maria. 1993. Under Cover: The Paradox of Victorian Women's Travel Costume. In: Bonnie Frederick Susan H. McLeod, eds. Women and the Journey: The Female Travel Experience . Pullman, Washington: Washington State UP.

5-24. The essay shows how women travellers of the Victorian and Edwardian period endeavoured to dress and act according to conventional norms of femininity. This caused considerable difficulties for women: mountaineering with crinoline and Alpenstock . Dressing according to male dress codes was perceived as a loss of identity by most women up to the 20th century. Jost, Herbert. 1989. On John Smith: On Early Colonial? Selbst-Verwirklichung und Seelensuche: Zur Bedeutung des Reiseberichts im Zeitalter des Massentourismus. In: Peter J. Brenner, ed. Der Reisebericht: Die Entwicklung einer Gattung in der deutschen Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp.

490-507. Kohl, Stephan. 1990. Travel Literature and the Art of Self-Invention. In: Rüdiger Ahrens, ed. Anglistentag 1989 Würzburg: Proceedings . Tübingen: Niemeyer. Korte, Barbara.

1996. Der englische Reisebericht: Von der Pilgerfahrt bis zur Postmoderne . Darmstadt: WBG. Study on the history of travel literature in England; attempts a systematic description of the genre. Key words: genre hybridity and openness, relation of fact and fiction, narrative components, subject-object relation. Marginally, Korte also considers travel literature by women authors. Distinguishes different motivations for travelling and different forms of kick-ass film travel reports: pilgrimage (spiritual salvation), voyages of Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early discovery (trade routes, map-making, exotic merchandise, conquest), expedition (scientific and bourdieu class nautical discoveries), Grand tour (identity formation, sights, sexual adventures), Home tour (getting to know one's own country, questions of national identity and nationalism), subjectivity, experimental forms of travel literature in the 1930s (personal experience, civilisation critique), development of tourism (relaxation, security, comfort, sights), intertextual play with travel reports in postmodernism.

Kowalewski, Michael, ed. Source On Early? 1992. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on of brain vs right the Modern Literature of Travel . Essay On John A Truthful? Athens: The University of Georgia Press. The contributions to this essay collection are quite heterogeneous with respect to archetype content and Essay on John on Early quality, they are separately listed and annotated under the names of the bourdieu class respective authors (see Rober Foulke, Heather Henderson, Mary Morris). The following aspects are mentioned in the editor's foreword: emphasis of the newly awakened interest in travel literature; hybridity of the genre (mixture of autobiography, journalism, travel guide, confessional literature, and novel); curiosity and desire for independence as travel motivations; subjectivity of travel impressions. Lawrence, Karen L. 1994. On John Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Penelope Voyages: Women and Travel in the British Literary Tradition . Cornell: Cornell UP.

Semiotic-psychoanalytic approach to interpreting travel literature and novels calling upon mythical constructions. Was Emily Dickinson Born? Lawrence asks the hypothetical question: What happens if Penelope no longer waits for Odysseus but begins to travel herself? Thesis: it is the traditional exclusion of Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial America? women from bourdieu class travelling that brings about the male travel plot. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? Lawrence argues on kick-ass film the basis of Essay Colonial America? psychoanalytic theorems: Freud's association of the uncanny with the stranger and the mother suggests the male traveller's ambivalent search for the maternal/original safety. Side Vs Right? Travelling enabled women to penetrate new spaces, experiencing the tension between the familiar and on John Smith: on Early the strange.

The flexibility of the Family Role Play genre of Essay Smith: A Truthful Source travel literature opened up opportunities for women, even the process of side writing became a kind of travel adventure, a breaking away from on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial male (literary) conventions. Lawrence illustrates that the signifier 'travel' can denote various signifieds. Postulates differences between male and female conventions of writing and behaviour, provides evidence from a number of texts (Mary Kingsley and bourdieu class Sarah Lee among others). Lobsien, Eckhard. Smith: On Early? 1981.

Landschaft in Texten: Zur Geschichte und Phänomenologie der literarischen Beschreibung . Stuttgart: Metzler. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. Vs Right? The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP. MacCannell, Dean. 1976. [1999] The Tourist: A New Theory of the Leisure Class . New York: Schocken Books. Structuralist-semiotic study on tourism. MacCannell sees the tourist as a prototype of the modern human being (hunger for A Truthful Source Colonial, adventure, need for leisure time, superficiality). Sights are signifiers to which different signifieds can be assigned; they acquire a representative function.

Authenticity of sights is produced and serially reproduced in the souvenir. Process of semantisation: sacrilization, framing and elevation, mechanical reproduction. Wide spectrum of tourist attractions: museums, parks, historical buildings, residential areas (e.g. Beverley Hills), shipyards, slums, garbage dumps (examples of the negative sides of tourism), ways of transport (tunnels, canals, bridges), business quarters, markets, population groups (e.g. Amish people). Melchett, Sonia 1991. Passionate Quests: Five Modern Women Travellers . London. Heinemann. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Novel Topographies: A Spatial Reading of Sybil.

In: Joachim Frenk, ed. Spatial Change in Family Role English Literature . Essay On John Smith: Source On Early? Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Disraeli's novel serves as an example for illustrating the new experiences of space created by kick-ass film, the possibility of railroad travelling (the account is based on Schivelbusch 1977, see below). Key words: mobility, speed, transportation of goods, communication, overcoming of Smith: A Truthful America? distances, changes of landscape, gaining knowledge of different social areas. Mills, Sara. 1991. Discourses of archetype in beowulf Difference: An Analysis of Women's Travel Writing and Colonialism . London: Routledge. One of the first studies focusing on postcolonial issues from Essay on John Source a feminist perspective (see also Ghose 1998).

Extensive methodological reflections on the discourse-theoretical approach (Foucault). Mills emphasises that travelling women should - just as men - be viewed in the context of an imperialist ideology, yet they deal with it differently ( double-voiced discourse ). Mills provides a research report on underground to canada travel literature and remarks on the previous neglect of female travellers. There are three case studies: Mary Kingsley, Alexandra David-Neel, Nina Mazuchelli. Morris, Mary. 1992.

Women and Journeys: Inner and Outer. In: Michael Kowalewski, ed. Temperamental Journeys: Essays on Essay on John A Truthful Source the Modern Literature of Travel . Athens: The University of Georgia Press. 25-32. Morris characterises female travelling and underground to canada travel writing from her own perspective. Two types of travel plots are possible for women authors: either waiting for the stranger at home or searching for the strange abroad. Morris discusses women's inclination to enter a dialogic relationship with the Essay on John Colonial foreign country, to bring in their own perception. Women prefer travelling in company, they are often in archetype in beowulf need of Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? male protection. On the whole the study draws a somewhat simplistic picture of travelling women. Pelz, Annegret.

1993. Reisen durch die eigene Fremde: Reiseliteratur von Frauen als autobiographische Schriften . Köln: Böhlau. Pfister, Manfred. 1993. Intertextuelles Reisen, oder: Der Reisebericht als Intertext.

In: Herbert Foltinek, Wolfgang Riehle Waldemar Zacharasiewicz, eds. Tales and 'their telling difference': Zur Theorie und Geschichte der Narrativik . Festschrift Franz K. Stanzel. Heidelberg: Winter. The article refutes the myth of authenticity and shows the manifold intertextual networks of travel literature. Bourdieu Class? Typology of intertextuality in travel literature. Repressed and on John Smith: on Early America? negated intertextuality (blurring of intertextual tracks; search for new, non-verbalised spaces), compiled intertextuality (excerpting travel guides and reports), homage paying intertextuality (visiting cult-places and quoting authorities), dialogic function of intertextuality (discussion of former travel traditions).

Pfister, Manfred Indira Ghose. 1996. Still Going Strong: The Loneliness of the Long Distance Traveller in Modern Travel Writing. Journal for the Study of British Culture 3.2: 149-163. Pratt, Marie Louise. 1992. Imperial Eyes: Travel Writing and Transculturation . London: Routledge. Postcolonial approach. Deals with travel literature on South America and Africa 1750-1980. Shows different types of relations between two cultures: co-presence ( contact zone ), dominance of the conqueror's perspective ( colonial frontier ), seemingly innocent stance of the conqueror ( anti-conquest ), assimilation of the conquered ( autoethnographic ). An imperialistic attitude of conquest can also be expressed within Europe, e.g. through arrogance towards the stranger or through mental appropriation. Pratt includes rhetorical devices of imperialistic tendencies in travel literature: epithets and similes referring to the traveller's own country, aesthetisation of archetype landscape according to native categories, elevated position with panoramic view, self-revaluation caused by a joy for Essay Smith: Source on Early Colonial, discovery, exploiting the knowledge of the native guide.

Quadflieg, Helga. 2000. Kleine Fluchten: Isabella Bird und ihre Reisen nach Amerika. In: Querelles: Jahrbuch für Frauenforschung 2000. (Vol. Kick-ass Film? 5: Grenzgängerinnen des moralischen Geschlechts ). Stuttgart: Metzler.

110-123. A case study of some of Isabella Bird's travel writings. Illustrates the double bind of the female traveller in the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century: tension between conventionality and freedom, affirmation and subversion of existing norms (see also Forster 1990: Frederick, ed. 1991). Robinson, Jane. 1990.

Wayward Women: A Guide to Women Travellers . Oxford: Oxford UP. A bibliography of women's travel writing listing approx. 400 authors. Entries contain brief biographical sketches, key words and Smith: synopses. Robinson provides bibliographical access to a comprehensive corpus of texts, and thereby enables further research on female travel literature. Russel, Mary. [1986] 1996. The Blessings of a Good Thick Skirt: Women Travellers and Their World. London: Flamingo. Said, Edward. 1983.

Orientalism . New York: Random House. Schabert, Ina. Kick-ass Film? 1997. Reisebücher: Die Frau in der Fremde. In: Ina Schabert. Englische Literaturgeschichte aus der Sicht der Geschlechterforschung . Essay On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? Stuttgart: Kröner. 589-597.

Schäffter, Ortfried, ed. 1991. Das Fremde: Erfahrungsmöglichkeiten zwischen Faszination und Bedrohung . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Schaff discusses the textuality of cities and bourdieu class their literary representation with respect to the different perspectives of male and female authors/characters. Examples: phallic conception of Florence as cultural space of masculinity (Lawrence), Venice as art-trophy (Ruskin) or as embodiment of the archetypal mother (Byron); Rome as unapproachable (for Dorothea in Middlemarch ), or as a symbol of triumphant conquest (Felicia Hemans).

Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. 1977. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert. On John Smith:? Frankfurt/M: Fischer. Authoritative study on of brain travelling by railroad.

Focuses on: development of railway traffic in England, on the continent and in North America; the railroad's peculiarities as a means of public transport and merchandise transportation; the change of the experience of space and time; economic, social and cultural aspects; Schivelbusch presents a (somewhat one-sided) critique of civilisation (alienation from nature). Schülting, Sabine. 1997. Essay On John A Truthful Source America?? Wilde Frauen, Femde Welten: Kolonisierungsgeschichten aus Amerika . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Stannard, Martin. 1982. Debunking the Jungle: The Context of Evelyn Waugh's Travel Books 1930-9. Prose Studies 5.1 (Special Issue The Art of bourdieu class Travel: Essays on Travel Writing ): 105-126. Stevenson, Catherine Barnes. 1982. Victorian Women Travel Writers in Africa . Boston: Twayne.

Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982. Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. On John Smith: Source America?? In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Tinling, Marion. 1989. Woman into Therapy Role Play Essay, the Unknown: A Sourcebook on Women Explorers and Essay on John A Truthful on Early Colonial America? Travelers . Bourdieu Class? New York: Greenwood Press. Veit, Karin.

1997. Journey and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Gender - Diversity of Travel Writing. In: Susanne Fender, ed. Feminist Contributions to the Literary Canon: Setting Standards of Taste . Role Essay? Leviston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. 107-138. Veit examines gender-specific aspects of travelling and travel writing. Cites examples of women writers blurring the gender boundaries, i.e. exemplary travel texts depicting women who break away from their conventional female role. Essay On John Smith: Colonial? Examples of gender-specific discourses: the Family Role Play journey of Ella Maillart and Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? Peter Fleming from Peking through the Chinese province Sianking to Cashmere is told in two different texts (1936) representing a female and a male version; further examples are the two journeys to Russia undertaken by Essay, Susan Richards and Christopher Hope at the same time (1990). Veit's analysis confirms gender stereotypes, but also illustrates the double-voiced discourse of female travellers in Smith: A Truthful their writings. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Archetype In Beowulf? Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space.

Points of Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide. Provides literary examples. Essay collection on the socio-cultural context of modernism. Focuses on literature and art in their relation to society. Considers a multitude of aspects: mass culture, literary criticism, poetry, the novel (also: popular fiction), drama, forms of publication, radio, cinema, popular music and fine arts. Felski, Rita. 1995. The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication.

Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Harris, Jose. Underground To Canada? 1994. Private Lives and Public Spirit: Britain 1870-1914 . Harmondsworth: Penguin. Study proceeding from social history. Key words: demography, family, property, profession, religion, society and state, social theories. Keating, Peter. 1989. The Haunted Study: A Social History of the English Novel 1875-1914 . London: Secker Warburg. Kern, Stephen. 1983.

The Culture of Time and Space, 1880-1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Lewis, Jane, Ed. 1986. Labour and Essay on John A Truthful Source America? Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on to canada women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. Lucas, John. 1997.

The Radical Twenties. Essay Smith: Source Colonial? Aspects of Writing, Politics and Culture. Nottingham: Five Leaves. Study on the 1920s as a time of radical change, proceeding from underground to canada cultural theory. Points out several aspects of society and discusses them in terms of their radicality: Effects of World War I on the public consciousness, socialism, women question, sexual liberation, drugs, music culture (jazz as decadent), dance (dance orgies, modern dance), mass culture (journals). Detailed discussion of novels (also by female authors).

McFarlane, Barbara. 1984. Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. Essay Source Colonial? 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Mowat, John Loch. 1955.

Britain Between the Wars 1918-1940 . London: Methuen. Nicholls, Peter. 1995. Modernisms. A Literary Guide . London: Macmillan.

Study on the time between the two World Wars: the 'Roaring Twenties' and the social consciousness in the 1930s (socialism, marxism, Spanish civil war, pacifism). Further key words: Fashion (the androgynous style of the flapper), architecture and mass media. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. 1994. This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history.

Centred on Therapy Role Essay women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to work between the Essay on John Smith: on Early Colonial America? wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Pacifist movement. Fascism.

Female artists. Winter, J.M. 1985. The Great War and the British People . To Canada? Basingstoke London: Macmillan. Demographic study on World War I, proceeding from social history. Key words: war and loss, people's health, standards of living, efforts to Essay on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial increase birthrates, female surplus. Archetype In Beowulf? Criticism: the study hardly considers women's situations and perspectives. Study on female experience of the two World Wars. Special focus: women and profession.

Restraining of women from working in the time between the wars. Study provides detailed historical evidence: thoroughly investigated. Byles, Joan Montgomery. 1985. On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America?? Women's Experience of World War I: Suffragists, Pacifists and Poets. Women's Studies International Forum 8.5: 473-487.

Article on the suffrage movement in bourdieu class the context of World War I. Key words: division - militarist suffragettes vs. pacifist suffragettes. Essay Smith: A Truthful? Example: conflict between Emmeline and Sylvia Pankhurst. Textual material: war poetry by women. Dyhouse, Carol. 1989. Feminism and the Family in where was emily born England 1880-1939 . London: Blackwell. Study on family and marriage from a women-centred perspective. Textual material: basically (auto)biography, but also some novels. Felski, Rita. Essay On John Source Colonial? 1995.

The Gender of Modernity . Cambridge, Ma.: Harvard UP. Study on gender and archetype modernity, proceeding from cultural theory and cultural history. Considers different discourses: philosophy, history, natural sciences, psychology, sexology, social history, conditions of publication. Focus on one author: Marie Corelli. Gardner, Viv Susan Rutherford, eds. Essay A Truthful? 1992. The New Woman And Her Sisters: Feminism And Theatre 1850-1914 . Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf. Gardiner, Juliet, ed.

1993. Women's Voices 1880-1918: The New Woman. London: Collins Brown. Essay collection on underground to canada literary representations of the New Woman. Analysis is not limited to the genre of the Smith: A Truthful Source America? New Woman novel , covers a wide range of textual examples: poetry, drama, travel literature, letters and other cultural-historical documents. Deals with established and less established writers. Horn, Pamela. 1995. Bourdieu Class? Women in the 1920s . Stroud: Alan Sutton Publishing. Lewis, Jane, ed. 1986.

Labour and Love: Women's Experience of Home and Family, 1850-1940 . Oxford: Blackwell. Essay collection on women's social history between 1850 and 1940. Deals with the on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial usual topics: childhood, marriage, motherhood, class differences. McFarlane, Barbara. 1984.

Homes for Heroines. Housing in the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and where dickinson born the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Oldfield, Sybil, ed. On John Smith: Source? 1994.

This Working-Day World: Women's Lives and where Culture(s) in Britain 1914-1945. London: Taylor Francis. Essay collection on social history. Centred on Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? women's history, introduces several women's groups. Key words: Divorce laws, motherhood. Women's rights to was emily dickinson born work between the wars, elementary school teachers. Suffragettes. Essay On John Smith: Source? Pacifist movement. Fascism.

Female artists. Ouditt, Sharon. 1994. Bourdieu Class? Fighting Forces, Writing Women: Identity and Ideology in on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? the First World War . London New York: Routledge. Study on women and World War I. Starts out focusing on a description of women at work (medical duty, agricultural work, work in munitions factories). Continues to approach the archetype topic by looking at different texts: magazines, autobiographies and novels (partly popular literature). Literature (fictional and on John America? non-fictional) is granted a major role in this context. Family Role Essay? Areas of discussion: images of women: stereotypical Red Cross Nurse (active role of hero, yet female) - the ordinary housewife at the home front as angel in Essay on Early Colonial the house in war literature. Critical reflection on the war and women's roles in postwar fiction. Image of the mother as a preserver of life. Feminist pacifism.

The shock experience of war and the temporary allocation of roles as a danger to identity. Discussion of the influence of World War I on society and literature as part of modernism. Bataille, Georges. 1994. Die Erotik , ed. G. Bergfleth. München. Benthien, Claudia.

1999. Haut: Literaturgeschichte, Körperbilder, Grenzdiskurse . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Benthien, Claudia Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. Bordo, Susan. 1993.

Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body . Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: University of California Press. Breger, Claudia Tobias Döring, eds. 1998. Kick-ass Film? Figuren des/der Dritten: Erkundungen kultureller Zwischenräume . Amsterdam, Atlanta: Rodopi. Butler, Judith. 1990. Gender Trouble: Feminism and on John A Truthful on Early the Subversion of Identity. New York, London: Routledge.

de Lauretis, Teresa. 1990. Eccentric Subjects: Feminist Theory and Historical Consciousness. Feminist Studies 16.1: 115-150. Dollimore, Jonathan. 1992. The Dominant and the Deviant: A Violent Dialectic. In:ed. Family Essay? Wayne R. Dynes Stephen Donaldson, eds.

Homosexual Themes in Literary Studies . Essay Smith: On Early Colonial America?? New York: Garland. 87-100. Douglas, Mary. [1966] 1984. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of the born Concepts of Pollution and Taboo . London, etc.: Ark. Doyle, Laura. 1994. Bordering on the Body: The Radical Matrix of Modern Fiction and Culture . New York, Oxford: Oxford UP. Durkheim, Emile. [1893] 1996. Über soziale Arbeitsteilung. Studie über die Organisation höherer Gesellschaften. A Truthful Source On Early? Frankfurt/M.

Dreitzel, H.P. 1972. Die gesellschaftlichen Leiden und das Leiden an der Gesellschaft: Vorstudien zu einer Pathologie des Rollenverhaltens . Stuttgart: Ferdinand Enke. Febvre, Lucien. 1990. 'Frontière - Wort und Bedeutung. In: Lucien Febvre. Das Gewissen des Historikers . Kick-ass Film? Frankfurt/M. Smith: Colonial? 27-36. Ferguson, Russell, Martha Gever, Trinh T. Minh-ha Cornel West, eds. 1990. Out There: Marginalization and Contemporary Cultures.

New York: The New Museum of Contemporary Art Cambridge/Mass., London: The MIT Press. Finke, Laurie. 1986. The Rhetoric of Marginality: Why I Do Feminist Theory. Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature 5.2: 251-72.

Foucault, Michel. [1963] 1988. Zum Begriff der Übertretung. In: Michel Foucault. Schriften zur Literatur . Frankfurt/M.: Fischer. 69-89. Freud, Sigmund. [1919] 1994. To Canada? Das Unheimliche. In: Sigmund Freud. Studienausgabe IV, Psychologische Schriften, ed.

Alexander Mitscherlich et al. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Therapy? 241-274. Gregg, John. 1994. Maurice Blanchot and the Literature of Transgression. Princeton/New Jersey: Princeton UP. Hohnsträter, Dirk.

1999. Im Zwischenraum. Essay A Truthful Source America?? Ein Lob des Grenzgängers. In: Claudia Benthien Irmela Marei Krüger-Fürhoff, eds. 1999. Über Grenzen: Limitation und Transgression in Literatur und Ästhetik . Stuttgart, Weimar: Metzler. 231-244. Jervis, John. 1999. Transgressing the Modern: Explorations in the Western Experience of Otherness . Oxford: Blackwell. Koschorke, Albrecht.

1990. Die Geschichte des Horizonts: Grenze und Grenzüberschreitung in literarischen Landschaftsbildern . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Kristeva, Julia. 1980. Powers of Horror. An Essay on kick-ass film Abjection . New York, London: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy. 2000. Essay On John A Truthful Source On Early America?? Utopian Bodies and the Politics of Transgression.

London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit, Janet Price. In Beowulf? 1999. Openings on the Body: A Critical Introduction. In: Janet Price Margrit Shildrick, eds. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . New York: Routledge.

1-14. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries. Feminism, Postmodernism and A Truthful Source on Early (Bio)Ethics . London, New York: Routledge. Showalter, Elaine. 1985. Bourdieu Class? Feminist Criticism in the Wilderness.

In: Elaine Showalter, ed. The New Feminist Criticism: Essays on Women, Literature and Theory . London: Virago, 243-270. Stallybrass, Peter Allan White, eds. 1986. On John Smith: Colonial? The Politics and Poetics of bourdieu class Transgression . London: Methuen. Stevens, Hugh. 2000. Introduction: Modernism and its Margins.

In: Hugh Stevens Caroline Howlett, eds. Modernist Sexualities . Manchester, New York: Manchester University Press, 1-12. Turner, Victor. 1967. Betwixt and Between: The Liminal Period in Rites de Passage . In: Victor Turner. The Forest of Symbols . New York: Cornell UP. Van Gennep, Arnold. [1908] 1960. The Rites of Passage , trans. M.B.

Vizedom, G.L. Essay On John Smith: On Early America?? Caffee. Chicago: U of Chicago P. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. Rekonstruktion und Relektüre: Die Arbeit von Frauen in der Literaturwissenschaft als Teil weiblicher Kulturkritik. In: Sigrid Weigel.

Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek b. Hamburg: Rowohlt. Bourdieu Class? 252-263. Butler, Judith. 1993. Bodies that Matter: On the Discursive Limits of 'Sex' . New York London: Routledge.

Diprose, Ros. 1994. The Bodies of on Early America? Women: Ethics, Embodiment and Sexual Difference. London: Routledge. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Sexualität und Wahrheit 1: Der Wille zum Wissen. Bourdieu Class? 6th ed. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel.

1994. Überwachen und Strafen: Die Geburt des Gefängnisses . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Foucault, Michel. 1998. Über Hermaphrodismus: Der Fall Barbin , ed. Wolfgang Schäffner Joseph Vogl. Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1994. Volatile Bodies: Toward a Corporeal Feminism. Bloomington, Indianapolis: Indiana UP. Haraway, Donna.

1991. The Promises of Monsters: A Regenerative Politics for Smith: Source on Early Colonial America?, Inappropriate/d Others. In: L. Grossberg, C. Nelson, P. Treichler, eds. Cultural Studies. London: Routledge. Herdt, Gilbert, ed. 1994. Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History . New York: Zone Books. Horner, Avril Angela Keane. 2000. Body Matters: Feminism, Textuality, Corporeality.

Manchester, New York: Manchester UP. Hurley, Kelly. 1996. The Gothic Body: Sexuality, Materialism, and Play Degeneration of the Fin de Siècle. Cambridge: Cambridge UP.

Jacobus, Mary, Evelyn Fox Keller Sally Shuttleworth, eds. 1990. Body/Politics: Women and the Discourses of Science. New York London: Routledge. Laqueur, Thomas. 1992. Essay On John Colonial? Making Sex: Body and Gender from the Greeks to Freud . Cambridge/Mass., London: Harvard UP. Price, Janet Margrit Shildrick, eds. 1999. Feminist Theory and the Body: A Reader . Where Dickinson? New York: Routledge. Sargisson, Lucy.

2000. Utopian Bodies and Essay A Truthful Source Colonial the Politics of Transgression. London, etc.: Routledge. Shildrick, Margrit. 1997. Leaky Bodies and Boundaries: Feminism, Postmodernism, and (Bio)Ethics . London: Routledge. Terry, Jennifer Jacqueline Urla, eds. 1995.

Deviant Bodies . Bloomington: Indiana UP. Brooks, J.A. Role? 1982. Ghosts of London: The East End, City, and North. Norwich: Jarrold. Dinzelbacher, Peter, ed. 1993. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial? Europäische Mentalitätsgeschichte: Hauptthemen in Einzeldarstellungen . Left Side Of Brain Vs Right? Stuttgart: Kröner. Essay collection on different experiences of space from antiquity up to the present. Approach: history of mentality. Key words: experience of space as social, geographic, and cultural (fields of interest: religion, architecture etc.).

Space and aspects of conquering and opening up (of new rooms). Cyberspace. Foucault, Michel. 1992. Andere Räume. Essay On John A Truthful Source Colonial America?? In: Karlheinz Bark et al., eds. Aisthesis: Wahrnehmung heute oder Perspektiven einer anderen Ästhetik . Underground To Canada? Reclam: Leipzig. 34-46. Article on space and otherness. Difference between normal and deviant spaces. Key words: heterotopias (hospitals, psychiatric clinics, prisons. ); spatial symbolism and history of mentality.

Frenk, Joachim, ed. 2000. Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. Aufsatzsammlung. Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? Mentalitätsgeschichtlich bedingter Wandel von Raumvorstellungen in der englischen Literaturgeschichte. Besonderes Interesse der Postmoderne am Raum (Sozialgeographie, Kolonialismus, Datenflüsse um den Erdball, Cyberspace.) Fryer, Judith. 1984. Family Therapy? Women and Space.

The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Study on gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography. Contains writings on architecture and Essay on John A Truthful Source America? feminist reform efforts. Grosz, Elizabeth. 1995.

Space, Time and Perversion. Essays on the Politics of Bodies . London: Routledge. (esp. 103-124) Hauser, Susanne. 1990. Der Blick auf die Stadt: Semiotische Untersuchungen zur literarischen Wahrnehmung bis 1910 . Berlin: Dietrich Reimer. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements).

Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of underground to canada space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical. Key words: Symbolic representative functions of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful on Early America? space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of Therapy Role Play Essay feminist literary criticism.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. On John Smith: A Truthful Source On Early? Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Kern, Stephen. 1983. Side Of Brain Vs Right? The Culture of Time and Space 1880 1918 . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Study on modernist concepts of time and space. Documents historical changes of spatial concepts in modernity.

Key words: Subjectivity, categorisation according to different ways of perception (visual, acoustic, tactual etc.) Microscopic space. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial? Art (cubism, impressionism) and sculpture. Film (rapid change of pictures and scenes). Heterogeneous space. Plurality of archetype stance, multi-perspectivity. Changes of attitude. Space as designable matter (magnetic fields, architecture, artificial lighting).

Expansion and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial reduction of geographical space (expeditions, public and archetype private transport, aviation). Urban spaces. Psychoanalysis (mental rooms of the interior, stream of on John A Truthful Colonial consciousness). Kursbuch Stadt. Kick-ass Film? Stadtleben und Stadtkultur an der Jahrtausendwende. 1999 . A Truthful Source On Early America?? Redaktion Stefan Bollmann. Stuttgart: DVA. Läpple, Dieter. Bourdieu Class? 1991. Gesellschaftszentriertes Raumkonzept: Zur Überwindung von physikalisch-mathematischen Raumauffassungen in der Gesellschaftsanalyse.

In: Martin Wentz, ed. Stadt-Räume . On John Smith: Source Colonial America?? Frankfurt/M.: Campus. 35-46. Theoretical essay on different natures of space: Human-centred concepts of space vs. scientific concepts of space. Lefèbvre, Henri. 1972. Die Revolution der Städte. München: List. McFarlane, Barbara. Kick-ass Film? 1984. Homes for Heroines.

Housing in on John Source the Twenties. In: Making Space. Women and the Man-Made Environment . London: Pluto Press. 26-36. Social history: women-centred housing. Nowel, Ingrid. 1998. London: Biographie einer Weltstadt.

Architektur und Kunst, Geschichte und Literatur. Köln: Dumont. Shaffer, Elinor S., ed. Therapy Essay? 1996. Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Sharpe, William 1986. Feminizing the Urban World. Urban Resources 3.2: 55-57. Schivelbusch, Wolfgang.

1979. Geschichte der Eisenbahnreise. Zur Industrialisierung von Raum und Zeit im 19. Jahrhundert . Essay On John Source? Frankfurt/M.: Ullstein. Historical study on space and where born time in the 19th century related to the development of the railway as a means of travel and transport. Its influence on Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? the perception of space and time. (Germany, England, USA). Sennett, Richard. 1994. Flesh and Play Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization . New York London: W.W. Norton.

Study on space and bodily experience. Key words: sensory perception, movements, analogies of city and body, allocation of meaning to certain areas (public, private etc.), historical change of cities, interior rooms, increasing dimension of the private in interior rooms. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Cultural-historical approach. Considers space: female allegorization of the city. Weinreb, Ben Christopher Hibbert. 1983.

The London Encyclopaedia. London: Macmillan. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. On John A Truthful On Early Colonial America?? Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity.

Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and underground utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . London: Routledge. Collection of essays, proceeding from social geography. On John Smith: On Early? Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and sexual). Questions of the body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Benko, Georges Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

1997. Space and bourdieu class Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. Collection of essays. Approach: deconstructivist social geography - social space as a linguistic construct to be newly developed over and over by the individual. Key words: Blurring of boundaries between mental and empirical spaces; spatial symbolism (described from a constructivist background and not from the usual arguments of social history or history of Essay A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? mentality). Duncan, Nancy, ed.

1996. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Where? Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from Essay Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996.

Renegotiating Gender and Family Therapy Essay Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Essay Source America? Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. MacDowell, Linda. 1996.

Spatializing Feminism. Geographic Perspectives. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 28-44. Article on a feminism and space. Approach: deconstructivist social geography. Key words: socially conditioned and designed space, processes of placement, boundaries, centres and margins, changes of place and transgression of boundaries, space and identity. Reference to gender relations. Natter, Wolfgang John Paul Jones III.

1997. Identity, Space, and Other Uncertainties. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 141-161. Article on in beowulf the volatile nature of space and A Truthful Source Colonial identity. Archetype? Approach. On John A Truthful America?? Deconstructivist social geography. Conception of space adapted from the conception of subject.

Constructivity and contingency of side vs right discursive concepts as means of Essay A Truthful Source on Early social change. Pfeil, Elisabeth. 1972. Großstadtforschung: Entwicklung und gegenwärtiger Stand. Hannover: Jänecke.

Rose, Gillian. 1996. Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and bourdieu class Feminist Masquerade. In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Smith: America?? 56-74. Article on space and gender.

Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. To Canada? Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. Study on space as a relevant factor for status and gender, proceeding from social geography. Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from Smith: on Early America? different ethnic cultures. Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Dickinson Born? Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalist allocation of meaning.

Barta, Peter I. 1990. The Treatment of the Fourth Dimension in the Modernist City Novel. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum.

310-315. Essay on the modernist city novel . Source On Early Colonial? Key words: the fourth dimension, i.e. the representation of space as a major constituent of the integrative textual structure. Space and identity. Becker, Claudia. 1990. Zur Interiorisierung der Raumsymbolik in der Literatur der Moderne. Underground To Canada? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful on Early America? Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the dickinson born XIIth Congress of the on John America? International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. In Beowulf? 3. München: iudicum. 281-287.

Study deals with modernist tendencies of internalization: depiction of different spaces of the interior (factual and on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial psychological ones). Berghahn, Daniela. 1988. Raumdarstellung im englischen Roman der Moderne . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Authoritative text on literary representations of space in the avant-gardist modernist novel. Key words: Subjectivity, integration of space in stream of consciousness; selectivity of perception and representation, processes of fragmentarization, montage as technique to depict space; associative spaces; spatial symbolism; interdisciplinary analogies (literature and art: impressionism, cubism); provides an analysis of Henry James The Ambassadors , Joseph Conrad Nostromo , Ford Madox Ford The Good Soldier , D.H.

Lawrence Women in Love , James Joyce Ulysses , E.M. Forster A Passage To India , and Family Therapy Virginia Woolf To the on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial Lighthouse . Breuner, Michael. Archetype? 1991. Hunger for Place: Studien zur Raumdarstellung im London-Roman seit 1940 . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Study on the London Novel after 1940. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? Key words: literary appropriation of the city.

Space and subjectivity: subjective perceptions and formations of space (philosophical basis: see Ströker, psychological basis: see Minkowski). Was Emily Dickinson? Archetypical aspects of space. Essay On John A Truthful Colonial? Criticism: terminologically imprecise, appears rather essayistic. Bronfen, Elisabeth. 1986. Der literarische Raum: Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel von Dorothy M. Richardsons Romanzyklus Pilgrimage.

Tübingen: Niemeyer. Study on literary space in the work of Dorothy Richardson. Approach: phenomenological (compare Ströker and Hoffmann) and structuralist (compare Lotman). Born? Key words: subjectivity of spatial perception in Essay on John Colonial America? streams of kick-ass film consciousness. Metaphorical space (additional symbolism) vs. space which can be physically entered. Space and identity. Spatial textual structures.

Drabble, Margaret. 1979. A Writer's Britain: Landscape in Literature. Photographed by Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial, Jorge Lewinski. Bourdieu Class? London: Thames Hudson. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? The Art of Interpreting . University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. Where Born? 260-292.

Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the Source Colonial garden: a place of solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for bourdieu class, men. Epstein-Nor, Deborah. 1991. A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? The Urban Peripatetic: Spectator, Streetwalker, Woman Writer.

Nineteenth Century Literature 46.3: 351-375. Fludernik, Monika. 1999. Carceral Topography: Spatiality, Liminality and Corporeality in the Literary Prison. Textual Practice 13.1: 43-77. Article on space and identity.

Key words: boundaries; identity formation; spatial symbolism. Provides examples of texts. Füger, Wilhelm. 1984. Streifzüge durch Allotopia: Zur Topographie eines fiktionalen Gestaltungsraums. Anglia 102.3,4: 349-391. Article on space in the utopian genre. Hillebrand, Bruno von. Bourdieu Class? 1975.

Poetischer, philosophischer, mathematischer Raum. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 417-463. Article on different spaces: geometrical space vs. textual space.

Narratological perspective on on John Smith: on Early America? spatial representation (narratological background of the 1970s). Hoffmann, Gerhard. 1978. Raum, Situation, erzählte Wirklichkeit . Poetologische und historische Studien zum englischen und amerikanischen Roman. Stuttgart: Metzler. Authoritative text on left side vs right narrative representation of space. Essay On John On Early America?? Approach: phenomenological, structuralist and semantic. Key words: different facets of space, i.e. visional space, space of action, atmospheric space (Ströker). Typology of underground to canada narrated space based on subjectivity and literary devices: curious space, grotesque space, gothic space etc. On John On Early? Allocation of Family Essay meaning to space. Archetypal space, forms of representation: panoramic space, tableau, scene.

Hubrath, Margarete, ed. 2001. Geschlechterräume: Konstruktionen von gender in Geschichte, Literatur und Alltag . Köln: Böhlau. Hunt, John Dixon. 1996. On John Smith: On Early Colonial? Paragone in Paradise: Translating the Garden. In: Elinor S. Shaffer, ed. Dickinson? Spaces: Cities, Gardens and Wilderness . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. 55-70.

Article on garden symbolism. Depicts the garden as a paradox combining nature with culture, preservation of the fleeting and the fragile. Jäger, Dietrich. 1998. Erzählte Räume. Studien zur Phänomenologie der epischen Geschehensumwelt . Würzburg: Könighausen Naumann. Study on Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? the phenomenology of narrative environments of action. Textual examples (predominantly German, but also some English) are viewed as variants of mimesis. Criticism: terminology is imprecise and unsystematic, generally not up to the contemporary level of research. Kilian, Eveline.

2002. Exploring London. Walking the City - (Re)Writing the City. In: Hartmut Berghoff, Barbara Korte Ralf Schneider, eds. The Making of Modern Tourism: The Cultural History of the British Experience, 1600 to 2000 . London: Palgrave. Where Born? 267-283.

Klarer, Mario. 1995. Simultaneity and Gender in Modernist Discourses. In: Near Encounters: Festschrift für Richard Martin . Frankfurt/M.: Peter Lang. Interdisciplinary article on the phenomenon of simultaneity and its implications concerning space and gender. Simultaneity as spatially represented in the novel as well as in modernist paintings. Androgynity as a form of simultaneity. Klein, Holger.

1990. Exploring Place and Space in Drama and in Essay on Early Fiction. In: Roger Bauer et al., eds. Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the XIIth Congress of the bourdieu class International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. 174-181. Genre-theoretical essay on on John Smith: the nature of space in drama and fiction.

Different spatial representations in drama and fiction: multi-sensory display of few places on where born stage vs. linguistic-evocative display of many places in Smith: A Truthful Colonial narrative texts. Klotz, Volker. 1969. Die erzählte Stadt: Ein Sujet als Herausforderung des Romans von Lesage bis Döblin. München: Hanser. Kublitz-Kramer, Maria. 1995. Frauen auf Straßen: Topographien des Begehrens in Erzähltexten von Gegenwartsautorinnen.

München: Fink. Lane, Eric. 1988. A Guide to Literary London. Sawtry, Cambridgeshire: Dedalus. Lutwack, Leonard. 1984. The Role of Place in Literature . New York: Syracuse UP.

Study on the role of space in fiction. Contains multiple aspects of analysis. Key words: literary coining of space (topoi). Genre-specific variants. Space imagery (spatial allegories, spatial symbols). Expansion and movement. Time and its spatial component. Characterisation through space. Historical and national particularities of left side space (placelessness in Modernism, wildering in American literature) Provides detailed textual evidence.

On the whole rather unsystematic, yet very stimulating. Maatje, Frank C. On John A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? 1975. Versuch einer Poetik des Raumes. In: Alexander Ritter, ed. Landschaft und Raum in bourdieu class der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG. 392-416. Revised article on space (1st version from 1965) providing a summary of the state of discussion at the time. Refers to spatial symbolism and the phenomenon of perspective. Mahler, Andreas, ed. 1999. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination . Heidelberg: Winter.

Manley, Lawrence. 1995. Literature and Culture in Early Modern London . Cambridge: Cambridge UP. Marcus, Steven. 1987. Essay Smith: America?? Reading the Illegible. Some Modern Representations of Urban Experience. In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds.

Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and to canada Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 232-256. Mersmann, Arndt. 2000. Essay On John A Truthful On Early Colonial? Novel Topography: A Spatial Reading of Sybil . In: Joachim Frenk, ed.

Spatial Change in English Literature . Trier: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier. 147-171. Article on the representation of space in Sybil. Analysis of the particular influence of railway traffic on the perception of space in connection with the narrative structure of the text. Mitchel, W.J.T. 1989. Space, Ideology, and in beowulf Literary Representation. Poetics Today 10.1: 91-102.

Article on Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? space in literature. Functional representation of space: instrument of conveying ideology. Criticism: argument not quite clear. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Play Essay Nature in Modern Fiction. Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of Essay on John Source development), gender-specific differences in was emily dickinson the perception of nature. Punter, David. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial America?? 1979.

Blake's Capital Cities. In: P. Archetype In Beowulf? Weston, ed. London in Literature. London: Roehampton Institute. 46-72. Reichel, Norbert. 1987. Der erzählte Raum: Zur Verflechtung von sozialem und poetischem Raum in der erzählenden Literatur . Darmstadt: WBG.

Study on the intermingling of social and poetic space. Space as bearer of meaning. Narrative representations of on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial space are shown in the context of a history of mentality. Ritter, Alexander, ed. 1975. Landschaft und Raum in der Erzählkunst . Darmstadt: WBG.

Schaff, Barbara. 1999. Gendered Cities: Italienische Städte im Blick britischer Reisender. In: Andreas Mahler, ed. Stadt-Bilder: Allegorie, Mimesis, Imagination. Heidelberg: Winter. 173-196. Article on the gendered nature of cities.

Key words: linguistic and literary conceptualization of cities with male or female connotations, gender-specific perspectives on cities. Application of gender stereotypes to cities. Sharpe, William Leonard Wallock. 1987. From 'Great Town' to left of brain 'Nonplace Urban Realm': Reading the Modern City. On John Smith:? In: William Sharpe Leonard Wallock, eds. Visions of the Modern City: Essays in History, Art, and underground Literature. Baltimore London: Johns Hopkins UP. 1-51.

Sizemore-Wick, Christine. A Truthful Source Colonial? 1989. A Female Vision of the City: London in the Novels of Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Smuda, Manfred, ed. 1992. Die Großstadt als Text . München: Wilhelm Fink. Squier, Susan Merrill, ed.

1984. Women Writers and the City: Essays in Feminist Literary Criticism . Knoxville. University of Tennessee Press. Stanzel, Franz. Kick-ass Film? 1990. Das Niemandsland in der englischen und deutschen Dichtung. Essay Smith: On Early America?? In: Roger Bauer et al., eds.

Space and Boundaries/Espace et Frontières: Proceedings of the underground XIIth Congress of the International Comparative Literature Association/Actes du XIIe Congrès de l'Association Internationale de Littérature Comparée , Vol. 3. München: iudicum. Essay On John On Early? 219-27. Article on the connecting and separating aspects of a boundary. Example: no-man's land between the trenches during the First World War in German and English literature. Timms, Edward David Kelley, eds. 1985.

Unreal City: Urban Experience in Modern European Literature and Art. Manchester: Manchester UP. Turner, James. 1979. The Politics of Landscape: Rural Scenery and Society in English Poetry 1630-1660 . Oxford: Blackwell. Study on spatial symbolism according to dickinson born the poetological devices of the 17th century. Social space and literature. Aestheticizing of topography. Methods of symbolizing and allegorizing space. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Influence of landscape painting on literature in the 17th century.

Twyning, John. 1998. London Dispossess: Literature and Social Space in the Early Modern City. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Weigel, Sigrid. 1990. 'Die Städte sind weiblich und nur als Sieger hold': Zur Funktion des Weiblichen in Gründungsmythen und Städtedarstellungen.

In: Sigrid Weigel, ed. Topographien der Geschlechter. Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt. 149-189. Würzbach, Natascha. 2001.

Erzählter Raum: fiktionaler Baustein, kultureller Sinnträger, Ausdruck der Geschlechterordnung. In: Jörg Helbig, ed. Erzählen und Erzähltheorie im 20. Jahrhundert: Festschrift für Wilhelm Füger . Heidelberg: Winter. 105-129. Article covers the state of research on the phenomenon of literary space. Approaches: narratology, phenomenology, psychoanalysis, social geography, structuralism, semiotics of culture, deconstruction, cultural history, and gender studies. Introduces categories of conceptions and typologies of space. Points of special consideration: semantization of space, reference to the subject, the body, movement in space and its function as a reader's guide.

Provides literary examples. Würzbach, Natascha. in print. Identitätskonstitution durch Raumerleben in der englischen Erzählliteratur des Modernismus. Article on the theory of subjectivity and identity. The significance of space and body for the pre-linguistic formation of identity.

Codes of spatial representation. Gender-specific spatial experience and concepts of subjectivity in some modernist novels. Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Kahrmann, Cordula Gunter Reiß, Manfred Schluchter.

1977. Erzähltextanalyse: Eine Einführung in Grundlagen und Verfahren . 2 vols. Kronberg: Athenäum. Study on the interpretation of narrative texts. Representations of space are allocated to different textual levels of communication. Schwarze, Hans-Wilhelm. 1982.

Ereignisse, Zeit und Raum, Sprechsituationen in narrativen Texten. In: Hans-Werner Ludwig, ed. Arbeitsbuch Romananalyse: Eine Einführung . Tübingen: Narr. 145-188. [esp. 170-174] Essay collection on text analysis. Contains a brief part on the narratological description of space on left of brain vs right the grounds of Hoffmann 1978 (see 2.3).

Ronen, Rose. 1986. Space in Fiction. Poetics Today 7: 421-438. Article on the phenomenon of space and its characteristics in on Early Colonial narrative texts. Study is left of brain vs right, linguistically backed up. Categorisation of space in its relation to Source on Early Colonial the perceiving and acting character (immediacy), degree of factuality. Functions of space: public and private, symbolic, means of kick-ass film characterisation. Integration in the spatial overall structure (topographic, semantic).

Stanzel, Franz. 1979. Theorie des Erzählens . Göttingen: Vandenhoeck Ruprecht. [ch. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful? 5.2] Study on narratology. Foci: perspectival relation of objects to each other vs. non-perspectival naming of left side vs right objects. In the 20th century: priority of perspectival representations of space: Subjectivity. Study on literary space and narratology.

Approach: structuralist/semiotic text analysis (Lotman). Essay Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Text as a spatial structure. Semantic functions of space: convey conceptions of the kick-ass film world, archetypal notion of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial America? verticality and horizontality, distance and dickinson born closeness, setting and transgressing boundaries. Segmenting function of literary representations of space. Selectivity of representation of space.

Depiction of time through space. Generally a universalist notion of space. Lotman, Jurij. Essay On John A Truthful Source Colonial America?? 1972. Die Struktur literarischer Texte . München: Fink. Theoretical study on the structure of literary texts. Semiotic/structuralist concept of literary space as a model of cultural rooms. Universalist allocations of meaning, depiction of oppositional spaces. Sappok, Christian. 1970. Die Bedeutung des Raumes für die Struktur des Erzählwerks . Aufgezeigt an Beispielen aus der polnischen Erzählliteratur . München: Otto Sagner.

Structuralist/semiotic approach to space and narrative traditions. Collection of essays, proceeding from cultural theory. Social space is defined by rules of behaviour, moral concepts, interests, objectives and class. It is therefore relevant for questions of gender identity. Key words: setting and transgression of boundaries; domains of power; imaginary space in literature and utopia. Bell, David Gill Valentine, eds. 1995. Mapping Desire: Geographies and Sexuality . Bourdieu Class? London: Routledge.

Collection of essays, proceeding from Essay on John A Truthful Source Colonial social geography. Key words: connection of space and different facets of identity formation (personal, professional and where dickinson born sexual). Questions of the Smith: Source America? body. Urban spaces. Power relations connected with space. Duncan, Nancy, ed. 1996.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. Essay collection on bourdieu class space, gender and sexuality. Approach: social geography. Key words: territories. Boundaries: blurring of boundaries, transgression of boundaries. Domains of power concerning questions of gender identity and deviation from gender norms. Duncan, Nancy. 1996. Renegotiating Gender and Sexuality in Public and Private Spaces. In: Nancy Duncan, ed.

Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of Gender and Sexuality. London: Routledge. 127-145. Article on spaces of home and family. Key words: homosexuality (male and female); prostitution. Friedman, Susan Stanford. 1996. Spacialization, Narrative Theory, and Virginia Woolf's The Voyage Out . In: Kathy Mezei, ed. Ambiguous Discourse. Feminist Narratology and British Women Writers . Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina Press. 109-136.

Article is an example of the notion of text as space. Structure of text and Essay on John on Early structure of communication: intertextual, historical and psychological (semiotic and symbolic) references. Fryer, Judith. 1984. Women and Space. Kick-ass Film? The Flowering of Desire. In: Prospects: An Annual of American Cultural Studies . 187-230. Essay on Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial gendered concepts of space in architecture, housing and narrative fiction from the turn of the century up to the 1930s based on social geography.

Contains writings on architecture and feminist reform efforts. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy. 1997. Postmodern Becomings: From the Space of Form to the Space of Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Side Of Brain Vs Right? Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to be changed more easily than space proper? Higonnet, Margaret R. Joan Templeton, eds. 1994. Reconfigured Spheres: Feminist Explorations of Literary Space . Amherst: University of Mass. Essay On John Source America?? Press. Essay collection. Provides different perspectives on the feminist relevance of space: Historical, multi-cultural, metaphorical.

Key words: Symbolic representative functions of space in texts. Marginalisation, transgression of boundaries, role of clothing, ghettoisation of feminist literary criticism. Pratt, Annis. 1972. Women and Nature in Modern Fiction. Where Was Emily Born? Comparative Literature 13: 476-490. Article on space and nature in Essay on John A Truthful Colonial America? modern fiction. Key words: epiphanies in natural settings (especially in novels of development), gender-specific differences in the perception of nature. Rose, Gillian. 1996.

Masculine Dwelling, Masculine Theory and Feminist Masquerade. Play? In: Nancy Duncan, ed. Essay A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? Bodyspace: Destabilizing Geographies of kick-ass film Gender and Sexuality. On John On Early Colonial? London: Routledge. Underground To Canada? 56-74. Article on space and gender. Approach: Deconstructivist social geography. On John Smith: Colonial America?? Space as projection: imagined emotions and actual design of space. Concept of masquerade grounds on Luce Irigaray. Sizemore-Wick, Christine.

1989. A Female Vision of the City. London in the Novels of left side vs right Five British Women . Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. Study on the city from a female perspective. City can be entered by women in on John A Truthful Source America? the 20th century. Provides detailed analysis of novels. Spain, Daphne. 1992. Gendered Spaces . Chapel Hill: The University of bourdieu class North Carolina Press. Study on on John Smith: Source Colonial America? space as a relevant factor for status and in beowulf gender, proceeding from social geography.

Gender-specific segregation (architecture, territorization of public spaces) Provides examples from Smith: on Early Colonial America? different ethnic cultures. Weigel, Sigrid. 1983. Topographien der Geschlechter: Kulturgeschichtliche Studien zur Literatur . Bourdieu Class? Reinbek: Rowohlt. Study on gender topographies and literature. Proceeding from cultural history. Considers Space: female allegorization of the city. Philosophical study on space. Phenomenological approach. Had a major influence on the treatment of space in literary criticism. Compare Hoffmann 1978 (3.3), and others.

Authoritative text on spatial symbolism. Key words: archetypical spaces and their meaning in depth psychology: psychological dimension of places like 'house', 'shell' 'box', etc. Universalistic allocation of meaning. Ecker, Gisela. 1995. Allegorical Gardens of Desire in Modernity: A Gendered Perspective. In: Susan C. Scott, ed. A Truthful Source? The Art of Interpreting . Underground To Canada? University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State University. 260-292. Allocations of meaning to the garden based on depth psychology. Gender-specific dimensions of the garden: a place of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial solitude and expansion of consciousness for women - a place of maternal security for men.

Erikson, Erik. 1970. Womanhood and Inner Space. In: Identity. Youth and Crisis . London: Faber Faber. 261-294. Article on womanhood and inner space. Psychological approach, supported by evidence from ethnic studies.

Investigates the play of children as a confirmation of traditional gender differences. Milgram, Stanley. 1970. Das Erleben der Großstadt: Eine psychologische Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 1: 142-152. Article on underground to canada interior space. Approach: psychoanalytical, feminist. Key words: psychological places of the interior; interpersonal spaces of (human) relationship; psychoanalytical symbolization, space imagery, female subjectivity; Separateness and integrity. Gibson-Graham Julie Kathy.

1997. Postmodern Becomings. Essay On John? From the Space of Form to the Space of kick-ass film Potentiality. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds. Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 306-323.

Article on conceptual forms of space from a post-structuralist perspective. Smith: Source On Early? Key words: Chora, identity, patriarchy, capitalism. Remaining question from a gender point of view: Is discursive space volatile enough to bourdieu class be changed more easily than space proper? Gregory, Derek. 1997. Lacan and Geography: The Production of Space Revisited. In: Georges Benko Ulf Stohmeyer, eds.

Space and Social Theory: Interpreting Modernity and Smith: Source Colonial America? Postmodernity . Oxford. Blackwell. 203-234. Article on psychoanalytical space. Key words: bodily experience of space (pre-lingual/premature), experience of space and formation of identity through entering the Therapy Essay symbolic order, discursive dependency.

Winzen, Matthias. 2000. Hysterisierte Räume. In: Silvia Eibelmayr et al., eds. Die verletzte Diva: Hysterie, Körper, Technik in der Kunst der 20. Jahrhunderts . Köln: Oktagon. 154-178. Article on Essay A Truthful on Early Colonial America? space and hystericalization.

Foci: paradoxical intermingling of movement and stiffness. Loss of orientation and expressivity. Sudden removal of subject-object relations in art and left side of brain photography. Article on textual space. Textual structures are described with help of spatial metaphors (see also Smitten 1981). Smitten, Jeffrey M. Ann Dagistany, eds. 1981. Essay Source On Early Colonial? Spatial Form in Narrative . Ithaca, New York.

Study theorizes text as space. Describes textual structures with the help of spatial metaphors. Semiotic studies on literary perceptions of archetype in beowulf urban spaces. Key words: perception of space in general. Basic patterns of the experience of city space (multi-stimulation, processes of selection. Essay A Truthful Source Colonial? ). Culturally variable navigation of perception (closely connected with aspects of value judgements). Jackendoff, Ray Barbara Landau. 1992. Spatial Language and Spatial Cognition. In: Language of the Mind: Essays on Mental Represenation . Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 99-124. Article postulates the superiority of the concrete image of an perceived object over archetype, its verbal representation.

Based on cognitive linguistics. Tuan, Yi-Fu. 1974. Topophilia: A Study of Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America? Environmental Perception, Attitudes, and Values. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Wagener-Wender, Monika. 1993. Mentale Repräsentation räumlicher Informationen.

Bonn: Holos. Study on space from born a perspective of on John Source on Early cognitive psychology. Point of interest: cognitive-psychological processes are manifested in Therapy the linguistic representation of space. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1966. Champ intellectuel et project créateur. Essay On John America?? Les Temps Modernes 246: 865-906.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1974. Zur Soziologie der Symbolischen Formen . Trans. Wolfgang Fietkau. Kick-ass Film? Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1982. Die feinen Unterschiede: Kritik der gesellschaftlichen Urteilskraft . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1983.

The Field of Cultural Production, or: The Economic World Reversed. Poetics 12: 311-56. Bourdieu, Pierre. [1984] 1988. Homo Academicus . Cambridge Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1985. The Genesis of the Concepts of Habitus and of Field . Sociocriticism 2: 11-24. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. Essay Smith: Source On Early America?? The Field of Cultural Production: Essays on Art and Literature , ed.

Randal Johnson. Cambridge: Polity Press. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1996. The Rules of Art . Was Emily? Cambridge: Polity. Bourdieu, Pierre. 1998. La Domination Masculine . Paris: Seuil. Bürger, Peter. On Early Colonial America?? 1986. Kick-ass Film? Adorno, Bourdieu and the sociology of literature.

Stanford Literary Review : 75-90. Calhoun, Craig, Edward LiPuma Moishe Postone, eds. 1993. Bourdieu: Critical Perspectives . Cambridge: Polity. Dörner, Andreas Ludgera Vogt. Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?? 1990. Kultursoziologie (Bourdieu - Mentalitätengeschichte - Zivilisationstheorie). Bourdieu Class? In: Klaus Michael Bogdal, ed. Neue Literaturtheorien . Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. 131-153.

Dubois, Jaques. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early? 2000. Pierre Bourdieu and Literature. Underground To Canada? SubStance 93: 84-102. Eder, Klaus, ed. 1989. Klassenlage, Lebensstil und kulturelle Praxis: Beiträge zur Auseinandersetzung mit Pierre Bourdieus Klassentheorie . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Fischer, Ludwig Klaas Jarchow.

1987. On John On Early America?? Die soziale Logik der Felder und das Feld der Literatur. Sprache im technischen Zeitalter 25: 164-172. An introductory essay to where was emily dickinson a whole issue on Bourdieu's sociology of culture in which the authors clarify and defend Bourdieu's key terminology - especially the concepts of field and habitus. Fowler, Bridget. 1997. Pierre Bourdieu and Cultural Theory: Critical Investigations . London: Sage. A very perceptive and insightful study of Essay Smith: Source on Early Bourdieu's writings on the cultural field with a special emphasis on literature. She even offers a gender-related discussion of modernist British literature from a Bourdieusian perspective (chapter 6) which unfortunately remains somewhat superficial and does not reflect the latest research in this area. This partly has to where do with the fact that Fowler is more interested in revaluating 'middlebrow' women's writing than in a discussion of neglected modernist women writers. Fowler Bridget, ed.

2000. Reading Bourdieu on Society and Culture . Oxford: Blackwell. Garnham, Nicholas Raymond Williams. 1980. P. Bourdieu and the Sociology of Culture: An Introduction. Media, Culture and Essay Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial Society 2: 209-223. Gebauer, Gunter. 1994. Underground? Bourdieus Hermeneutik. lendemains 75/76: 27-40. Gebauer, Gunter Christoph Wulf, eds. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? 1993.

Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Harker, Richard et. al., eds. Bourdieu Class? 1990. An Introduction to the Work of Pierre Bourdieu: The Practice of Theory. Basingstoke: Macmillan. Honneth, Axel.

1984. Die zerrissene Welt der symbolischen Formen: Zum kultursoziologischen Werk Pierre Bourdieus. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 36: 147-164. Jarchow, Klaas Hans-Gerd Winter. 1993. Pierre Bourdieus Kultursoziologie als Herausforderung der Literaturwissenschaft. In: Gunter Gebauer Christoph Wulf, eds. Praxis und Ästhetik: Neue Perspektiven im Denken Pierre Bourdieus . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. 93-134.

Jenkins, Richard. 1992. Pierre Bourdieu . London New York: Routledge. Jurt, Joseph. 1979. A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?? Für eine Rezeptionssoziologie. RZLG 3: 214-231. Jurt, Joseph. 1994.

Für eine Wissenschaft der Genese kultureller Werke: Versuch einer Rekonstruktion des literatursoziologischen Ansatzes von Pierre Bourdieu in Les règles de l'art . Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen 231: 319-347. Jurt, Joseph. 1995. Das literarische Feld: Das Konzept Pierre Bourdieus in Theorie undPraxis . Darmstadt: WBG. Jurt, Joseph. 1997. Bourdieu Class? Bourdieus Analyse des literarischen Feldes oder der Universalitätsanspruch des sozialwissenschaftlichen Ansatzes. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der deutschen Literatur 22.2: 152-180. Jurt offers a defense of Essay on John on Early Bourdieu's concept of the (literary) field against critics who regard it as too economically oriented and as interactionist. Instead he conceives of the model as constructivist, offering a wide range of inderdisciplinary possibilies. Moreover, he points out that it enables both a synchronic and a diachronic analysis of the structure of the production, publication, and reception of literature.

Jurt, Joseph. 2000. Pierre Bourdieus Theorie des Literarischen Feldes. In: Derek Robbins, ed. Pierre Bourdieu , vol. 2. London etc.: Sage. 117-147. Lane, Jeremy F. 2000. Pierre Bourdieu: A Critical Introduction . London: Pluto Press. McClean, Ian. Underground To Canada? 1993.

Bourdieu's field of cultural production. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 241-251. Moi, Toril. 1991. Appropriating Bourdieu: Feminist Theory and Pierre Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture. New Literary History 22: 1017-1049. Moi, Toril. 1997. The Challenge of the Particular Case: Bourdieu's Sociology of Culture and Literary Criticism.

Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 497-508. Paulson, William. 1997. The Market of Printed Goods: On Bourdieu's Rules. Modern Language Quarterly 58.4: 399-415. Pinto, Louis. 1996.

The Theory of Fields and the Sociology of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? Literature: Reflections on the Work of Pierre Bourdieu. International Journal of Contemporary Sociology 33.2: 171-86. Pinto, Louis Franz Schultheis, eds. 1997. Streifzüge durch das literarische Feld: Texte von Pierre Bourdieu, Christophe Charle, Mouloud Mammeri, Jean-Michel Péru, Michael Pollak, Anne-Marie Thiesse . Konstanz: Universitätsverlag Konstanz. van Rees, Cees J. 1983a. Advances in underground the Empirical Sociology of Literature and Source Colonial the Arts: The Institutional Approach.

Poetics 12: 285-310. van Rees, Cees J. 1983b. How a Literary Work Becomes a Masterpiece: On the Threefold Selection Practised by Literary Criticism. Left Of Brain Vs Right? Poetics 12: 397-417. van Rees, Cees J. Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial? 1987. How reviewers reach consensus on the value of literary works.

Poetics 16: 275-94. van Rees, Cees J. 1989. The Institutional Foundation of a Critic's Connoisseurship. Poetics 18: 179-98. Robbins, Derek. 1991. The Work of Pierre Bourdieu: Recognizing Society . Milton Keynes: Open University.

A short and at times rather simplistic survey of Bourdieu's work in chronological order designed as an introduction for students. Robbins covers Bourdieu's major publications from Sociology d'Algerie to La Noblesse d'Etat , but only born marginally touches on his literary sociological works. Robbins, Derek. 2000. Bourdieu and Culture. London etc: Sage. de Saint Martin, Monique. 1990. Les 'femmes écrivains et le champ littéraire. Actes de la recherche en sciences sociales 83: 52-56. Schwingel, Markus.

1993. Analytik der Kämpfe: Macht und Herrschaft in der Soziologie Bourdieus . Hamburg: Argument Verlag. Schwingel, Markus. 1997. On John Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial? Kunst, Kultur und Kampf um Anerkennung: Die Literatur- und Kunstsoziologie Pierre Bourdieus in ihrem Verhältnis zur Erkenntnis- und Kultursoziologie. Internationales Archiv für Sozialgeschichte der Deutschen Literatur 22.2: 109-151. A useful overview of the central aspects of Bourdieu's sociology of culture. Schwingel shows in how far the concepts of the field and habitus are the essential building blocks of an extensive model not only of the sociology of culture but, ultimately, of a genereal sociology.

Shiagh, Morag. 1993. Side Of Brain? 'Cultural studies' and the work of Pierre Bourdieu. French Cultural Studies 4.3: 213-223. Verdaasdonk, Hugo. 1989. Literary Magazines as Media for Publishing Literary Texts. Poetics 18: 215-32. Assmann, Aleida Jan Assmann.

1987. Kanon und Zensur als kultursoziologische Kategorien. Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial? In: Aleida Assmann Jan Assmann, eds. Kanon und Zensur: Beiträge zur Archäologie der literarischen Kommunikation II . Archetype? München: Fink. A Truthful Source Colonial America?? 7-27. Bradbury, Malcolm. Kick-ass Film? 1971. The Social Context of Modern English Literature . Oxford: Blackwell.

Bürger, Peter. 1974. Theorie der Avantgarde . Frankfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. [ Theory of the Avant-Garde . Trans. Michael Shaw. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1984] Bürger, Peter. 1985/1986. The Institution of 'Art' as a Category in the Sociology of Literature.

Cultural Critique 2: 5-33. Bürger, Peter, ed. 1978. Seminar: Kunst- und Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Cultural Studies 4. 1973. (Special issue on Literature/society: mapping the field)

Desan, Phillippe, Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson Wendy Griswold, eds. 1989. On John A Truthful On Early America?? Literature and Social Practice . Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Fügen, Hans Norbert. 1966. Die Hauptrichtungen der Literatursoziologie . Bonn: Bouvier. Gaiser, Gottlieb.

1983. Zur Empirisierung des Kanonbegriffs. SPIEL 2: 123-35. Gaiser, Gottlieb. Underground To Canada? 1993. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source? Literaturgeschichte und literarische Institutionen: Zu einer Pragmatik der Literatur . Meitingen: Verlag Literatur + Wissenschaft. Gedin, Per. 1977.

Literature in the Marketplace . London: Faber. Griswold, Wendy. 1987. The Fabrication of Meaning: Literary Interpretation in the United States, Great Britain, and the West Indies. American Journal of Sociology 92: 1077-1117. von Hallberg, Robert, ed.

1984. Canons . Of Brain? Chicago: Chicago UP. Lepenies, Wolf. 1985. Die drei Kulturen: Soziologie zwischen Literatur und Wissenschaft . München: Hanser. Poggioli, Renato. 1968. The Theory of the Avant-Garde . Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP. Rogers, Mary F. 1991. Novels, Novelists, and Readers: Toward a Phenomenological Sociology of Literature . Albany: State University of New York Press. Sanders, Hans.

1981. Institution Literatur und Roman: Zur Rekonstruktion der Literatursoziologie . Franfurt/M.: Suhrkamp. Scharfschwerdt, Jürgen. 1977. Grundprobleme der Literatursoziologie: Ein wissenschaftsgeschichtlicher Überblick . Stuttgart etc.: Kohlhammer.

Schenck, Celeste M. 1989. Exiled by Genre: Modernism, Canonicity, and the Politics of Exclusion. In: Mary Lynn Broe Angela Ingram, eds. Women's Writing in Exile . Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. 226-250. Viala, Alain. 1988. Prismatic Effects.

Critical Inquiry 14: 563-573. Voßkamp, Wilhelm. On John Smith: On Early Colonial? 1977. Gattungen als literarisch-soziale Institutionen: Zu Problemen sozial- und funktionsgeschichtlich orientierter Gattungstheorie und -historie. In: Walter Hinck, ed. Textsortenlehre - Gattungsgeschichte . Heidelberg: Winter. 27-44. Wasserstrom, William. 1962. T.S.

Eliot and The Dial . Sewanee Review 70.1: 81-92. Wolff, Janet. [1981] 1993. The Social Production of dickinson Art . London: Macmillan.

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3 Oracle Text CONTAINS Query Operators. This chapter describes operator precedence and provides description, syntax, and examples for every CONTAINS operator. The following topics are covered: Operator precedence determines the Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial order in which the components of underground, a query expression are evaluated. Essay Smith: A Truthful America?! Text query operators can be divided into two sets of operators that have their own order of where dickinson born, evaluation. These two groups are described later as Group 1 and Group 2. In all cases, query expressions are evaluated in order from left to Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?, right according to the precedence of their operators. Operators with higher precedence are applied first. Operators of bourdieu class, equal precedence are applied in order of their appearance in on John Smith: Source on Early, the expression from left to right. Of Brain Vs Right! Within query expressions, the Essay Smith: Source on Early America? Group 1 operators have the following order of evaluation from Family Therapy, highest precedence to lowest:

Within query expressions, the Group 2 operators have the following order of Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial, evaluation from highest to lowest: Other operators not listed under Group 1 or Group 2 are procedural. These operators have no sense of precedence attached to underground to canada, them. They include the SQE and thesaurus operators. Table 3-1 Query Expression Precedence Examples. Essay On John Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?! In the first example, because AND has a higher precedence than OR , the query returns all documents that contain w1 and all documents that contain both w2 and to canada w3 . In the second example, the query returns all documents that contain both w1 and w2 and all documents that contain w3 . In the third example, the fuzzy operator is on John A Truthful on Early Colonial, first applied to w1 , then the AND operator is applied to arguments w3 and w4 , then the OR operator is applied to term w2 and the results of the AND operation, and finally, the score from the fuzzy operation on w1 is added to in beowulf, the score from the OR operation. Smith: On Early America?! The fourth example shows that the equivalence operator has higher precedence than the AND operator. Bourdieu Class! The fifth example shows that the AND operator has lower precedence than the Essay A Truthful Source Colonial America? WITHIN operator. Precedence is kick-ass film, altered by Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source America? grouping characters as follows: Within parentheses, expansion or execution of operations is resolved before other expansions regardless of operator precedence.

Within parentheses, precedence of operators is maintained during evaluation of expressions. Within parentheses, expansion operators are not applied to bourdieu class, expressions unless the operators are also within the parentheses. Use the ABOUT operator to Essay A Truthful on Early Colonial America?, return documents that are related to a query term or phrase. In English and side of brain French, ABOUT enables you to query on concepts, even if a concept is not actually part of a query. For example, an ABOUT query on heat might return documents related to temperature, even though the term temperature is not part of the query. In other languages, using ABOUT will often increase the number of Essay on John America?, returned documents and may improve the sorting order of results. For all languages, Oracle Text scores results for an ABOUT query with the most relevant document receiving the highest score. English and to canada French Behavior.

In English and French, use the ABOUT operator to A Truthful Source on Early America?, query on bourdieu class concepts. The system looks up concept information in the theme component of the index. You create a theme component to your index by setting the INDEX_THEMES BASIC_LEXER attribute to YES . You need not have a theme component in the index to issue ABOUT queries in English and French. However, having a theme component in the index yields the best results for ABOUT queries. Smith: Source America?! Oracle Text retrieves documents that contain concepts that are related to your query word or phrase. For example, if you issue an ABOUT query on California , the left of brain vs right system might return documents that contain the terms Los Angeles and San Francisco , which are cities in California.The document need not contain the term California to Essay Smith: Source on Early, be returned in this ABOUT query. The word or phrase specified in your ABOUT query need not exactly match the themes stored in the index. Oracle Text normalizes the word or phrase before performing lookup in the index. You can use the ABOUT operator with the to canada CONTAINS and on John on Early CATSEARCH SQL operators. In the case of CATSEARCH , you must use query templating with the underground CONTEXT grammar to query on the indexed themes.

See ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH in the Examples section. In English and French, returns documents that contain concepts related to phrase , provided the BASIC_LEXER INDEX_THEMES attribute is Essay Source on Early America?, set to YES at archetype, index time. The score returned is Source on Early, a relevance score. Oracle Text ignores any query operators that are included in phrase . If your index contains only where dickinson born, theme information, an on John Source ABOUT operator and operand must be included in where was emily born, your query on the text column or else Oracle Text returns an Essay on John on Early error. The phrase you specify cannot be more than 4000 characters. ABOUT queries give the best results when your query is formulated with proper case. This is because the normalization of to canada, your query is based on the knowledge catalog which is case-sensitive. However, you need not type your query in exact case to obtain results from an Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early ABOUT query.

The system does its best to interpret your query. For example, if you enter a query of CISCO and the system does not find this in the knowledge catalog, the Role Essay system might use Cisco as a related concept for look-up. Improving ABOUT Results. The ABOUT operator uses the supplied knowledge base in English and Source on Early Colonial French to interpret the phrase you enter. Your ABOUT query therefore is limited to knowing and interpreting the concepts in the knowledge base. You can improve the results of your ABOUT queries by adding your application-specific terminology to the knowledge base. The phrase you specify in bourdieu class, an ABOUT query cannot be more than 4000 characters. To search for documents that are about soccer, use the following syntax: You can further refine the query to include documents about soccer rules in international competition by entering the phrase as the query term: In this English example, Oracle Text returns all documents that have themes of soccer , rules , or international competition . In terms of scoring, documents which have all three themes will generally score higher than documents that have only one or two of the themes. You can also query on unstructured phrases, such as the following: You can use other operators, such as AND or NOT , to combine ABOUT queries with word queries. For example, you can issue the following combined ABOUT and word query: You can combine an Essay A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? ABOUT query with another ABOUT query as follows: You cannot combine ABOUT with the WITHIN operator, as for example 'A BOUT (xyz) WITHIN abc' . ABOUT Query with CATSEARCH.

You can issue ABOUT queries with CATSEARCH using the where dickinson query template method with grammar set to CONTEXT as follows: Use the ACCUM operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of Essay on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America?, any query terms, with the returned documents ranked by a cumulative score based on Therapy Essay how many query terms are found (and how frequently). term1 ACCUM term2. ACCUMulate first scores documents on how many query terms a document matches. A document that matches more terms will always score higher than a document that matches fewer terms, even if the terms appear more frequently in the latter. Essay On John Source On Early! In other words, if you search for Family Therapy Role Essay dog ACCUM cat , you'll find that. scores higher than. Scores are divided into ranges. In a two-term ACCUM , hits that match both terms will always score between 51 and 100, whereas hits matching only on John Source Colonial America?, one of the terms will score between 1 and 50.

Likewise, for of brain a three-term ACCUM , a hit matching one term will score between 1 and 33; a hit matching two terms will score between 34 and 66, and a hit matching all three terms will score between 67 and 100. On John A Truthful! Within these ranges , normal scoring algorithms apply. (See Appendix F, The Oracle Text Scoring Algorithm for more on how scores are calculated.) You can assign different weights to different terms. For example, in bourdieu class, a query of the form. the term Brazil is weighted three times as heavily as soccer . Therefore, the document. will score lower than. but both documents will rank below. Essay Smith: Colonial America?! Note that a query of soccer ACCUM Brazil*3 is equivalent to soccer ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil ACCUM Brazil . Since each query term Brazil is considered independent, the entire query is scored as though it has four terms, not two, and thus has four scoring ranges. The first Brazil-and-soccer example document shown above will score in the first range (1-25), the second will score in the third range (51-75), and the third will score in the fourth range (76-100). (No document will score in the second range, because any document with Brazil in it will be considered to match at least three query terms.) This produces the following output. Note that the document with both dog and cat scores highest.

Use the AND operator to search for documents that contain at kick-ass film, least one occurrence of each of the query terms. On John Smith: America?! term1 and term2. To obtain all the Role Essay documents that contain the Essay on John Source terms blue and black and red , issue the following query: In an in beowulf AND query, the score returned is the score of the lowest query term. In this example, if the three individual scores for the terms blue, black, and red is Essay on John Source, 10, 20 and archetype in beowulf 30 within a document, the document scores 10. The AND operator returns documents that contain all of the Essay A Truthful on Early America? query terms, while OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms. Side Vs Right! See OR (|). Use the A Truthful Source Colonial broader term operators ( BT , BTG , BTP , BTI ) to expand a query to was emily, include the term that has been defined in a thesaurus as the broader or higher level term for a specified term. Essay Source On Early Colonial! They can also expand the query to include the broader term for the broader term and the broader term for that broader term, and so on up through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for was emily dickinson the broader term operator. Oracle Text expands term to Essay on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America?, include the broader term entries defined for the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . For example, if you specify BTG(dog) , the Family Role expansion includes only those terms that are defined as broader term generic for dog . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Essay On John Smith: On Early! The number of broader terms included in the expansion is determined by the value for underground to canada level . Specify a qualifier for term , if term is a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of Source America?, thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a broader term query, the query expands to include the broader terms of all the homographic terms.

Specify the number of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the to canada broader terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in Essay on John Smith: Source America?, a BT query returns the broader term entry, if one exists, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns the broader term entry for the specified term, as well as the broader term entry, if one exists, for the broader term. Family Therapy Play! The level argument is optional and has a default value of Essay on John Smith: Source on Early America?, one (1). Zero or negative values for to canada the level argument return only the Essay A Truthful Source on Early original query term. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in Role Play Essay, the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain the Essay A Truthful Source term tutorial or the BT term defined for tutorial in the DEFAULT thesaurus: When you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: Broader Term Operator on Homographs. If machine is a broader term for crane (building equipment) and bird is a broader term for crane (waterfowl) and no qualifier is specified for archetype in beowulf a broader term query, the query. If waterfowl is specified as a qualifier for Essay Smith: Colonial America? crane in a broader term query, the query. expands to the query: When specifying a qualifier in a broader or narrower term query, the qualifier and bourdieu class its notation (parentheses) must be escaped, as is shown in this example. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.

For more information on browsing the broader terms in Essay Smith: Source, your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.BT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the EQUIV operator to specify an acceptable substitution for a word in a query. term1 equiv term2. The following example returns all documents that contain either the phrase alsatians are big dogs or labradors are big dogs : The EQUIV operator has higher precedence than all other operators except the expansion operators (fuzzy, soundex, stem). Use the fuzzy operator to expand queries to side of brain vs right, include words that are spelled similarly to the specified term. This type of expansion is helpful for on John A Truthful Source on Early America? finding more accurate results when there are frequent misspellings in your document set.

The fuzzy syntax enables you to rank the result set so that documents that contain words with high similarity to the query word are scored higher than documents with lower similarity. You can also limit the number of expanded terms. Unlike stem expansion, the underground number of words generated by a fuzzy expansion depends on what is in the index. Results can vary significantly according to the contents of the index. Oracle Text supports fuzzy definitions for English, German, Italian, Dutch, Spanish, Japanese, OCR, and auto-language detection. If the fuzzy expansion returns a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP . If base-letter conversion is enabled for a text column and Essay on John Smith: on Early Colonial America? the query expression contains a fuzzy operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the query.

Specify NOWEIGHT or N for Family Therapy Essay no weighting of results. Consider the CONTAINS query: This query expands to the first six fuzzy variations of government in the index that have a similarity score over 70. In addition, documents in Smith: Source on Early, the result set are weighted according to Essay, their similarity to government . Documents containing words most similar to on John A Truthful on Early Colonial, government receive the highest score. Of Brain Vs Right! You can skip unnecessary parameters using the appropriate number of Essay A Truthful Source on Early, commas. For example: Backward Compatibility Syntax. The old fuzzy syntax from previous releases is underground, still supported. On John Smith: Source! This syntax is as follows: Use this operator to find all XML documents that contain a specified section path. You can also use this operator to do section equality testing. Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for to canada this operator to work. Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH.

The following rules govern the use of special characters with regard to both the Smith: A Truthful Source HASPATH and INPATH operators: Left-brace ( ) characters are not allowed inside HASPATH or INPATH expressions unless they are inside the kick-ass film equality operand enclosed by double quotes. So both ' HASPATH( ) ' and ' HASPATH(/A/ ) ' will return errors. However, ' HASPATH(/A[B= ]) ' will be parsed correctly. With exception of the backslash (), special characters, such as dollar sign ($), percent sign (%), underscore (_), left brace ( ), when inside the equality operand enclosed by A Truthful Colonial double or single quotes, have no special meaning. (That is, no stemming, wildcard expansion, or similar processing will be performed on them.) However, they are still subject to regular text lexing and will be translated to whitespace, with the exception of characters declared as printjoins. A backslash will still escape any character that immediately follows it. For example, if the hyphen (-) and the double quote character () are defined as printjoins in a lexer preference, then: The string B_TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B_TEXT) will be lexed as the bourdieu class phrase B TEXT . The string B-TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B-TEXT) will be lexed as the word B-TEXT . The string B'TEXT inside HASPATH(/A[B=B'TEXT) will be lexed as the word BTEXT . Essay On John On Early America?! You must use a backslash to escape the double quote between B and left vs right TEXT , or you will get a parsing error.

The string inside HASPATH(/A[B= ) will be lexed as a phrase B TEXT . finds and returns a score of Essay on Early, 100 for the document. without the query having to reference dog at all. Section Equality Testing. but it also finds. To limit the query to the term dog and nothing else, you can use a section equality test with the HASPATH operator. For example, finds and returns a score of kick-ass film, 100 only for the first document, and not the second. Because of how XML section data is recorded, false matches might occur with XML sections that are completely empty as follows: A query of HASPATH(A/B/E) or HASPATH(A/D/C) falsely matches this document. This type of false matching can be avoided by on John Source on Early Colonial America? inserting text between empty tags. Use this operator to do path searching in XML documents.

This operator is like the WITHIN operator except that the right-hand side is a parentheses enclosed path, rather than a single section name. Where Was Emily Dickinson Born! Your index must be created with the PATH_SECTION_GROUP for on Early Colonial the INPATH operator to work. In Beowulf! The INPATH operator has the following syntax: Top-Level Tag Searching. Essay Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial! Any-Level Tag Searching. Direct Parentage Path Searching. For example, a document containing. Single-Level Wildcard Searching. For example a document containing.

Multi-level Wildcard Searching. Any-Level Descendant Searching. Descendant/Attribute Existence Testing. Attribute Value Testing. Tag Value Testing. AND and OR Testing. Combining Path and Node Tests. You can nest the entire INPATH expression in another INPATH expression as follows: When you do so, the two INPATH paths are completely independent. The outer INPATH path does not change the context node of the inner INPATH path. For example: never finds any documents, because the inner INPATH is looking for Role dog within the top-level tag A, and on John Smith: Source on Early America? the outer INPATH constrains that to document with top-level tag D. A document can have only underground, one top-level tag, so this expression never finds any documents.

Tags and attribute names in path searching are case-sensitive. That is, finds Adog/A but does not find adog/a . Instead use. Using Special Characters with INPATH. See Using Special Characters with HASPATH and INPATH for information on using special characters, such as the percent sign (%) or the backslash (), with INPATH . Top-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in the top-level tag A: Any-Level Tag Searching. To find all documents that contain the Essay on John A Truthful Source term dog in the A tag at any level: This query finds the following documents: Direct Parentage Searching. To find all documents that contain the term dog in kick-ass film, a B element that is a direct child of a top-level A element: This query finds the following XML document: but does not find: Tag Value Testing. You can test the value of tags. For example, the query: Finds the following document: But does not find: You can search the content of attributes.

For example, the query: Finds the document. Attribute Value Testing. You can test the value of attributes. For example, the query. Finds the document: But does not find: You can test if a path exists with the HASPATH operator. For example, the Essay Smith: on Early Colonial America? query: finds and archetype in beowulf returns a score of 100 for the document. without the A Truthful on Early Colonial America? query having to reference dog at Family Role Play, all. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial! Testing for Equality. The following is an kick-ass film example of an INPATH equality test. Essay On John Source! The following limitations apply for these expressions: Only equality and inequality are supported. Range operators and functions are not supported.

The left hand side of the equality must be an attribute. Tags and literals here are not enabled. The right hand side of the equality must be a literal. Therapy Role Play Essay! Tags and attributes here are not allowed. The test for equality depends on your lexer settings. With the default settings, the query. matches the following sections: because lexer is case-insensitive by default. because of and is are default stopwords in English, and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial a stopword matches any stopword word. because the underscore character is not a join character by default. Use the MDATA operator to query documents that contain MDATA sections. MDATA sections are metadata that have been added to documents to speed up mixed querying. MDATA queries are treated exactly as literals. For example, with the query. the $ is where, not interpreted as a stem operator, nor is the . Essay Smith: A Truthful! (period) transformed into whitespace.

A right (close) parenthesis terminates the MDATA operator, so that MDATA values that have close parentheses cannot be searched. The name of the dickinson born MDATA section(s) to search. The value of the MDATA section. For example, if an MDATA section called Booktype has been created, it might have a value of paperback . Suppose you want to Essay A Truthful Source America?, query for books written by the writer Nigella Lawson that contain the word summer . Kick-ass Film! Assuming that an MDATA section called AUTHOR has been declared, you can query as follows: This query will only be successful if an AUTHOR tag has the exact value Nigella Lawson (after simplified tokenization). Essay On John A Truthful Source Colonial America?! Nigella or Ms. Nigella Lawson will not work. MDATA query values ignore stopwords. The MDATA operator returns 100 or 0, depending on whether the bourdieu class document is a match. On John Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?! The MDATA operator is not supported for CTXCAT , CTXRULE , or CTXXPATH indexes.

Table 3-2 shows how MDATA interacts with some other query operators: Table 3-2 MDATA and Other Query Operators. When MDATA sections repeat, each instance is a separate and independent value. For instance, the document. can be found with any of the following queries: but not any of the in beowulf following: Use the MINUS operator to Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early Colonial, lower the score of documents that contain unwanted noise terms. MINUS is useful when you want to bourdieu class, search for documents that contain one query term but want the Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial presence of a second term to cause a document to be ranked lower. term1 minus term2. Suppose a query on the term cars always returned high scoring documents about Ford cars . You can lower the scoring of the Ford documents by using the expression: In essence, this expression returns documents that contain the term cars and possibly Ford. However, the score for a returned document is the score of cars minus the kick-ass film score of Ford . Use the narrower term operators ( NT , NTG , NTP , NTI ) to expand a query to include all the terms that have been defined in Essay on Early, a thesaurus as the narrower or lower level terms for a specified term.

They can also expand the query to include all of the narrower terms for each narrower term, and so on was emily down through the thesaurus hierarchy. Specify the operand for the narrower term operator. term is expanded to include the narrower term entries defined for A Truthful on Early America? the term in the thesaurus specified by thes . The number of narrower terms included in the expansion is determined by the value for level . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify a qualifier for term , if term is Family Role Play, a homograph (word or phrase with multiple meanings, but the same spelling) that appears in two or more nodes in the same hierarchy branch of thes . If a qualifier is not specified for a homograph in a narrower term query, the query expands to include all of the on John Smith: A Truthful on Early narrower terms of kick-ass film, all homographic terms. Specify the number of levels traversed in the thesaurus hierarchy to return the narrower terms for the specified term. For example, a level of 1 in on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early, an NT query returns all the narrower term entries, if any exist, for the specified term. A level of 2 returns all the bourdieu class narrower term entries for Essay Smith: Source America? the specified term, as well as all the Therapy Role Essay narrower term entries, if any exist, for each narrower term.

The level argument is optional and has a default value of one (1). Zero or negative values for the level argument return only the original query term. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for A Truthful Source America? the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of of brain vs right, DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. If you specify thes , you must also specify level . The following query returns all documents that contain either the term cat or any of the A Truthful on Early Colonial America? NT terms defined for cat in the DEFAULT thesaurus: If you specify a thesaurus name, you must also specify level as in: The following query returns all documents that contain either fairy tale or any of the narrower instance terms for fairy tale as defined in bourdieu class, the DEFAULT thesaurus: That is, if the terms cinderella and snow white are defined as narrower term instances for fairy tale , Oracle Text returns documents that contain fairy tale, cinderella, or snow white. Each hierarchy in a thesaurus represents a distinct, separate branch, corresponding to the four narrower term operators. In a narrower term query, Oracle Text only expands the query using the on John A Truthful Colonial America? branch corresponding to the specified narrower term operator. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. Where Dickinson Born! For more information on browsing the narrower terms in Essay Smith: on Early America?, your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.NT in to canada, Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the NEAR operator to return a score based on the proximity of two or more query terms. Oracle Text returns higher scores for terms closer together and lower scores for terms farther apart in a document.

The NEAR operator works with only word queries. You cannot use NEAR in ABOUT queries. Backward compatibility syntax: word1 ; word2. Essay On John On Early Colonial America?! Specify the terms in the query separated by commas. The query terms can be single words or phrases and may make use of other query operators (see NEAR with Other Operators).

Optionally specify the size of the biggest clump. The default is underground, 100. Oracle Text returns an error if you specify a number greater than 100. A clump is the smallest group of words in which all query terms occur. All clumps begin and Essay A Truthful Source Colonial America? end with a query term. For near queries with two terms, max_span is the maximum distance allowed between the two terms. Kick-ass Film! For example, to query on dog and cat where dog is within 6 words of cat , issue the following query: Specify TRUE for Oracle Text to search for terms in the order you specify. On John Smith: On Early Colonial! The default is FALSE . For example, to search for the words monday , tuesday , and wednesday in bourdieu class, that order with a maximum clump size of 20, issue the following query: To specify order , you must always specify a number for Essay Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? the max_span parameter. Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you use identical query expressions that have the bourdieu class order flag set differently.

For example, Oracle Text might return different scores for the same document when you issue the following queries: The scoring for the NEAR operator combines frequency of the A Truthful Colonial terms with proximity of terms. For each document that satisfies the query, Oracle Text returns a score between 1 and 100 that is proportional to the number of where was emily born, clumps in the document and Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Colonial inversely proportional to the average size of the clumps. This means many small clumps in a document result in higher scores, since small clumps imply closeness of in beowulf, terms. The number of terms in a query also affects score. Queries with many terms, such as seven, generally need fewer clumps in a document to score 100 than do queries with few terms, such as two. A clump is the smallest group of Essay on John A Truthful Source Colonial, words in side, which all query terms occur. Essay! All clumps begin and end with a query term. Was Emily Born! You can define clump size with the max_span parameter as described in this section. The size of a clump does not include the query terms themselves. So for Essay A Truthful the query NEAR((DOG, CAT), 1) , dog cat will be a match, and dog ate cat will be a match, but dog sat on cat will not be a match. NEAR with Other Operators.

You can use the NEAR operator with other operators such as AND and OR . Scores are calculated in archetype, the regular way. For example, to find all documents that contain the terms tiger , lion , and cheetah where the terms lion and tiger are within 10 words of Essay on John Colonial, each other, issue the following query: The score returned for each document is the underground lower score of the near operator and the term cheetah . You can also use the Essay on John A Truthful equivalence operator to substitute a single term in a near query: This query asks for all documents that contain the phrase stock crash within twenty words of where was emily born, Japan or Korea . The following operators also work with NEAR and ; : All expansion operators that produce words, phrases, or EQUIV . Essay On Early Colonial! These include: Backward Compatibility NEAR Syntax. Kick-ass Film! You can write near queries using the syntax of previous Oracle Text releases. For example, to find all documents where lion occurs near tiger , you can write: or with the semi-colon as follows: This query is equivalent to the following query: Only the syntax of the NEAR operator is backward compatible. In the example, the score returned is calculated using the on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial clump method as described in in beowulf, this section. Highlighting with the NEAR Operator.

When you use highlighting and your query contains the near operator, all occurrences of all terms in the query that satisfy the proximity requirements are highlighted. Highlighted terms can be single words or phrases. For example, assume a document contains the following text: If the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 100, FALSE), the following is highlighted: However, if the query is near((chocolate, vanilla)), 4, FALSE), only the following is highlighted: For more information about the procedures you can use for on John Smith: on Early Colonial America? highlighting, see Chapter 8, CTX_DOC Package. Section Searching and NEAR. You can use the NEAR operator with the WITHIN operator for kick-ass film section searching as follows: When evaluating expressions such as these, Oracle Text looks for clumps that lie entirely within the given section. Essay Source On Early Colonial! In this example, only those clumps that contain dog and cat that lie entirely within the section Headings are counted. That is, if the term dog lies within Headings and the term cat lies five words from dog , but outside of Headings , this pair of left of brain, words does not satisfy the Essay on John Source Colonial expression and is not counted. Use the NOT operator to search for documents that contain one query term and not another. term1 not term2. In Beowulf! To obtain the documents that contain the term animals but not dogs , use the following expression: Similarly, to obtain the documents that contain the term transportation but not automobiles or trains , use the Essay Smith: on Early following expression: The NOT operator does not affect the scoring produced by the other logical operators. Use the was emily OR operator to search for documents that contain at least one occurrence of any of the Essay Source on Early America? query terms.

For example, to obtain the documents that contain the term cats or the in beowulf term dogs , use either of the following expressions: In an OR query, the on John Smith: on Early America? score returned is the score for the highest query term. In the example, if the scores for cats and dogs is 30 and 40 within a document, the document scores 40. The OR operator returns documents that contain any of the query terms, while the AND operator returns documents that contain all query terms. See AND (). Use the side of brain preferred term operator ( PT ) to replace a term in a query with the preferred term that has been defined in a thesaurus for Smith: Source Colonial the term. Specify the operand for the preferred term operator. term is left side of brain vs right, replaced by the preferred term defined for the term in Essay on John Source America?, the specified thesaurus. However, if no PT entries are defined for the term, term is to canada, not replaced in the query expression and term is the result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument.

Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for Essay on John Smith: Source on Early the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in left vs right, the thesaurus tables before using any of the thesaurus operators. The term automobile has a preferred term of car in a thesaurus. A PT query for automobile returns all documents that contain the word car . Documents that contain the Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial America? word automobile are not returned. You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in Play, the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the preferred terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.PT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the related term operator ( RT ) to expand a query to include all related terms that have been defined in a thesaurus for the term. Specify the Essay A Truthful America? operand for the related term operator. term is expanded to include term and all the related entries defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Therapy Essay! Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for on John A Truthful Source on Early the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in Family Therapy Play Essay, the thesaurus tables before using any of the A Truthful Source Colonial thesaurus operators. The term dog has a related term of wolf . A RT query for dog returns all documents that contain the word dog and wolf . In Beowulf! You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package.

For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.RT in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the soundex (!) operator to expand queries to include words that have similar sounds; that is, words that sound like other words. This function enables comparison of words that are spelled differently, but sound alike in English. Soundex works best for Essay A Truthful Source on Early languages that use a 7-bit character set, such as English. It can be used, with lesser effectiveness, for kick-ass film languages that use an Essay on John A Truthful on Early Colonial 8-bit character set, such as many Western European languages. If you have base-letter conversion specified for a text column and the query expression contains a soundex operator, Oracle Text operates on the base-letter form of the to canada query. Use the stem ($) operator to search for terms that have the same linguistic root as the query term. If you use the BASIC_LEXER to index your language, stemming performance can be improved by using the index_stems attribute.

The Oracle Text stemmer, licensed from Xerox Corporation's XSoft Division, supports the following languages with the BASIC_LEXER: English, French, Spanish, Italian, German, and Dutch. Japanese stemming is supported with the JAPANESE_LEXER. You can specify your stemming language with the BASIC_WORDLIST wordlist preference. Behavior with Stopwords. Essay On John A Truthful Source Colonial America?! If stem returns a word designated as a stopword, the stopword is not included in the query or highlighted by CTX_QUERY.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_QUERY.MARKUP . For more information about enabling the stem operator with BASIC_LEXER, see BASIC_LEXER in Chapter 2, Oracle Text Indexing Elements.

Use the SQE operator to call a stored query expression created with the CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE procedure. Stored query expressions can be used for creating predefined bins for organizing and categorizing documents or to perform iterative queries, in archetype in beowulf, which an initial query is refined using one or more additional queries. To create an SQE named disasters , use CTX_QUERY.STORE_SQE as follows: This stored query expression returns all documents that contain either hurricane , earthquake or blizzard . This SQE can then be called within a query expression as follows: Use the synonym operator ( SYN ) to expand a query to Smith: Source, include all the terms that have been defined in Family Therapy Role Play, a thesaurus as synonyms for on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial America? the specified term. Specify the operand for the synonym operator. term is expanded to include term and all the synonyms defined for term in thes . You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Family Therapy! Specify the name of the on John A Truthful thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is side, optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value.

The following query expression returns all documents that contain the term dog or any of the synonyms defined for dog in Essay on John Smith: A Truthful America?, the DEFAULT thesaurus: Compound Phrases in Synonym Operator. Expansion of compound phrases for a term in left side vs right, a synonym query are returned as AND conjunctives. For example, the Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial America? compound phrase temperature + measurement + instruments is defined in a thesaurus as a synonym for the term thermometer . In a synonym query for thermometer , the query is expanded to: You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.SYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Kick-ass Film! Use the threshold operator () in two ways: at the expression level. at Essay on John Source on Early America?, the query term level. The threshold operator at the expression level eliminates documents in the result set that score below a threshold number. The threshold operator at underground to canada, the query term level selects a document based on how a term scores in the document. Within an expression, returns documents that contain the Smith: A Truthful query term with score of at least n . At the expression level, to search for documents that contain relational databases and to return only underground, documents that score greater than 75, use the following expression: At the query term level, to select documents that have at least a score of 30 for lion and Essay on John A Truthful on Early contain tiger, use the to canada following expression: Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all defined foreign language equivalent terms.

Specify the operand for the translation term operator. term is expanded to include all the Essay Source on Early Colonial America? foreign language entries defined for term in thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in kick-ass film, the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in Smith: A Truthful Colonial, the expansion. Left Of Brain Vs Right! The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . (You may specify only A Truthful Source Colonial America?, one language at a time.) If you omit this parameter or specify it as ALL , the system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Archetype In Beowulf! Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the Essay Source on Early Colonial following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat and the spanish translation of cat , issue the following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the related terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TR in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the translation term operator ( TR ) to expand a query to include all the defined foreign equivalents of the query term, the synonyms of query term, and the foreign equivalents of the synonyms. Specify the operand for kick-ass film this operator. Smith: A Truthful Source On Early Colonial America?! term is expanded to include all the foreign language entries and synonyms defined for term in kick-ass film, thes .You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Optionally, specify which foreign language equivalents to return in the expansion.

The language you specify must match the language as defined in thes . If you omit this parameter, the system expands to use all defined foreign language terms. Smith: A Truthful Source America?! Optionally, specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the expansions for the specified term. The thes argument has a default value of DEFAULT . As a result, a thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables before you can use any of the thesaurus operators. If you specify thes , you must also specify lang . Consider a thesaurus MY_THES with the following entries for cat : To search for all documents that contain cat , the underground to canada spanish equivalent of cat , the synonym of cat , and Essay Smith: on Early Colonial America? the spanish equivalent of lion , issue the following query: This query expands to: You can browse a thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on browsing the translation and synonym terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TRSYN in Chapter 12, CTX_THES Package. Use the top term operator ( TT ) to replace a term in a query with the top term that has been defined for the term in the standard hierarchy (Broader Term [ BT ], Narrower Term [ NT] ) in bourdieu class, a thesaurus. A top term is the broadest conceptual term related to Essay Source Colonial, a given query term. For example, a thesaurus might define the following hierarchy: The top term for dog in this thesaurus is animal . Top terms in the generic ( BTG , NTG ), partitive ( BTP , NTP ), and instance ( BTI , NTI ) hierarchies are not returned. Underground To Canada! Specify the Essay on John A Truthful Colonial America? operand for the top term operator. Where Was Emily Born! term is replaced by the top term defined for the term in on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early, the specified thesaurus.

However, if no TT entries are defined for term , term is not replaced in the query expression and term is the Family Therapy Role result of the expansion. You cannot specify expansion operators in the term argument. Specify the name of the thesaurus used to return the Smith: A Truthful on Early America? expansions for the specified term. The thes argument is optional and has a default value of DEFAULT . A thesaurus named DEFAULT must exist in the thesaurus tables if you use this default value. The term dog has a top term of animal in kick-ass film, the standard hierarchy of a thesaurus. A TT query for dog returns all documents that contain the phrase animal . On John A Truthful Colonial America?! Documents that contain the word dog are not returned. You can browse your thesaurus using procedures in the CTX_THES package. For more information on bourdieu class browsing the top terms in your thesaurus, see CTX_THES.TT. The weight operator multiplies the score by the given factor, topping out at 100 when the Essay Smith: A Truthful on Early Colonial score exceeds 100. For example, the query cat, dog*2 sums the kick-ass film score of cat with twice the score of dog , topping out at Essay on John A Truthful Colonial America?, 100 when the score is greater than 100. In expressions that contain more than one query term, use the weight operator to adjust the relative scoring of the query terms.

You can reduce the Family Therapy Role Play Essay score of Essay Smith: A Truthful, a query term by using the weight operator with a number less than 1; you can increase the score of a query term by using the weight operator with a number greater than 1 and less than 10. The weight operator is Role Play Essay, useful in ACCUMulate ( , ), AND (), or OR (|) queries when the expression has more than one query term. With no weighting on individual terms, the score cannot tell you which of the query terms occurs the most. With term weighting, you can alter the scores of individual terms and hence make the overall document ranking reflect the terms you are interested in. You have a collection of sports articles.

You are interested in the articles about soccer, in Smith: A Truthful America?, particular Brazilian soccer. It turns out was emily born that a regular query on soccer or Brazil returns many high ranking articles on on Early Colonial America? US soccer. To raise the kick-ass film ranking of the articles on Brazilian soccer, you can issue the Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source America? following query: Table 3-3 illustrates how the weight operator can change the ranking of three hypothetical documents A, B, and C, which all contain information about soccer. The columns in the table show the total score of four different query expressions on the three documents. Table 3-3 Score Samples. Therapy Play! The score in the third column containing the query soccer or Brazil is the score of the Smith: on Early Colonial America? highest scoring term. The score in the fourth column containing the query soccer or Brazil*3 is the larger of the score of the first column soccer and of the score Brazil multiplied by three, Brazil*3 . With the initial query of soccer or Brazil , the left side of brain documents are ranked in Smith: Source on Early Colonial America?, the order C B A. With the query of kick-ass film, soccer or Brazil*3 , the documents are ranked B C A, which is the preferred ranking. Weights can be added to multiple terms. The query Brazil OR (soccer AND Brazil)*3 will increase the relative scores for documents that contain both soccer and Brazil . Wildcard characters can be used in query expressions to expand word searches into pattern searches. The wildcard characters are: The total number of wildcard expansions from all words in a query containing unescaped wildcard characters cannot exceed the Essay on John Smith: America? maximum number of expansions specified by the BASIC_WORDLIST attribute WILDCARD_MAXTERMS . For more information, see BASIC_WORDLIST.

When a wildcard expression translates to a stopword, the Family Therapy Role Essay stopword is not included in the query and not highlighted by CTX_DOC.HIGHLIGHT or CTX_DOC.MARKUP. Right truncation involves placing the wildcard on Source Colonial the right-hand-side of the search string. For example, the following query expression finds all terms beginning with the pattern scal : Left- and Double-Truncated Queries. Left truncation involves placing the archetype in beowulf wildcard on the left-hand-side of the search string. To find words such as king , wing or sing , you can write your query as follows: For all words that end with ing , you can issue: You can also combine left-truncated and right-truncated searches to create double-truncated searches. The following query finds all documents that contain words that contain the Essay Source on Early substring %benz% Improving Wildcard Query Performance. You can improve wildcard query performance by adding a substring or prefix index.

When your wildcard queries are left- and Family Essay double-truncated, you can improve query performance by creating a substring index. Substring indexes improve query performance for on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial all types of left-truncated wildcard searches such as %ed , _ing , or %benz% . When your wildcard queries are right-truncated, you can improve performance by Role creating a prefix index. A prefix index improves query performance for wildcard searches such as to% . Essay Smith: Source America?! For more information about creating substring and prefix indexes, see BASIC_WORDLIST in Chapter 2. You can use the WITHIN operator to narrow a query down into kick-ass film document sections. Document sections can be one of the following: special sections (sentence or paragraph) If section is a zone, expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. If section is a field or attribute section, expression cannot contain another WITHIN operator. Smith: On Early! The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section. The expression can contain one or more WITHIN operators (nested WITHIN ) whose section is a zone or special section.

The WITHIN operator has the following limitations: You cannot embed the side WITHIN clause in a phrase. For example, you cannot write: term1 WITHIN section term2. Since WITHIN is a reserved word, you must escape the word with braces to Essay A Truthful Source on Early, search on it. Underground To Canada! WITHIN Operator Examples. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source On Early America?! Querying Within Zone Sections.

To find all the documents that contain the term San Francisco within the section Headings, write your query as follows: To find all the documents that contain the term sailing and contain the term San Francisco within the section Headings , write your query in one of two ways: Compound Expressions with WITHIN. To find all documents that contain the terms dog and cat within the same section Headings , write your query as follows: This query is logically different from: This query finds all documents that contain dog and cat where the terms dog and cat are in Headings sections, regardless of kick-ass film, whether they occur in the same Headings section or different sections. Near with WITHIN. To find all documents in which dog is near cat within the section Headings , write your query as follows: The near operator has higher precedence than the WITHIN operator so braces are not necessary in this example. A Truthful Source On Early Colonial! This query is equivalent to (dog near cat) WITHIN Headings . Nested WITHIN Queries. You can nest the within operator to in beowulf, search zone sections within zone sections. For example, assume that a document set had the zone section AUTHOR nested within the zone BOOK section. You write a nested WITHIN query to Essay A Truthful Source America?, find all occurrences of archetype, scott within the AUTHOR section of the BOOK section as follows: Querying Within Field Sections. The syntax for querying within a field section is the Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early America? same as querying within a zone section. The syntax for to canada most of the examples given in the previous section, Querying Within Zone Sections, apply to field sections.

However, field sections behave differently from Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial America?, zone sections in archetype, terms of. Visibility: You can make text within a field section invisible. Repeatability: WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections. On John Smith: Source America?! Nestability: You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with a field section. The following sections describe these differences. Visible Flag in Field Sections. When a field section is created with the visible flag set to FALSE in where, CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION , the text within a field section can only be queried using the WITHIN operator. For example, assume that TITLE is Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial, a field section defined with visible flag set to FALSE. Then the query dog without the WITHIN operator will not find a document containing: To find such a document, you can use the WITHIN operator as follows: Alternatively, you can set the visible flag to TRUE when you define TITLE as a field section with CTX_DDL.ADD_FIELD_SECTION . For more information about creating field sections, see ADD_FIELD_SECTION in to canada, Chapter 7, CTX_DDL Package. Repeated Field Sections.

WITHIN queries cannot distinguish repeated field sections in a document. Essay Smith: America?! For example, consider the document with the left side vs right repeated section author : Assuming that author is Essay Smith: A Truthful Source, defined as a field section, a query such as ( charles and martin) within author returns the document, even though these words occur in separate tags. To have WITHIN queries distinguish repeated sections, define the sections as zone sections. Nested Field Sections. You cannot issue a nested WITHIN query with field sections. Doing so raises an error. Querying Within Sentence or Paragraphs. Querying within sentence or paragraph boundaries is useful to find combinations of words that occur in the same sentence or paragraph. To query sentence or paragraphs, you must first add the special section to your section group before you index.

You do so with CTX_DDL.ADD_SPECIAL_SECTION . To find documents that contain dog and Family Play cat within the same sentence: To find documents that contain dog and cat within the same paragraph: To find documents that contain sentences with the word dog but not cat : Querying Within Attribute Sections. You can query within attribute sections when you index with either XML_SECTION_GROUP or AUTO_SECTION_GROUP as your section group type. Assume you have an XML document as follows: You can define the Smith: on Early Colonial America? section title@book to be the bourdieu class attribute section title . You can do so with the CTX_DLL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION procedure or dynamically after indexing with ALTER INDEX . When you use the Essay on John Colonial America? AUTO_SECTION_GROUP to index XML documents, the system automatically creates attribute sections and names them in the form attribute@tag . If you use the archetype in beowulf XML_SECTION_GROUP , you can name attribute sections anything with CTX_DDL.ADD_ATTR_SECTION . To search on Tale within the attribute section title , you issue the following query: Constraints for Querying Attribute Sections. The following constraints apply to Essay Smith: A Truthful America?, querying within attribute sections: Regular queries on attribute text do not hit the bourdieu class document unless qualified in a within clause. Assume you have an XML document as follows: A query on Tale by itself does not produce a hit on the document unless qualified with WITHIN title@book . (This behavior is Essay on John Source Colonial, like field sections when you set the visible flag set to false.) You cannot use attribute sections in underground, a nested WITHIN query. Phrases ignore attribute text.

For example, if the original document looked like: Then this document would hit on Essay Smith: the regular query good men , ignoring the intervening attribute text. WITHIN queries can distinguish repeated attribute sections. This behavior is like zone sections but unlike field sections. For example, you have a document as follows: Assume that book is a zone section and book@author is an attribute section. Consider the query: This query does not hit the Role Play document, because tale and on John Smith: Source bondage are in different occurrences of the attribute section book@author . The WITHIN operator requires you to know the name of the section you search. Kick-ass Film! A list of defined sections can be obtained using the CTX_SECTIONS or CTX_USER_SECTIONS views. For special and zone sections, the terms of the query must be fully enclosed in on Early Colonial, a particular occurrence of the section for the document to satisfy the query.

This is not a requirement for field sections. For example, consider the query where bold is a zone section: This query finds: but it does not find: This is because dog and cat must be in the same bold section. This behavior is to canada, especially useful for special sections, where. means find dog and cat within the Essay A Truthful Source Colonial same sentence. Field sections on the other hand are meant for to canada non-repeating, embedded metadata such as a title section. Queries within field sections cannot distinguish between occurrences. All occurrences of a field section are considered to be parts of a single section. For example, the query: can find a document like this:

In return for this field section limitation and for the overlap and A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? nesting limitations, field section queries are generally faster than zone section queries, especially if the Family Therapy Role Play Essay section occurs in every document, or if the Essay on John A Truthful on Early America? search term is common.

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Essay on Dramatic Irony in Hamlet. In Act 2 scene 1, Ophelia returns to Source her father Polonius, clearly upset. Hamlet grabbed her, held her, and sighed heavily, but did not speak to her. Her father believes the reason for his attitude is due to the fact he is kick-ass film deeply in love with Ophelia. The dramatic irony in Hamlet shows features of dishonesty and harm, while incorporating tragedy. Essay on Dramatic Irony in Hamlet. . Dramatic Irony in “Hamlet” By: Narek Edjiu In Act 2 scene 1, Ophelia returns to her father Polonius, clearly upset. Hamlet grabbed her, held her, and sighed heavily, but did not speak to Smith: A Truthful America? her. Dickinson Born! Her father believes the reason for his attitude is due to the fact he is deeply in love with Ophelia. The dramatic irony in Hamlet shows features of dishonesty and harm, while incorporating tragedy. The ironic situations often take place when Hamlet is finally in pursuit of action.

Hamlet is the son of the dead king and nephew to on John Smith: Source Colonial America? the new king. Hamlet discovers the truth of his father’s death and therefore creates a front of emotions to make others believe that he is angry. His unusual behavior greatly affected Ophelia causing her to panic and influencing her to archetype in beowulf inform her father. Polonius immediately concludes that Hamlet is 'madly in love' with Ophelia: This is the very ecstasy of love (2.1.102) and that he has gone mad because she has obeyed his instruction in spurning Hamlet's love: That hath made him mad. (2.1.111) The purpose of this scene is to develop all the characters and to on John A Truthful Source Colonial America? understand the thought of Polonius. This specific dramatic irony surprisingly causes me to feel sympathy for Polonius because he is not aware of the current situation and eventually will suffer the consequences.

I learned that dramatic irony is was emily dickinson born used to engage the audience into what is taking place and the audience is able to witness a character’s error. Words: 314 - Pages: 2. . Breon Ebanks Ms. Masciantonio AP English Literature 23 February 2012 Hamlet Analysis Essay “It’s is Essay Smith: Source on Early America? sometimes an appropriate response to reality to go insane”. (Philip K Dick). Dickinson! Hamlet is always questioning himself about his father’s murder, his mother’s guilt and his life. His obsession causes his insanity. Hamlet is depressed, confused, and Essay on John Source Colonial America?, paranoid the traumatizing events on kick-ass film his life. Hamlet is depressed at his mother’s lustful behavior towards his uncle, so he’s taking his anger out on Ophelia. In doing so, Hamlet was saying mean things that made her feel bad about her especially when he told her “Get thee to a nunnery, why wouldst thou be a breeder of sinners?

I am myself indifferent honest, but yet I could accuse me of such things that it were better my mother had not borne me,” (3.1. 123-126). Hamlet shows a strange way of Essay Source Colonial loving Ophelia because one minute he loves her the next minute he’s rude to left of brain vs right her. These actions prove his instability. Normal people do not love someone one minute and on John A Truthful Colonial America?, curse her the next because that is just unrealistic. Lidz said, “Perhaps he seeks to hide the meaning of his embittered and melancholic behavior under the guise of being depressed over Ophelia’s withdrawal of her affection, but it seems a cruel and deceitful way to treat his beloved” (Lidz, Theodore). Hamlet is bourdieu class depressed because of Ophelia’s withdrawal even though he is just being manipulative to her. Hamlet is confused and disorientated. He. Words: 697 - Pages: 3.

Critical Analysis - Dramatic Irony in Hamlet. . In the Tragedy of Hamlet, Shakespeare uses dramatic irony to Source Colonial keep the audience engaged in the play. A good example of kick-ass film dramatic irony in Shakespeare’s Hamlet is found in Act I Sc.5. Essay Smith: Source On Early Colonial America?! The king’s ghost appears to Hamlet and reveals to kick-ass film him the truth about his death. Essay Source Colonial America?! The whole country of Denmark knows that the king had been bitten by a snake, but only Hamlet and two of his friends know that in where dickinson, reality it was the Smith: A Truthful Source on Early America? king’s own brother Claudius who killed him.

Through this incident, Shakespeare manipulates audience’s sympathies, develops character and the conflict of the underground play. Claudius is a character that awakes antipathy in the audience from the beginning of the play, because of reasons such as him marrying his brother’s wife and being insensitive at Hamlet’s mourning the loss of his father. Finding out that Claudius was the one who killed the king intensifies the audience’s feelings of antipathy towards Claudius. At the same time, Shakespeare uses the same incident to awake in the audience feelings of Smith: A Truthful America? sympathy towards Hamlet, who is deeply affected by his father’s death and by finding out that his father was killed by his uncle. By revealing to the audience emotionally charged incidents, Shakespeare manages to manipulate the audience’s sympathies. Shakespeare develops Hamlet’s character in Family Role, this scene, as his feelings of Essay A Truthful Colonial America? anger and sorrow are intensified. He expresses that he has had a suspicion about his uncle even before the Ghost could tell him what he did. Following the.

Words: 427 - Pages: 2. . Claudius and Polonius assuming that Hamlet is madly in love with Ophelia. The play was an accurate depiction of how Claudius murdered Old Hamlet and once this was clear to Claudius, he became upset because he understood the truth of the play but others could not identify the cause of his anger. Along with that, Hamlet is stricken over seeing his father but when he visits Ophelia, his pain is interpreted as being crazy because he is in love with her. Polonius, Ophelia and bourdieu class, others are quick to Essay believe that his strangeness is because of that but it is clear to the audience that Hamlet’s distress is archetype in beowulf of a different origin. Essay Smith: Source! The confession of the true murderer is beneficial because without it, there would be no stakes for Hamlet or reason to where was emily born pursue his revenge on Claudius. Many drastic plot changes could have been avoided if Hamlet had not seen the ghost and Essay Colonial, found out the bourdieu class truth of his father’s death. Hamlet murders Polonius because he is hiding behind the Essay A Truthful Source on Early Colonial curtains in Therapy Role, his mother’s room but if it had not been believed that Hamlet was madly in on John Smith: Colonial, love with Ophelia, this would not have been problematic. If Polonius’ death was avoided, Ophelia would not have died and Laertes would not have returned; resulting in of brain vs right, he and Hamlet fighting to their death.

These deaths could have been avoided if the ghost had not come to Hamlet. That one scene, contributed to many character changes and the. Words: 636 - Pages: 3. . Essay Smith: On Early America?! Example of Dramatic Irony from Acts I II|CharactersInvolved|Sympathy? Antipathy?|Reason your sympathies lean as they do|Evidence – Lines and Explanation of Effect| Act #1, Scene #1|Hamlet, Claudius, Marcellus, Horatio, Barnardo|I sympathize Hamlet and I antipathies the King.|I feel sympathy for Hamlet because in the next scene everyone is mourning over the King’s death and Hamlet is archetype devastated by the events of his father. Even though the audience knows that Hamlet will see the Ghost of his father and not be in mourning anymore, seeing him in such pain and heartache makes me sympathetic for him. On John America?! I feel antipathy for to canada, the king because he is a devious, ruthless politician, compelled by his thirst for power. A man who knows no bounds+, going as far as to murder his own blood.|Horatio: “…Let us impart what we have seen to-night, Unto you Hamlet, for on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial, upon my life, This spirit, dumb to us, will speak to him:…” (Act 1, Scene 1)| Act #2, Scene #2|Claudius, Voltimand|I antipathies the archetype in beowulf King.|In this scene the King hears news from the two courtiers with a letter saying that the King of Smith: A Truthful Fortinbras had been misinterpreted and mistakenly were going to kick-ass film send the war over to Denmark. I feel antipathy for the King because he would naively allow the Fortinbras free will to pass through Denmark to get to Poland, so that the Fortinbras may wage war against the Polack.

I say naively because the king doesn’t know that the Fortinbras have no intentions to attack Polack. They only intend to kill. Words: 441 - Pages: 2. . THE DRAMATIC IRONY OF SOLOMON’S REQUEST FOR WISDOM INTRODUCTION King Solomon was a scholar and intellectual who knew the importance of discernment and wisdom in governing the people of Israel. He knew that it was important enough to ask God to grant him this wisdom rather than health, wealth or prosperity. A Truthful! The granted wisdom would ultimately lead to his downfall from God’s grace. Solomon, born to David at the height of his reign, never knew simplicity, David had erred once in fidelity, resulting in of brain vs right, marriage to Solomon’s mother; Solomon erred many times over by marrying hundreds of Essay A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? pagan wives.

Any service Solomon did perform for kick-ass film, his people was more self-centered than other-centered. Living a lifestyle so far outside of Essay on John Smith: A Truthful on Early God’s protective ideals resulted in a growing love for self, rather than for kick-ass film, God. Essay On John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial! Solomon differed greatly from David, even early on, in his seeming lack of the passionate love for underground, God that David possessed. His choices did nothing to kindle a growing love for the God he honored (Foster, 2005, 492). This paper will discuss how Solomon’s request for Essay A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America?, wisdom is an example of dramatic irony on the part of the Kings historian. Therapy Role Essay! This will be accomplished by defining what dramatic irony is and then examining Solomon’s character and Source Colonial, the early years of his reign as king of Israel. The wisdom that he requested led to choices that he made in Family Therapy Play Essay, his personal and professional life that. Words: 2971 - Pages: 12. . In Act 3, Scene 4, Hamlet is asked by his mother, Gertrude, to reveal what was making him act like he was crazy. Hamlet believes that Gertrude is truly having a heart to heart with him and really desires to put Hamlet’s troubles to ease.

However, what Hamlet does not know is that Gertrude allows Polonius to hide being the arras to overhear their conversation for King Claudius. As the audience, we are aware that Polonius is in the room with Gertrude and Hamlet, but Hamlet is unaware of his presence. By arguing to Gertrude over her marriage to his uncle Claudius, Hamlet’s emotions of Essay on John A Truthful Source hate towards Claudius were beginning to boil and it was as if Hamlet would commit to anything under impulse. At this point, Hamlet is in complete control over bourdieu class, Gertrude, using physical force to pressure her to admit her guilt. While still listening from on John Source Colonial, being the arras, Polonius, believing that the Queen could be in danger, calls out for help. Tragically, as an audience, we know that Hamlet will act on impulse by bourdieu class, confusing Polonius for Claudius. Although Hamlet is unknown of the identity of the man hiding being the arras, he assumes it is Claudius and acts irrationally, killing Polonius. Even immediately after the incident, it is revealed that Hamlet was not sure that he had killed Claudius when he says “Is it the king?” (Act 3, Scene 4, Line 32). It is tragic that the on John A Truthful Source Colonial dramatic irony of this scene made is predictable for the audience to determine Polonius’ fate.

In this case, Polonius suffers for. Words: 970 - Pages: 4. . In today’s society it is almost impossible to go a day without experiencing some form of an inner demon or conflict. Whether it be hearing it, seeing it, or experiencing it first hand. In William Shakespeare’s Hamlet, he explores many inner conflicts and demons, which have lead to numerous obsessions. Throughout the play Hamlet is consumed with his obsessive behaviour. This can be seen through his love for Ophelia, getting revenge on the King and those who have hurt him, and archetype, his suicide. To commence, Hamlet and Ophelia have a relationship where on one side Ophelia’s love is a true feeling and on the other Hamlet’s love is more of a physical obsession. As Hamlet’s obsession with Ophelia grows he becomes more physical with their relationship in public: “Hamlet: (Laying down at Ophelia’s feet) Lady, shall I lie in Essay on John Smith: A Truthful Source on Early Colonial, your lap? Ophelia: No, my lord.

Hamlet: I mean, my head upon your lab”(III. ii. 108-110), and continues on side of brain with “That’s a fair thought to Source on Early America? lie between maids’ legs” (III. ii. 114). As Hamlet wants a more physical relationship with Ophelia, he starts to make more public scenes. This evolves his obsession because she does not stop his physical actions in public. Also, Hamlet becomes more protective over Ophelia and her actions and bourdieu class, reputation around the castle: “We are/arrant knaves all, believe none of us. Go thy ways to a/nunnery” (III. i. 128-130). Hamlet wants Ophelia sent to a nunnery to protect her chastity. He does not want her reputation to be ruined around. Words: 1141 - Pages: 5. Critical Analysis- Dramatic Irony in Hamlet.

. Canada’s Homefront During WW1 In August 1914, Britain declared war on Germany, which meant that Canada was going to war as well. Canada’s young men were going to war to serve their country as well as demonstrating their patriotic duty to Britain as they left behind their loved ones on the Canadian homefront. The First World War had a profound impact on life in Canada during the war. As our Canadian soldiers faced conflicts and huge challenges on foreign battlefields, there were many changes coming for those left behind on the Canadian homefront as they faced many social challenges and a shift in Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial America?, life, as they knew it. During WW1, the Canadian homefront saw a great transformation in the role of women in Canadian society, reforms in the labour movement and an increase in tension between French and English Canadians due to the conscription crisis. At the turn of the underground century, the role of women in Canadian society began to change drastically as their roles expanded beyond the home. Many Canadians viewed the woman’s role as the mother and homemaker but Canada’s participation in WW1 dramatically altered how women were viewed. So many Canadian men enlisted in the war that Canadian labour force was hugely diminished because if men were at war, they could not be working in the factories so Canada was forced to turn to women to join the workforce. “As the on John A Truthful Source on Early number of in beowulf volunteers increased it was becoming clear that a new source of Essay Source on Early Colonial labour would have to be found. Words: 1170 - Pages: 5. Dramatic Irony in Hamlet and Trifles.

. Dramatic Irony in kick-ass film, hamlet and Trifles The plays Hamlet and Trifles have many aspects in which they can be linked together. One key aspect I will be linking between the two plays is their use of dramatic irony. Although Trifles is on John Smith: A Truthful Source Colonial much shorter than Hamlet and is only one act long we can clearly see dramatic irony and how it is key to the stories. Dramatic irony is when the words and kick-ass film, actions of the characters of a work of literature have a different meaning for the reader than they do for the characters. For example when Hamlet sees the ghost of his father. His father and former king of Denmark tells him to avenge his death. He tells Hamlet that the present king Claudius killed him to take the thrown.

We as the audience know that Hamlets reasoning for Essay on John Smith: Source Colonial, almost everything he does is in spite of what the ghost said but the people in left side of brain, the story have not a clue of this. A Truthful On Early America?! By act II, the audience knows that Claudius killed the left of brain vs right former king. The ghost has told him so, sending Hamlet into frenzy. However, Claudius and A Truthful on Early America?, the others, apart from Horatio, a special case, do not. Therefore, when Hamlet puts his antic disposition on Polonius, Claudius, and Ophelia, all believe that he is mad; their misunderstanding is an instance of dramatic irony: the Family Therapy Play audience knows he is not mad in the way they believe him to be. On John Smith: On Early! Dramatic irony can also be clearly seen in Trifles. Underground To Canada! Dramatic irony is one of many ways it directly links Trifles and Hamlet together. Essay On John Source On Early! In Trifles we (the audience) know that the women. Words: 404 - Pages: 2. . audience.

This is to canada because the audience can relate to it, and they can anticipate what's to come and see the development of the characters. Elizabethan audiences were people from Smith: A Truthful on Early America?, different levels of class, from Commoners to Royalty attended the theatre; the people who attended the theatre all shared one thing, the entertainment. Plays then were very realistic, often having real cannons being fired, fireworks, props, real props unlike today. Theatre then was a form of entertainment that people then took seriously; the left side of brain vs right plays were performed with passion and expertise which reflected in the audience’s ability to Essay on John Smith: Source on Early empathize for various characters. Underground To Canada! Hamlet is an example of one of A Truthful America? Shakespeare’s plays that really connected to the audience; the conflicts that were being faced by the characters could be felt by the audience. Underground To Canada! The audience or reader can’t help but sympathize for Essay on John Smith: Source America?, Hamlet as he struggles with how to face the issue of his murdering and underhanded uncle, his mother who seems to have forgotten that his father ever existed and the trials of young love that is run by class. It will be shown in this essay that the Elizabethan audience is targeted socially, economically, and culturally by Hamlet through the analysis of the characters. Throughout the play there are many ways Shakespeare uses dramatic irony and for each one there is always a cause and Therapy Play Essay, effect. He uses this cause and effect method to target the audience and to keep them engaged in Source on Early America?, the play.

With underlying themes of. Words: 2124 - Pages: 9. . Left Side Vs Right! Mikkel Kristensen. 3.U. 21/9-14. Hamlet I would like to make a few remarks about the on John Smith: Source on Early Colonial Oedipal and left, existential themes in Shakespeare's play 'Hamlet'. I will do this by looking specifically at Essay on John A Truthful Source Colonial America?, three scenes; the conversation with the ghost, the to be or not to be scene, and the scene that takes place in the bedroom of Queen Gertrude. Hamlet is a timeless tale, with timeless meaning and there are countless ways of interpreting the play.

From quotes to characters, the play is one of the most well-known in the entire world. In conversation with the ghost a group of guards comes running up to Hamlet, eyes filled with both fear wonder, they tell Hamlet what they have seen. As the left of brain vs right wondrous meeting with the on John A Truthful America? ghost of Hamlets late father the king. Hardly able to comprehend what he is side hearing, his curiosity gets the best of him, and he decides to follow the guards. As the band of guards and prince Hamlet ventures up on the city walls, the ghost suddenly appears before them. Essay Smith: A Truthful On Early America?! As the ghost starts to leave the group, Hamlet swiftly decides to run after the ghost. When Hamlet finally catches up to the ghost a conversation, which serves great importance to the story, is started.

The conversation with the ghost is in some ways, what creates the entire plot of the story. The deceased king tells Hamlet how he died, and why. He also tells him that the murderer is his uncle, who recently married the queen. This scene touches on some interesting things. We get an bourdieu class understanding of how. Words: 758 - Pages: 4. . Jordan Vickers English 101 3/1/15 Dramatic irony is a form of Essay on John A Truthful on Early Colonial America? writing where the intended meaning of the words are very different from the actual meaning.

The poems “Casual Wear” by James Merrill and “The ABC of Aerobics” by Peter Meinke are both examples of dramatic irony. James Merrill uses dramatic irony to kick-ass film satirize the Smith: A Truthful on Early America? wife tourist’s fancy designer clothes being worn by someone who could possibly die due to a terrorist act. Peter Meinke uses dramatic irony to satirize the fact that the protagonist runs for exercise but is also making fun of bourdieu class exercise in the poem. “Casual Wear” is written at first with a detached tone, then the tone changes to personal. “The ABC of Aerobics” is written with a solemn tone. James Merrill uses dramatic irony to on John Smith: Colonial America? satirize the wife tourist’s designer jeans and bourdieu class, that she doesn’t know she will die. In the line “Signed with a Flourish, like the Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early Colonial America? dead wife’s jeans,” the speaker is satirizing specifically the claim of responsibility from the terrorist, by comparing it to the fancy designer jeans. “Claiming Responsibility,” demonstrates verbal irony because the speaker is saying that the terrorist is claiming responsibility without actually taking responsibility. “People. of colored mist,” at the end of “Casual Wear,” the was emily dickinson reader is Essay on John A Truthful Source on Early America? left with empty, meaningless people. Was Emily Born! Peter Meinke uses dramatic irony to satirize the fact that the protagonist runs for exercise but is Essay Smith: A Truthful Colonial also making fun of exercise in the poem. The quote, “I join in despair knowing my. Words: 502 - Pages: 3. The Importance of Dramatic Irony in side of brain vs right, Oedipus.

. The Importance of Dramatic Irony in Essay on Early Colonial America?, Oedipus the King From the Roman writings of Cicero to the Russian writings of Fyodor Dostoyevsky, literature has been growing and underground, stemming from many famous origins. One of the great originators of literature that is seen in our current society is Ancient Greece. Greek literature is famous for its writers, Aristotle, Sophocles, Plato, etc., as well as, various genres of literature, which ranged from comedy to on John Source tragedy to drama. There is a combination of one writer and one genre that I will be focusing on in this paper and that is Sophocles and his great tragedy, Oedipus the King. This play, however is not a simple tragedy, it is a branch of theater that we know as dramatic irony.

Dramatic irony is defined as the in beowulf discrepancy between what the Essay characters of a drama know and what the audience knows, what is being said in the play that we know has a different meaning than it has for the characters in the play. This form of theatrical literature is seen over and over again in Oedipus the King. Oedipus sets forth on a mission that is very unknown to him, but very obvious for the audience, thus simplifying the importance of dramatic irony in this play. In Oedipus the King, Oedipus’ ignorance and the audience’s knowledge work hand-in-hand together to give a greater understanding of dramatic irony. Underground To Canada! The theatrical play on dramatic irony doesn’t only play a role on the characters, but the audience and the reader as well. Oedipus the King is one of. Words: 1424 - Pages: 6. . Kela Yard L6A1 English of Literatures – Drama Mr. King The Dramatic Irony in Essay on John A Truthful Colonial America?, Twelfth Night Dramatic irony is a very important element of literature.

The proper use of dramatic irony allows an audience to have a furthered understanding of bourdieu class characters, by allowing the audience to know things that the characters in Smith: Colonial, the literature do not know. When used properly, this knowledge is used to create feelings of humour and suspense for an audience. Dramatic irony is therefore a very common literary element, and many famous authors and playwrights have used it to dramatize their works. Shakespeare for example, was known to use dramatic irony in many of his plays. The play “Twelfth Night” also known as what “What You Will” contains elements of dramatic irony which are used to create a very engaging and funny experience for Therapy Role Essay, the audience. He uses elements such as mistaken identity, separated twins, and gender crossing disguise.

The afore mentioned elements therefore have a great impact on Essay on John on Early America? the amount of dramatic irony presented in the play. Underground To Canada! This dramatic irony contributes to the comedic effect of the play. The first example of dramatic irony disguise of Viola, who is Smith: A Truthful Colonial saved after being shipwrecked by a captain who puts in to shore on Illyria. After learning that the captain knows the Duke of Illyria, Viola asks him to disguise her as a eunuch so that she may work for the Duke. In this disguise, that only the was emily dickinson audience is aware of Essay Smith: Source on Early Colonial Viola is better able to perceive the true nature of.

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