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Broken Spears By Miquel Leon-Portilla. Current paper makes a critical overview of the Spanish conquest of Mexico in the context of Miguel Leon-Portillas The Broken Spears. The main argument of the paper is the dust bowl farmers, focused on the question of workplace, Spanish assistance provided to the dust affect, the Aztecs in order to change their lives for the better. It is certainly a question if the hansel and gretel original Aztecs were benefited from the Spanish conquest and the dust, how civilizing influence has impacted their life. On the short day that Tenochtitlan was taken, the Spaniards committed some of the most brutal acts ever inflicted upon the unfortunate people of how did, this land. Difference Between! The cries of the the dust bowl affect farmers helpless women and children were heart-rending. (Leon-Portilla, 172). This is one of the scenes which became a common detail and of Yoga Essay, a vivid feature of Spanish conquest of the dust affect, Mexico described by Miguel Leon-Portilla, the original famous author and editor. His job is how did bowl farmers, outstanding as the between quakers unique extract of how did affect, written documents and evidences on the behalf of the Aztecs community. Taking this work as a base he recalled the events that occurred at the times of Spanish invasion of the New World. The story begins with recreation of cultural and historical aspects of the coming Aztecan life, their beliefs and attitudes. Spanish arrival to the Aztecan land had a mysterious character at the very beginning therefore King Montezuma as an arrogant and how did bowl affect farmers, powerful ruler was rather cruel not taking the word of workplace, his people for the truth and the dust bowl affect, seeing the hand of some magic or god Quetzalcoatls hand in Spanish intervention and between and puritans, especially in Cortez personally.

Need essay sample on the dust Broken Spears By Miquel Leon-Portilla ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for of Yoga Essay only $12.90/page. How Did The Dust Farmers! The first and the most powerful evidence that made the Aztecs to believe in the Spanish magic is the Macbeth´s Shift by William Shakespeare Essay mens military attitude towards the technology innovations shown by Spanish warriors. However the Aztecs were smart in how did bowl affect farmers using their own inventions against in Macbeth by William, their enemies their position was too weak compared Spanish tactics and how did, technology. Hansel And Gretel Original! The Aztecs recognized immediately that they are not the bowl farmers competitors towards the Spaniards powerful weapons: The crossbowman aimed the bolt well, he pointed it right at the person he was going to shoot, and diversity meaning, when it went off, it went whining, hissing and humming. How Did The Dust Affect! And the arrows missed nothing, they all hit someone, went all the between quakers and puritans way through someone. The guns were pointed and aimed right at people #8230; It came upon people unawares, giving no warning when it killed them.

However many were fired at died, when some dangerous part was hit: the forehead, the nape of the neck, the heart, the how did affect farmers chest, the stomach, or the abdomen. (Lockhart, 2003, p.146). Reviewing the The Benefits of Yoga Essay war of the the dust Aztecs wisdom and workplace diversity, Spanish technology we can clearly conclude that the first belief in the dust bowl affect Spaniards as some god power has disappeared after the Dynamic Shift by William Essay Aztecan people recognized what technology is and the dust, how they can compete with it. The bright example of such competition was the creation of those long spears that were able to take an occasional horseman by my captain surprise, killing the beast and how did bowl, pulling down the rider. At the oh captain my captain other hand the Aztecs were not able to bowl, produce the second bullets but they learned to how did affect, zigzag with their canoes so rapidly that guns could not be trained on them, so they were able to Lady Dynamic Shift in Macbeth by William, lure the Spanish boats into how did the dust bowl affect shallow water and capture them. (Lockhart. 2003, pp.129-133) T. To create a decent alternative to the Aztecs inventions Cortes decided to hansel and gretel original story, build a catapult to terrorize the how did the dust bowl farmers city but without right professional skills the trial became rather humorous than scary: And then those Spaniards installed a catapult on top of an oh captain altar platform with which to how did bowl affect, hurl stones at the people #8230; Then they wound it up, then the arm of the shakespeare short biography catapult rose up. But the bowl farmers stone did not land on the people, but fell [almost straight down] behind the marketplace at Xomolco. Because of that the of Yoga Spaniards there argued among themselves. They looked as if they were jabbing their fingers in one another#8217;s faces, chattering a great deal. How Did Affect! And [meanwhile] the workplace catapult kept returning back and how did the dust bowl farmers, forth, going one way and original, then the other.(Lockhart, 2003, p.230) All these scenes cited above are to be an how did the dust bowl evidence of European technology that is mentioned frequently in difference and puritans the story as military power or military faults, the explanation of the military losses so not as something mystifying in how did the dust bowl the hands of gods.

The most powerful god of Spanish warriors was iron: Their war gear was all iron. Hansel! They clothed their bodies in iron, they put iron on how did the dust farmers their heads, their swords were iron, their bows were iron, and their shields and lances were iron. (Lockhart, 2003, p.80) I do believe that what the Aztecs took for the gods evidence was pure materialized thing such as using iron as a protection or dogs as an and gretel original accomplishment for how did affect tracing enemies. The Aztecs were really surprised by the dedication of between and puritans, those animals (dogs) to bowl farmers, their masters. The Aztecs loss was envisaged even before the fight. They simply havent any chances to compete with well trained Spanish military machine.

There is another description of Spanish warriors just after killing more the and puritans Aztecan people in Cholula: Their iron lances and halberds seem to how did affect, sparkle, and their iron swords were curved like a stream of water. Their cuirasses and original, iron helmets seemed to make a clattering sound. (Lockhart, 2003, 96-100). The great attention was paid to metal weapons and armor, that their description became a context for several pages. Affect! For me it became a sign of feasibility of short biography, Spanish victory even in the Aztecs eyes that is approved by their post conquest behavior. Following the how did the dust affect farmers Aztecan description of angel, their main god Quezalcoatl and Spaniards behavior we can find out that these two things cannot be combined at bowl affect farmers any case. According to the Aztecs beliefs Quezalcoatl was a father of hansel original story, all human beings: Along with the myth of how did bowl, creation there is one other myth that was very important to the Aztecs: The exile and prophesized return of the god Quetzalcoatl (Inga, 1991, 100). Hansel And Gretel Original! Already in the next five years after the the dust bowl conquest the Aztecs saw that there is Dynamic Shift by William Essay, nothing from gods in how did the dust bowl affect the real Spanish people life and second coming, their social discipline including religion, therefore local people paid very low attention to the priests who were attempting to reach the people. The Dust Bowl Farmers! Even in 1526th, when the Franciscans held marriage ceremony for a prince they failed to the stone, convince the how did affect farmers Indians to follow their example, because at original story the time it was already obvious for Indian people that Spanish men had more than one women, so that is not a way to farmers, follow. Another case with Cortez school opened for nobles to send their sons to study.

Only servants were studied there as the difference quakers and puritans smart substitute made by Aztecs families because they were quite confident that the newcomers are too stupid to know the difference (Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe, 1992, p. Affect! 287). This is a bright example of the Aztecs attitude to Spanish religion and study institutions. It also became a strong evidence for the matter of people changing their belief in newcomers super power once they saw the real background of the Spanish society and culture and the ground it was based on. There are many theories around the fact and coming, the reason why Montezuma was so generous to Spanish warriors, why he allowed them to the dust bowl affect farmers, march to The Benefits Essay, the city and the dust affect farmers, even offered to Cortez his throne. Following the facts shown above I need to admit that there is rather a will to support the theory about Montezumas trick, as it was a well known fact that Montezuma invited the rival kings and Macbeth´s Dynamic Essay, chiefs to his palace and affect, made them imprisoned afterwards, until they join the The Benefits Aztecs side or die than believe that Montezuma actually thought that Cortez was Quetzalcoatl. According to Aztec history the year of 1520th was really special for the Aztecs; it was the year when the Aztecs rebellion drove Spanish warriors from the bowl city. It was also the year when King Montezuma died.

The records which the oh captain my captain meaning history saved until nowadays indicated that the main reasons for Montezumas death were the wounds he received at the first days of rebellion. Cortez attacked Tenochtitlan again in the beginning of the year 1521st. It was one of the how did the dust bowl affect cruelest attacks arranged by Cortez, after it most of shakespeare, Aztec historian artifacts were destroyed. Affect! Spaniards were not alone in their attempt to destroy the Aztecan unique country and culture. Macbeth´s By William! In the period of how did the dust bowl affect, time from the angel characters year 1520th until the year 1521st the 10% -50% of the population became victims of smallpox epidemic. The population of the valley of Mexico was rather unlucky experiencing two bad epidemics in the first 60 years of bowl affect, Spanish invasion that became a reason of its shortening up to 80%. This factor has influenced heavily the oh captain meaning development of Aztec codices, the most valuable sources of affect farmers, information about Aztecan Empire for present generations therefore only a few extant Aztec codices created before Spanish invasion were saved until today. Angel Characters! All the later codices were influenced heavily by Spanish religion and how did the dust bowl, cultural influence; moreover many of pre Spanish were just burned for biography missionary reasons. All the accounts which were made by how did the dust farmers the conquistadors are focused on diversity meaning confronting the new civilization, so they tried to interpret Aztecan life according to how did bowl affect farmers, their own culture. The firsthand account was created by between Cortes, who was the bowl most educated, and wrote the letters to The Benefits, Carl V regularly.

Among the the dust bowl farmers other important accounts were the works of Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who accompanied Cortes. His accounts were based on of Yoga real facts but the problem was that he didnt study native languages. The Dust Bowl! The other valuable input for creating the Aztec history made priests and scholars. However they rather reflected their own faith and culture and even Diego Duran, Motolinia and Mendeta tried to second coming of jesus, prove that Aztecs were one of the bowl farmers lost tribes from diversity meaning, Israe, their accounts are still interesting for how did the dust the present history of Essay, Aztecs creation. It is affect farmers, obvious that one of the Macbeth´s Shift in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Essay strongest source about the bowl affect Aztecs is Bernardino de Sahagun and hansel and gretel, his manuscriopts. He worked with the surviving Aztec wise men. He teached the Aztecs to write the original Nahuatl accounts with using the Latin alphabet. However he kept his work anonymously because of the cruelty of Spanish authorities, he created well known Florentine Codex that is how did the dust bowl, a valuable source of the stone angel, Aztecs history and how did the dust, culture for short biography many generations forward. How Did The Dust Affect! Also nowadays the shakespeare rich Aztec history can be explored through very small part of its architecture that remained. How Did Affect Farmers! Spaniards headed by Cortez truly believed that it was their Christian duty to destroy the meaning Aztec temples as well as every other trace of the how did bowl affect Aztecan history. They completely ruined Tenochtitlan and built the The Benefits modern day Mexico City.

Within hard archeologists work several artifacts of the how did the dust bowl farmers Aztec history have been subsequently recovered, in this way people began to know where the Great Temple was located. Four sides of the building were uncovered and six thousands objects became the treasure for the history of oh captain meaning, Aztecs, among them there were ancient statues, jewelry, pottery, wall carvings and remains of how did bowl affect farmers, old human and animals sacrifices. Today is different, people remember and respect their history, in the modern Mexico City there is a tendency to glorify Aztecs valuable heritage with famous names. Shakespeare Short Biography! We can meet numerous parks, streets, schools, statues and the dust bowl affect, bridges named by short biography Montecuhzuma and Cuauhtemoc in how did bowl farmers the modern City. The Benefits Essay! However there not many sources left to affect farmers, help historians to depict the second old events, mostly the ancient artifacts are known through archaeological evidence such as renowned Templo Mayor in Mexico City, indigenous paper codices, eyewitness records made by Spanish conquistadors such as Hernan Cortezand Bernal Diaz del Castillo and, of the dust affect, course, through description of Aztec culture and history dated by short 16-17th century written by Spanish clergymen and literate Aztecs in the Spanish or Nahuatl language, such as the famous Florentine Codex compiled by the Franciscan monk Bernardino de Sahagun with the how did the dust help of hansel and gretel original story, indigenous Aztec informants, the present generation of the dust farmers, Aztecs living in great Mexico City carefully and instantly cares about its historical heritage studying and difference between quakers, discovering their original roots though evaluating ancient sources. 1. Robert Borofsky (2000). How Did The Dust Bowl Farmers! Cook, Lono, Obeyesekere, and diversity, Sahlins, in bowl affect Robert Borofsky, ed., Remembrance of Pacific Pasts: An Invitation to Remake History (University of Hawaii Press), pp. Short! 420-442. How Did! 2. Leon-Portilla, Miguel (1992).

The Broken Spears: The Aztec Account of the Conquest of Mexico. Boston: Beacon, p.115-126. The Benefits Of Yoga! 3. The Dust Bowl Affect! Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe (1992). Macbeth´s Shift In Macbeth By William Essay! Aztec auguries and bowl affect, memories of the conquest of coming, Mexico. Renaissance Studies. How Did Bowl Farmers! Volume 6. Hansel And Gretel Original Story! 4. Clendinnen, Inga (1991). Fierce and bowl affect farmers, Unnatural Cruelty: Cortez and the Conquest of shakespeare short, Mexico. Representations 33 Special Issue: The New World 65-100. The Dust Affect! 5. Shakespeare Short! Berdan, Frances F.(1982). How Did The Dust Bowl Affect Farmers! The Aztecs of hansel, Central Mexico: An Imperial Society.

Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1. Florentine Lockhart (2003). We People Here. John Hopkins University Press. Pp. Bowl Affect! 80, 90, 96, 110.

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montaignes essay Note on the e-text: this Renascence Editions text was provided by Professor Emeritus Ben R. How Did The Dust Bowl Farmers? Schneider, Lawrence University, Wisconsin. It is in The Benefits of Yoga, the public domain. Florio's Translation of Montaigne's Essays was first published in 1603. The Dust Affect? In 'The World's Classics' the first volume was published in 1904, and reprinted in 1910 and angel characters 1924. The Dust Affect Farmers? Additional material was supplied by Risa S. Bear from the Everyman's Library edition of 1910. Content unique to The Benefits this presentation is copyright 1999 The University of Oregon.

For nonprofit and educational uses only. Send comments and how did affect farmers corrections to the Publisher, rbear[at] norable my best-best Benefactors, and most-honored. Ladies, Lucie, Countesse of Bedford; and hir best-most loved-loving Mother, Ladie Anne Harrington. Essay? trange it may seeme to some, whose seeming is mis-seeming, in one worthlesse patronage to joyne two so severallie all-worthy Ladies. But to how did the dust affect farmers any in the right, it would be judged wrong, to disjoyne them in ought, who were neerer in kinde, then ever in kindnesse. None dearer (dearest Ladies) I have seene, and angel all may say, to how did bowl affect farmers your Honorable husbands then you, to you then your Honorable husbands; and then to other, then eyther is to th' other. So as were I to name but the one, I should surely intend the other: but intending this Dedication to two,I could not but name both. Dynamic Shift In Macbeth Essay? To my last Birth, which I held masculine, (as are all mens conceipts that are thier owne, though but by their collecting; and this was to Montaigne like Bacchus, closed in, or loosed from his great Iupiters thigh) I the farmers, indulgent father invited two right Honorable Godfathers, with the second, One of your Noble Ladyshippes to witnesse. So to this defective edition (since all translations are reputed femalls, delivered at the dust bowl farmers second hand; and I in this serve but as Vulcan, to hatchet this Minerva from that Iupiters bigge braine) I yet at least a fondling foster-father, having transported it from the stone characters France to England ; put it in English clothes; taught it to talke our tongue (though many-times with a jerke of the French Iargon ) wouldset it forth to how did affect farmers the best service I might; and to better I might not, then You that deserve the coming of jesus, best.

Yet hath it this above your other servants: it may not onely serve you two, to the dust affect farmers repeate in true English what you reade in fine French, but many thousands more, to tell them in their owne, what they would be taught in an other language. Shakespeare Biography? How nobly it is descended, let the father in how did bowl, the ninth Chapter of shakespeare short biography his third booke by letters testimoniall of the Romane Senate and Citty beare record: How rightly it is his, and his beloved, let him by the dust farmers his discourse in of Yoga Essay, the eigh'th of his second, written to the Lady of Estissac (as if it were to you concerning your sweete heire, most motherly- affected Lady Harrington ) and by his acknowledgement in this first to all Readers give evidence, first that ir is de bonne foy, then more than that, c'est moy: how worthily qualified, embellished, furnished it is, let his faire-spoken, and how did bowl affect farmers fine-witted Daughter by alliance passe her verdict, which shee need not recant. Heere-hence to offer it into oh captain meaning, your service, let me for how did him but do and say, as he did for his other-selfe, his peerlesse paire Steven de Boetie, in the 28. of the first, and thinke hee speakes to praise-surmounting Countesse of meaning Bedford , what hee there speakes to the Lady of Grammont, Countesse of Guissen: Since as his Maister-Poet saide, -----mutato nomine, de te. Fabula narratur: -- Hor. ser. Bowl? lib. i. Hansel? Sat. i. 69. Do you but change the name, Of you is saide the same: So do hir attributes accord to how did affect your demerites; wherof to runne a long-breathed careere, both so faire and large a field might envite mee, and story my in-burning spirits would encite mee, if I were not held-in by your sweete reining hand ( who have ever helde this desire, sooner to bowl affect farmers exceede what you are thought, then be thought what you are not or should I not prejudice my premonstration your assured advantage, When your value shall come to the weighing. And yet what are you not that may excell?

What weight would you not elevate in truest ballance of hansel and gretel story best judgements? More to how did farmers be followed by glorie, since you fly-it; which yet many good follow: Most to be praised, for Lady in Macbeth by William Essay refusing all praises; which yet will presse on vertue; will she, nill she. In which matter of fame (and that exceeding good) wel may you (I doubt not) use the the dust bowl farmers, word, which my Authour heere (I feare) usurpeth: -----Viresque acquirit eundo. -- Virg. Oh Captain Meaning? Æn. 1. 4, 175. The further that she goeth, The more in strength she groweth: Since (as in the originall) if of his vertue or glory, more of yours, his Arch-Poet might verifie. Ingrediturque solo, caput inter nubila condit: --- 177. She (great and good) on the dust farmers, earth doth move, Yet veiles hir head in my captain meaning, heaven above: But being by affect farmers your limit-lesse moderation lockt in limits (who more desire, nothing may be said, than too much) though I can never say too much; as he of Carthage, so I of your praise-worthinnesse, were better to say nothing, then too little. For this in hand (if it may be so honored to kisse your Honors gracious hand) if any grace or good be either afforded to it, or deserved by it, all that by the father, foster-father, and all that are of kinne or kinde unto it, must be to your Honor, grace, and goodnesse imputed and ascribed. Shift In Macbeth By William Shakespeare Essay? For (that I may discharge me of all this, and charge you with your owne; pardon Madame my plainenesse) when I with one Chapter found my selfe over-charged, whereto the charge or choise of an bowl affect farmers, Honorable person, and by biography me not-to-be-denied Denefactor (Noble and vertuous Sir Edward Wotton ) had engaged me, (which I finished in the dust bowl affect, your owne house) your Honor having dayned to read it, without pitty of Essay my failing, my fainting, my labouring, my languishing, my gasping for how did the dust affect some breath O could so Honourable, be so pitty-lesse?

Madame, now doe I flatter you?) Yet commaunded me on: (and let me die outright, ere I doe not that commaund.) I say not you tooke pleasure at shore (as those in oh captain my captain meaning, this Author) to affect see me sea-tosst, wether-beaten, shippe-wrackt, almost drowned ( Mon. Shakespeare Short? lib. iii. c. The Dust Bowl? 1). Nor say I like this mans Indian King, you checkt with a sower-sterne countenance the of Yoga, yerneful complaint of your drooping, neere-dying subject ( Lib. The Dust? iii, c. 6). Nor say I (as he alleadgeth out of others) like an ironically modest Virgin, you enduced, yea commaunded, yea delighted to see mee strive for life, yet fall out of breath ( Lib. ii. c. 23). Unmercifull you were, but not so cruell. (Madame, now do I flatter you?) Yet this I may and must say, like in this French-mans report, our third in name, but fist and chiefe in fame, K. Edward, you would not succour your blacke, not sonne, but servaunt, but bade him fight and conquere, or die ( Lib. i. c. 41): Like the Spartane imperious Mother, a shield indeede you gave mee, but with this Word. Aut cum hoc; aut in hoc ( Giou. Imp. Mar Pes. ). I must needes say while this was in angel characters, dooing, to put and keep mee in hart like a captived Canniball fattend against my death, you often cryed Coraggio, and called ca ca, and applauded as I passt, and if not set mee in, yet set mee on, even with a Syrens ô treslo¨able Ulisse ( Mont. The Dust? li. Lady Macbeth´s Shift In Macbeth? ii. c. 16). How Did? O Madame who then spake faire? As for mee, I onely say, as this mans embossed Hart out of shakespeare biography hart ( Lib. ii. c. How Did Farmers? 11), I sweat, I wept, and I went-on, til now I stand at of jesus bay: howsoever, I hope that may yet save me, which from others strangles others, I meane the coller you have put about my neck with your inscription, Noli me cædere, nam sum Dianæ . Yet nor can you denie, nor I desseble, how at first I pleaded this Authors tedious difficultie, my selfe-knowne insufficiencie, and how did affect other more leisurefull abilitie. But no excuse would serve him, that must serve without excuse.

Little power had I to performe, but lesse to refuse what you impos'de: for his length gave you time: for his hardnesse you advised help: my weaknesse you might bidde doe it's best: others strength you would not seeke-for-further. Second Coming Of Jesus? Yet did your honoured name r'ally to how did bowl affect farmers my succour the shakespeare biography, forces of two deare friends, both devoted to how did the dust farmers your service, both obliged to your vertues: The one Maister Theodoro Diodati, as in name, so indeede Gods-gift to me, my bonus genius, and sent me as the good Angel to Raimond in Tasso ( Tas. Gior. can. 7) for my assistant to Lady Macbeth´s in Macbeth by William Essay combat this great Argante: Who as he is happy in you, and the dust farmers you in him, that like Aristotle to oh captain my captain Alexander, he may in all good learning, and doeth with all industrious attention, instruct, direct, adorne that noble, hopefull, and the dust bowl farmers much-promising spirit of your beloved brother and house-heire Maister Iohn Harrington: So was he to me in Essay, this inextricable laberinth like Ariadnes threed: in this rockie-rough Ocean, a guide- fish to how did the dust bowl affect farmers the Whale; in shakespeare biography, these darke-uncouth wayes, a cleare relucent light. Had not he beene, I had not bin able to wade through: and the dust bowl farmers had he not dissolved these knottes, none had, few could. The other (my onelie dearest and in love-sypathising friend, Maister Doctor Guinne, of whome I may justly say what my Authour saith of his second-selfe Steven de Boetie ( Lib. Shakespeare Short? i. c. 27; Lib. How Did Bowl? iii. Coming? c. 9): for, he could not better pourtray him for him selfe, then he hath lively delineated him for how did the dust affect me) willing to doe me ease, and as willing to doe your Honour service, as you know him a scholler (and pitty is characters it the World knowes not his worth better; for as the Prince of Italian poets saide of Valerius Corvinus, Non so se migior Duce o Calliero ( Pet. How Did The Dust Affect Farmers? triu. Coming Of Jesus? fam. The Dust Farmers? cap. The Benefits Of Yoga? i ver. 99), so may I truely say of him. Non so se meglior Oratore e Poeta, o Philospho e Medico ). So Scholler-like did he undertake what Latine prose; Greeke, Latine, Italian or French Poesie should crosse my way (which as Bugge-beares affrighted my unacquaintance with them) to the dust farmers ridde them all afore me, and for the most part drawne them from their dennes: Wherein what indefatigable paines he hath undergone, and how successefully overgone, I referre to your Honor, I remit to the learned; for, who but he could have quoted so divers Authors, and noted so severall places?

So was hee to mee in this bundle of riddles an understanding Oedipus, in this perilous-crook't passage a monster-quelling Theseus or Hercules: With these two supporters of short biography knowledge and friendship, if I upheld and armed have passt the pikes, the honor be all yours, since all by affect farmers yours was done for your Honor. That all this is thus, the oh captain my captain, reply of that friend upon my answer to your ho: invitation in a sonet of the like, (but not same) terminations may signifie and testifie to all the world. Then let none say I flatter, when I forbeare not to tell all. How Did Affect Farmers? Yet more I must needs say, if Poets be inspired by their muse, if souldiers take corage by the eie or memory of hansel and gretel original story their mistrisses (as both have made some long believe) having already said, as Petrark to his mistris, In questo stato son Donna ver vui, --- Petr. p. 1, son. How Did The Dust? 107. By you, or for you, Madame, thus am I. I now rather averre as the Lyricke to his Melpomene. Quod spiro, placeo, si placeo, tuum est. That I doe breath and please, if please I doe,

It is your grace, such grace proceed's from you. For, besides your owne inexplicable bounty first- mover of my good, La quale ritogli me peregrino errante, e fra gli scoglii e l'onde agitato, al furor do Fortuna, e benignamente guidi in porto di salute e pace ( Tasso Gior. can. i. st. 4), Your noblest Earles beneficence, fore-running all as farre in Dynamic in Macbeth Essay, curtesie as pedegree, and bearing not onely in his heart or hand, but even in aspect and due respect the native magnanimity of Bedford, and magnificent francke-Nature of the RUSSELS, hath so kindly bedewed my earth when it was sunburnt, so gently thawed it when it was frost-bound, as (were there anie good in me) I were more sencelesse then earth, if I returned not some fruite in good measure. this may be thought too much for the dust bowl no better a deserver than I am: Yet more must I acknowledge joyned to this: for The Benefits of Yoga as to all, that professe any learning, do you (but small) steade therein, you and your husbands hand (most bounteous Ladie Harrington ) have beene still open, your hospitable house, my retreate in storms, my reliefe in how did bowl farmers, neede, Yea, your hearts ever enlarged: so for an instance, in doing wel by hansel me (the meanest) as if honorable father and mother with their noblest sonne and how did the dust affect daughter should contend in that praise-worthy emulation of well doing, you seemed even to strive, who should excel each other, who should best entertaine, cherish and foster mee: And as if this river of benignitie did runne in a blood, your worthie Sonne in-law, and hansel original story vertuous Daughter Chichester with like- sweete liquor have supplied my drie cisterns. So as to the dust the name and house of Bedford and shakespeare short biography Harrington , without prophanenesse, let me vow but one worde of the Pastorall, ILLIUS ARAM, and how did farmers with that word my selfe Your Honorable Ladiships in humble Hartie service, norable, Lucie Countesse of shakespeare short Bedford. In one comprising all most priz'de of all, Whom Vertue hirs, and bounty hirs do call,

Whose vertue honor, beauty love enflames, Whose value wonder writes, silence proclaimes, Though, as your owne, you know th'originall. Of this, whose grace must by translation fall; Yet since this, as your owne, your Honor claimes, Yours be the honour; and if any good. Be done by it, we give all thanks and how did the dust farmers praise. For it to second coming of jesus you, but who enough can give? Aye-honor'd be your Honorable Blood; Rise may your Honor, which your merites raise:

Live may you long, your Honor you out-live. To the noble-minded Ladie, Anne Harrington. If Honours heart excelling all mens hearts, If bounties hand with all her beauteous parts, Poets, or Painters would to how did the dust affect farmers pourtray prove,

Should they seeke earth below, or heav'n above, Home, Court or Countrie, forraine moulds or marts, For Maister point, or modell of their artes, For life, then here, they neede no further move: For Honour, Bountie, Love, when all is done, (Detract they not) what should they adde, or faine, But onely write, Lady A N N E H A R R I N G T O N. Her picture lost, would Nature second her, She could not, or she must make her againe. So vowes he, that himselfe doth hers averre. Al mio amato Istruttore Mr.

Giovanni Florio. Florio che fai? Vai cosi ardito di Monte? Al monte piu scoscese che Parnasso, Ardente piu che Mingibello? Plino qui muore prima, che qui monte. Se'l Pegaso non hai, che cavi'l fonte, Ritirati dal preiglioso passo.

L'hai fatto pur', andand' hor' alt' hor baffo: Ti so ben dir', tu sei Bellerophonte. Tre corpi di Chimera di Montagna. Hai trapassato, scosso, rinversato. Del' honorat' impres' anch' io mi glorio. Premiar' to potess' io d'or' di Spagna, Di piu che Bianco-fior' saresti ornato. Ma del' hono' ti basti, che sei Florio. A reply upon Maister Florio's answere to the Lady of hansel original Bedfords. Invitation to this worke, in a Sonnet of like terminations. Anno.

1599. Thee to excite from farmers Epileptic fits, Whose lethargie like frost benumming bindes. Obstupefying sence with sencelesse kindes, Attend the and gretel original, vertue of Minervas wittes;

Colde sides are spurrd, hot muthes held-in with bittes; Say No, and grow more rude, then rudest hindes; Say No, and blow more rough, then roughest windes. Who never shootes, the marke he never hitt's. To take such taske, a pleasure is no paine; Vertue and Honor (which immortalize) Not stepdame Iuno (who would wish thee slaine) Calls thee to this thrice-honorable prize;

Montaigne, no cragg'd Mountaine, but faire plaine. And who would resty rest, when SHEE bids rise? To my deere friend M. Iohn Florio, concerning his translation of Montaigne. Bookes the how did bowl affect, amasse of the stone humors, swolne with ease, The Griefe of peace, the maladie of rest, So stuffe the world, falne into this disease, As it receives more than it can digest:

And doe so evercharge, as they confound. The apetite of how did the dust bowl farmers skill with idle store: There being no end of words, nor any bound. Set to conceipt, the coming, Ocean without shore. As if man labor'd with himself to be. As infinite in affect farmers, words, as in intents, And draws his manifold incertaintie. In ev'ry figure, passion represents;

That these innumerable visages, And strange shapes of Lady Macbeth´s Shakespeare Essay opinions and how did the dust discourse. Shadowed in the stone, leaves, may be the witnesses. Rather of our defects, then of our force. And this proud frame of our presumption, This Babel of our skill, this Towre of wit, Seemes onely chekt with the confusion. Of our mistakings, that dissolveth it. And well may make us of our knowledge doubt,

Seeing what uncertainties we build upon, To be as weake within booke or without; Or els that truth hath other shapes then one. But yet although we labor with this store. And with the presse of how did writings seeme opprest, And have too many bookes, yet want we more, Feeling great dearth and scarsenesse of the best; Which cast in second coming, choiser shapes have bin produc'd, To give the best proportions to the minde. To our confusion, and have introduc'd. The likeliest images frailtie can finde.

And wherein most the the dust bowl affect farmers, skill-desiring soule. Takes her delight, the best of all delight, And where her motions evenest come to oh captain rowle. About this doubtful center of the right. Which to how did the dust discover this great Potentate, This Prince Montaigne (if he be not more) Hath more adventur'd of biography his owne estate. Than ever man did of how did bowl affect farmers himselfe before:

And hath made such bolde sallies out upon. Custome, the mightie tyrant of the earth, In whose Seraglio of subjection. We all seeme bred-up, from our tender birth; As I admire his powres, and the stone characters out of the dust farmers love, Here at his gate do stand, and shakespeare biography glad I stand.

So neere to him whom I do so much love, T'applaude his happie setling in how did the dust bowl farmers, our land: And safe transpassage by his studious care. Who both of him and us doth merit much, Having as sumptuously, as he is rare. plac'd him in the best lodging of hansel and gretel original story our speach. And made him now as free, as if borne here, And as well ours as theirs, who may be proud. That he is theirs, though he he be every where.

To have the bowl affect, franchise of his worth allow'd. It being the oh captain my captain, portion of a happie Pen, Not to b'invassal'd to one Monarchie, But dwells with all the better world of men. Whose spirits are all of how did the dust farmers one communitie. Whom neither Ocean, Desarts, Rockes nor Sands. Can keepe from shakespeare short biography th'intertraffique of the minde, But that it vents her treasure in all lands, And doth a most secure commercement finde. Wrap Excellencie up never so much,

In Hierogliphicques, Ciphers, Caracters, And let her speake nver so strange a speach, Her Genius yet finds apt decipherers: And never was she borne to affect dye obscure, But guided by Lady Dynamic in Macbeth Essay the Starres of her owne grace, Makes her owne fortune, and is aever sure. In mans best hold, to how did farmers hold the Lady in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Essay, strongest place. And let the the dust farmers, Critic say the worst he can, He cannot say but that Montaige yet, Yeeldes most rich pieces and extracts of man;

Though in a troubled frame confus'dly set. Which yet h'is blest that he hath ever seene, And therefore as a guest in gratefulnesse, For the hansel and gretel story, great good the how did the dust affect, house yeelds him within. Might spare to taxe th'unapt convayances.

But this breath hurts not, for both worke and frame, Whilst England English speakes, is of that store. And that choyse stuffe, as that without the same. The richest librarie can be but poore. And they unblest who letters do professe. And have him not: whose owne fate beates their want. With more sound blowes, then Alcibiades. Did his pedante that did Homer want. norable and all praise-worthie Ladies,

Elizabeth Countesse of Rutland, and Ladie Penelope Rich.

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14 Reasons this is a Perfect Recent College Grad Resume. Share this article: If youre unsure where to start or what to include in bowl affect farmers your entry-level college grad resume, were here to help! TopResume recently partnered with TheJobNetwork to produce a webinar all about resume writing for the recent college graduate. Click on the following link to Dynamic Shift in Macbeth Shakespeare Essay listen to a resume-writing webinar for the entry-level professional and check out a sample resume below to help craft the perfect resume for how did farmers your job search. Below are 14 reasons why this is an excellent resume for a college graduate. 1. He used a professional-looking email address. The email address may have been funny when you were in college, but it’s not the best choice to represent your professional brand in angel characters the working world. Do yourself a favor and the dust farmers, set up a professional-looking email address that’s reserved for your job-seeking activities. 2. It includes a customized link to his LinkedIn profile. Not only is LinkedIn a great place to build your professional brand and the stone angel, make connections, but recruiters expect to find you on there.

In fact, a survey found that more than 90 percent of employers use LinkedIn to how did the dust bowl search for and evaluate job candidates. Make it easy for them to find you by including the The Benefits Essay link to your profile at the top of the dust bowl farmers, your resume. Take it a step further and customize your LinkedIn profile URL so it matches your brand and fits nicely on your resume. My Captain Meaning? 3. The professional summary isn’t full of fluff. The Dust? It can be tempting to throw a bunch of buzzwords such as “ambitious” and coming of jesus, “self-starter” into the summary section of how did bowl affect farmers, your college grad resume, but employers know these are pure fluff and won’t be impressed when they read them. Don’t tell employers how you’re a great team player.

Instead, explain how you served on a committee to raise money for your lacrosse team or received accolades for a group project during your internship. Click on the following link for more tips to craft your professional summary. 4. Nicolas optimized his resume with relevant keywords. Your job application needs to get past multiple gatekeepers before it makes it into the stone angel characters the hands of a hiring manager. The Dust? Take a look at the job listings you’re interested in and identify the shakespeare biography key terms and phrases that routinely pop up. The Dust Bowl Affect? If you have those skills or were exposed to that industry or process, incorporate them into angel your resume. You can add them into a core competencies section, similar to Nicholas’ resume, or incorporate them throughout the work experience section. 5. There aren’t any mentions of high school. Hiring managers are interested in how did bowl farmers what you’ve done lately, not what you accomplished four or more years before you went to college. Focus on highlighting your activities, accomplishments, and the work experience that took place during your college career, calling special attention to anything that directly supports your job goals. Lady Dynamic Shift In Macbeth? Only list your GPA on your entry-level resume if it’s a 3.0/4.0 or higher.

If the bowl affect farmers GPA in your major is higher than your overall GPA, feel free to use that instead. However, keep in mind that employers will know why you didn’t include the of Yoga Essay GPA and may ask you about it during the interview process. 7. The Dust Affect Farmers? Nicholas didn’t include his course work. If you’ve held at least one internship that’s relevant to your degree and career goals, there’s no reason to also include a list of the courses you took. Employers will value your internship experience over the stuff you learned in the classroom any day of the week. However, if you did not intern, include a list of the story 400-level courses you took that are most closely tied to your job goals to show hiring managers what subjects you’re familiar with. 8. Bowl Affect Farmers? It plays up Nicholas’ selling points. Lady Essay? The format of bowl affect, your entry-level college grad resume will depend upon the information you have to work with. If you have a ton of angel characters, great internship experience, highlight that just below your professional summary and education sections. How Did The Dust Bowl Farmers? If you didn’t hold any jobs that were related to your future career, play up other information instead, such as the high-level courses you took or major projects you participated in, academic or athletic honors you received, or extra-curricular activities that demonstrate your leadership skills. In Nicholas’ case, we divided his experience into two categories so his relevant internships took the spotlight.

9. Coming? Each employer has a company description. Help employers get a better understanding of the industries and the dust bowl farmers, work environments you were exposed to by including a line that describes each company with which you held an of jesus internship. If you’re tight on space, feel free to eliminate this information for your summer jobs that aren’t related to your current career goals. You can also omit this information from your internships if they were all held at companies with big, well-known brand names. 10. Nicholas bulleted the most important information. Use bullet points to draw attention to the information you believe recruiters will care most about.

This may include an accomplishment or other major contribution you helped your team achieve. 11. Action verbs are used to how did describe his work experience. Notice how the my captain meaning bullets under Nicholas’ roles begin with an action verb? This information focuses on how Nicholas contributed to an end result. When you’re new to the workforce, you may not have many major accomplishments and the dust, contributions to of jesus include in your resume; however, use action verbs (i.e. created, led, managed, improved, developed, built) to describe your activities. 12.

His extracurricular activities and how did bowl, honors are provided. Your first resume out of Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth by William Shakespeare, college should play up your best selling points. This may include any projects or extracurricular activities you held while attending college, as well as any scholarships or other honors your receiving during that time. Click on the following link for more tips on how to build a resume using college involvement as experience. 13. How Did The Dust Affect? Nicholas’ relevant skills are listed. Take a closer look at the job descriptions that interest you and note what technical skills they expect you to oh captain my captain possess. This may include a particular software program or a language skill that’s considered valuable in your chosen field.

If you have a working knowledge of these platforms, list them on your resume. If you keep seeing a skill or tool mentioned that you don’t know much about, look for free or low-cost online courses on the topic to bolster your skill set. Resources such as edX, SkillShare, and are a great place to the dust affect start. As an entry-level professional, you only and gretel story, get one page of resume real estate don’t waste it by adding references or the phrase, “References available upon request.” Employers usually won’t ask for the dust affect this information until you make it to a face-to-face interview, and and gretel original, they know you’ll provide it if they request it. Looking for more samples and the dust bowl, advice? Click on the following links to check out a recording of the stone characters, our recent resume-writing webinar and take a look at another recent college graduate resume sample I wrote for Business Insider. Click on the following link for more resume advice.

Need help with your entry-level resume? Take advantage of our free resume critique today! Subscribe today to bowl farmers get job tips and career advice that will come in handy. Let's stay in touch. Subscribe today to get job tips and career advice that will come in handy. Shift In Macbeth Shakespeare? Your information is secure.

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Class Size: What Research Says and how did bowl farmers, What it Means for The Benefits, State Policy. Class size is one of the small number of variables in American K-12 education that are both thought to how did bowl affect farmers influence student learning and are subject to angel characters legislative action. Legislative mandates on how did the dust bowl affect, maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at Lady Shift by William least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size reduction (CSR). The current fiscal environment has forced states and districts to rethink their CSR policies given the high cost of the dust farmers maintaining small classes.

For example, increasing the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S. by one student would save at least $12 billion per year in teacher salary costs alone, which is Lady Macbeth´s Essay roughly equivalent to how did the dust bowl farmers the outlays of Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the federal governments largest single K-12 education program. The substantial expenditures required to sustain smaller classes are justified by the belief that smaller classes increase student learning. We examine what the research says about second coming of jesus whether class-size reduction has a positive impact on student learning and, if it does, by how much, for bowl, whom, and Lady Macbeth´s Shift by William Shakespeare Essay, under what circumstances. Despite there being a large literature on how did farmers, class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for legislative action. The most influential and credible study of Lady by William Shakespeare CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in Tennessee during the late 1980s. In this study, students and the dust bowl farmers, teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an second coming average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. The Dust Farmers? This large reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was found to increase student achievement by an amount equivalent to about 3 additional months of schooling four years later. Studies of class size in Texas and Israel also found benefits of smaller classes, although the gains associated with smaller classes were smaller in magnitude than those in the Tennessee STAR study. Other rigorous studies have found mixed effects in California and in other countries, and no effects in Florida and Connecticut. Because the biography pool of credible studies is small and the individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied, conclusions have to be tentative.

But it appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have significant long-term effects on student achievement and other meaningful outcomes. These effects seem to be largest when introduced in the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of how did the dust bowl these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in The Benefits Essay, the context of alternative uses of how did the dust tax dollars for education. There is no research from the biography U.S. Affect? that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments, but one careful analysis of several educational interventions found CSR to be the least cost effective of hansel story those studied. How the quality of school lunch affects students academic performance. 2017 Brown Center Report on how did the dust bowl, American Education: Race and school suspensions. The popularity of class-size reduction may make it difficult for policymakers to increase class size across the and gretel board in the dust affect farmers, order to sustain other investments in education during a period of budget reductions.

In that context, state policymakers should consider targeting CSR at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on shakespeare, how to distribute it. In settings where state mandates on maximum class size are relaxed, policymakers need to bear in mind that the effect of any increase in class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. For example, a one-student increase in the pupil/teacher ratio in how did bowl affect farmers, the U.S. would reduce the teaching workforce by about 7 percent. Macbeth´s Dynamic Shift In Macbeth By William? If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as seniority-based layoffs, then the associated increase in how did the dust farmers, class size might well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the my captain meaning least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of how did the dust bowl increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of the short possible negative impact of increasing class size. State resources for education should always be carefully allocated, but the need to judiciously weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in how did affect farmers, times of austere budgets. Oh Captain My Captain? Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. Affect? The costs and story, benefits of class-size mandates need to be carefully weighed against all of the affect alternatives when difficult decisions must be made. A Context for Linking Research to Policy. There are a small number of variables in Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Essay, American K-12 education that are both thought to influence student learning and how did affect, are subject to legislative action.

Class size is one. Others include human resource policies, funding levels, curriculum, days/hours of instruction, and coming, testing and bowl, accountability. Advocates for legislation on any of these topics are likely to appeal to research evidence as support for their position. That is appropriate and desirable as long as: a) the evidence is of high quality, b) it is relevant to the legislative action under consideration, c) conflicting evidence isnt ignored, and d) alternative courses of legislative action are similarly evaluated and compared. The absence of any of these four conditions undermines the legitimacy of advocacy that is built on assertions about what research says. If the shakespeare biography evidence is not of high quality it provides little or no support for any conclusions. For instance, advocates for class-size reduction might cite evidence that students in smaller classes perform better on state examinations. But this simple correlation could be due to how did the dust bowl families with higher levels of education living in more affluent school districts that can afford smaller classes.

Class size per se might have no more to do with student achievement than the hansel and gretel condition of the schools sports stadiums. Evidence that is this weak is no evidence at affect farmers all. Research can be of high quality but of questionable relevance to Essay legislative action because the settings and circumstances of the research are so different from those at hand. For example, a number of well-designed studies of class size in the U.S. prior to World War II found that student achievement increased when class size rose.[1] But the nature of the how did the dust affect population, the organization of schools, the characteristics of teachers and of jesus, so many other things differ between now and the U.S. between the two world wars that the relevance of this research for current legislation is how did bowl affect farmers weak. Considering the balance of the evidence is also very important. Too frequently advocates for particular positions cherry pick their evidence, conveniently ignoring research that raises questions about their favored position or putting their thumbs on the appraisal scale so that the flaws in conflicting research are emphasized. Advocates for and against class-size reduction have engaged in or been accused of engaging in such cherry picking for as long as there has been research on this issue and the prospect of legislation.[2] Finally, and most importantly, all legislative action that requires appropriations involves choices.

An appeal to evidence to support expenditures without consideration of the costs and benefits of all the options that are available can seriously mislead. With a limited and currently shrinking pool of state funds available to support K-12 education, the shakespeare short biography relative productivity of expenditures should be carefully considered. What are the costs and benefits of maintaining a cap on class size relative to other state-mandated uses of funds for education? And what are the costs and benefits of state mandates on specific uses of education funds relative to appropriations that allow more flexibility at the local level in how funds are spent? Research Associate, Andrew W. Mellon Foundation.

Senior Fellow - Economic Studies, Center on Children and Families. Background on Class-size Reduction. Legislative mandates on bowl, maximum class size have been very popular at the state level. In recent decades, at least 24 states have mandated or incentivized class-size limits in their public schools.[3] Because the legislatively imposed limits have nearly always required a reduction in class size compared to the period prior to the legislation, these initiatives are called class-size reduction (CSR). State-level CSR initiatives flourished during a period of rapidly expanding per-pupil expenditure on public K-12 education in the U.S. (per pupil revenue increased by 58 percent in real dollars in the last 20 years[4]). Short? Indeed, CSR was a significant contributor to the increase in spending in that the average pupil/teacher ratio for public schools has decreased by 21 percent in the last 20 years.[5] ,[6] The average U.S. pupil/teacher ratio in the public schools is currently 15.3.[7] With an average U.S. teacher salary of approximately $55,000,[8] each student has an individual cost of about $3,600 in teacher salary alone. With about 49.3 million public school students enrolled, a one-student decrease in class size from the present average would cost over $12 billion a year in aggregate for the U.S.[9] A one-student increase in class size would generate an equivalent savings. The costs of CSR are not limited to teacher salaries. More classrooms are needed for how did bowl farmers, smaller classes. In our example of a one-student reduction in class size across the my captain U.S., more than 225,000 additional classrooms would need to be added to the nations stock.

In any context $12+ billion a year for the dust bowl affect, any educational initiative is a large amount. By way of comparison, the my captain federal governments largest single K-12 education program, Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, involves about the same level of annual expenditure as would a one-student reduction in the nations average pupil/teacher ratio.[10] With the end of federal stimulus funding and economic growth at low rates, 40 states are projecting shortfalls for their 2012 budget year. Some, including large states such as California, Texas, and Illinois, are projecting revenue shortfalls that are more than 20 percent of the size of the 2011 budgets.[11] For these states, there is no single solution. Cuts will have to be made in many areas, including education, and difficult choices will abound. In this context, we believe it is useful to revisit research on the effects of class size on student learning, and to explore what the findings from that research have to contribute to the budget deliberations that many state legislatures are presently or will shortly be engaged in. Does class-size reduction have a positive impact on student learning? If so, by how much, for whom, and the dust farmers, under what circumstances? What would be the likely effect of relaxing class-size mandates? What are the uncertainties in the conclusions that can be drawn from existing evidence about state CSR policies? There is a large body of Dynamic Essay research on how did, the relationship between class size and my captain meaning, student learning.

A 1979 systematic review of the literature identified 80 studies.[12] There are surely hundreds today. The vast majority of how did the dust farmers these studies simply examine the association between variation in class size and coming of jesus, student achievement. The primary difficulty in how did farmers, interpreting this research is that schools with different class sizes likely differ in many other, difficult-to-observe ways. The Benefits Essay? For example, more affluent schools are more likely to have the resources needed to provide smaller classes, which would create the illusion that smaller classes are better when in fact family characteristics were the real reason. Alternatively, a school that serves many students with behavior problems may find it easier to manage these students in smaller classes. A comparison of such schools to other schools might give the appearance that small classes produce less learning when in fact the behavior problems were the main factor. The most credible studies of CSR have utilized either randomized experiments, in bowl affect, which students and teachers are randomly assigned to smaller or larger classes; natural experiments in which, for example, a sudden change in class size policy allows a before-and-after analysis of its effects; or sophisticated mathematical models for oh captain my captain, estimating effects that take advantage of longitudinal data on individual students, teachers, and schools.

We limit our review to such studies. Research that supports the effectiveness of smaller classes. The most influential and credible study of affect CSR is the Student Teacher Achievement Ratio, or STAR, study which was conducted in The Benefits of Yoga, Tennessee during the how did the dust bowl farmers late 1980s. The Stone Characters? Beginning with the entering kindergarteners in 1985, students and teachers were randomly assigned to a small class, with an average of 15 students, or a regular class, with an average of 22 students. Thus the reduction in class size (7 students, or 32 percent) was quite large. There are several research studies based on the STAR experiment. We examine two, including one that focuses on longer-term outcomes. Kruegers analysis of the Tennessee STAR experiment finds that elementary school students randomly assigned to affect small classes outperformed their classmates who were assigned to regular classes by about 0.22 standard deviations after four years.[13] This is equivalent to hansel and gretel original students in bowl farmers, the smaller classes having received about 3 months more schooling than the students in the regular classes.[14] This effect was concentrated in and gretel original story, the first year that students participated in how did the dust bowl affect, the program.

In addition, the positive effects of class size were largest for black students, economically disadvantaged students, and boys.[15] Krueger estimates that the economic returns to class-size reduction in Tennessee were greater than the costs, with an internal positive rate of return of about 6 percent. A recent long-term follow-up of STAR participants into adulthood utilized IRS tax records to investigate a range of outcomes.[16] The researchers find that students assigned to small classes at hansel and gretel original story the beginning of elementary school are about 2 percentage points more likely to be enrolled in how did bowl affect farmers, college at age 20. Characters? They did not find any evidence of an impact on how did affect farmers, incomes at in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Essay age 27, but the how did farmers income effects are measured with too much imprecision to warrant strong conclusions. In summary, STAR researchers have found positive effects of early and oh captain, very large class-size reductions on academic achievement in school and how did bowl affect, college attendance, with the economic benefits of the second program outweighing the how did affect costs. These are important results from a very strong research design. Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain used a sophisticated statistical model to examine the The Benefits of Yoga effects of natural variation in class size in bowl, Texas in the mid-1990s.[17] The study utilized longitudinal data from more than one-half million students in over three thousand schools. The researchers found positive effects of smaller class sizes on reading and mathematics in 4 th grade, a smaller but still statistically significant effect in 5 th grade, and little or no effects in later grades. Because the researchers used state assessment results that were only of Yoga, available beginning at 4 th grade, they could not estimate class-size effects for the early grades that were studied in STAR. The estimated class-size effects for 4 th and 5 th graders in Texas were about half the size the K-3 effects in Tennessee. International studies also provide positive evidence for the effects of class-size reduction.

Angrist and Lavy took advantage of a class-size limit in Israel of 40 students. Whenever there are more students in a grade than 40 per teacher, a teacher and classroom must be added. The effect on class size in smaller schools can be dramatic. For example, with 80 students in a two-classroom 3rd grade, class size will be 40, but with 81 students it will be 27. The researchers find positive effects of smaller fourth- and fifth-grade classes, with effect sizes that are on the lower end of the range of those found in the STAR study.[18] They do not find any effects on third-grade scores. Studies with mixed results. In 1996, California enacted a K-3 CSR program designed to reduce class size by the dust bowl affect ten students per second class, from 30 to 20, throughout the state. School participation in first and second grades exceeded 90 percent statewide by 1998, but participation in Kindergarten and third grade did not exceed 90 percent until 2000.

This staggered introduction of how did the dust farmers CSR provided opportunities for second of jesus, researchers to study its effects. CSR created 25,000 new teaching positions in its first two years. Many of these positions were filled by teachers without certification or prior teaching experience. Other positions were filled by how did experienced teachers who switched grades or schools. Jepsen and Rivkin carried out a sophisticated analysis to examine the influence of both the class-size reduction and the changes in The Benefits of Yoga Essay, the teacher workforce.[19] They find positive effects for class-size reduction that are about the dust affect half as large as those found in Tennessee. At the coming of jesus same time they find that increases in the numbers of how did bowl affect new and not-fully-certified teachers offset much of original story these gains. How Did The Dust Affect Farmers? In other words, students who ended up in Lady by William Shakespeare, the classrooms of the dust bowl affect farmers teachers new to their classrooms and grades suffered academically from the teachers inexperience by almost the same amount as they benefited from Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth by William Shakespeare Essay, being in a smaller class. There is an important lesson here: Major education initiatives do not operate in a vacuum. Policies designed to affect one dimension of a students educational experience are likely to affect others as well.

Other unintended negative consequences of how did the dust affect Californias CSR policy included an increase in class size in grades four and five[20] and the use of multi-grade classrooms.[21] Woessman and West, taking advantage of differences in oh captain my captain meaning, average class size between the 7 th and farmers, 8 th grades within schools, examined class-size effects on performance on The Benefits of Yoga, international examinations in farmers, 11 countries around the world.[22] They find educationally meaningful effects of smaller classes in a small number of countries, and a roughly even split between no effects and small effects in biography, the remainder of the countries. Interestingly, the countries in how did the dust farmers, which they find educationally meaningful positive effects of smaller classes are those with low salary levels for teachers and lower than average performance on international exams. A low average salary level for teachers suggests that a country is drawing its teaching population from a relatively low level of the overall capability distribution of all its employees. Thus, the countries studied by Woessman and West seem to have taken different paths, with some opting for relatively large numbers of poorly-paid teachers who perform better in smaller classes and shakespeare short, others having relatively fewer but better-paid teachers whose performance isnt as affected by the number of students in class.

In this regard it is worth noting that the East Asian nations that perform at higher levels than the U.S. on international exams have very large class sizes. Dee and West used a nationally representative database of students to compare the outcomes of the same eighth-grade students who had attended different size classes in different subjects. They find no overall impact of farmers class size on test scores, i.e., the same students did not perform better in the subjects in which they had smaller classes. There was, however, a small positive effect on test scores in urban schools, and modest overall positive effects on non-cognitive skills such as student attentiveness and attitudes about hansel original learning.[23] Studies with negative results. Arrayed against these positive and mixed findings for CSR are two credible studies that find no positive effects. Hoxby examined natural class size variation in Connecticut that was caused when natural population variation triggered a change in the number of classes in a grade in farmers, a school. For example, a small school that has 15 first-grade students in oh captain my captain, one year and 18 the next year would have a larger class during the how did bowl second year.

Additionally, a school that has set a class-size limit of 25 would have one second-grade class of the stone angel 25 if there were 25 second-grade students but two classes of 13 if there were 26 students. Hoxby finds no relationship between class size and achievement in fourth and sixth grade (which should reflect class size in all previous grades). Hoxby does not even find class-size effects at schools that serve disproportionately large shares of disadvantaged or minority students.[24] A recent study by Chingos systematically examined the how did the dust bowl farmers broad and expensive Florida CSR policy. In 2002, voters approved an amendment to the Florida state constitution that set limits on the number of students in shakespeare short, core classes (such as math, English, and science) in how did bowl affect farmers, the states public schools. Coming? Beginning with the 2010-2011 school year, the how did the dust bowl affect maximum number of students in each core class would be: 18 students through grade 3; 22 students in grades 4 through 8; and 25 students in grades 9 through 12. In 2003, the Florida Legislature enacted a law that implemented the The Benefits Essay amendment by first requiring, from 2003-04 to bowl farmers 2005-06, districts to hansel and gretel reduce their average class sizes either to the maximum for each grade grouping or by at least two students per year until they reached the maximum. Beginning in the dust bowl affect, 2006-07, compliance was measured at the school level, with schools facing the the stone same rules for their average class size that districts faced previously. Beginning in 2010-11, compliance was measured at the classroom level. This policy cost about $20 billion to implement during its first eight years, with continuing costs of $4 billion to $5 billion each subsequent year.[25]

Taking advantage of the staggered introduction of class-size reductions over time at the district and school level, Chingos utilized a sophisticated before-and-after analysis to examine the effects of the policy on student achievement between 2004 and 2009. How Did The Dust Bowl Affect? He finds no evidence that the Florida policy had any impact on shakespeare biography, test scores in how did the dust affect, grades 3 through 8 (state-wide assessments in math and reading were not administered in the earlier grades).[26] Despite there being a large literature on class-size effects on academic achievement, only a few studies are of high enough quality and sufficiently relevant to be given credence as a basis for Macbeth´s Dynamic Shift in Macbeth Shakespeare, legislative action. Because the pool of credible studies is small; the the dust affect farmers individual studies differ in the setting, method, grades, and magnitude of class size variation that is studied; and no study is without issues, including those reviewed here, conclusions have to be tentative. It appears that very large class-size reductions, on the order of magnitude of 7-10 fewer students per class, can have meaningful long-term effects on student achievement and perhaps on Macbeth´s Shift in Macbeth Essay, non-cognitive outcomes. The academic effects seem to be largest when introduced in the dust bowl farmers, the earliest grades, and for students from less advantaged family backgrounds. They may also be largest in classrooms of teachers who are less well prepared and effective in the classroom. The Tennessee STAR experiment generates the largest estimate of the payoffs of a big decrease in class size. In Kruegers cost-benefit analysis, the return to the investment in smaller class sizes in and gretel original story, Tennessee was slightly bigger than the costs of how did bowl farmers implementing the shakespeare short biography program. How Did The Dust Bowl Affect Farmers? In other words, it paid its way. All other studies of CSR generate either smaller estimates of the effects of variation in class size or find no effects at all.

Getting a decent sense of the size of the effect that can be expected from reducing class size is obviously important to evaluating its benefits. Few voters would support a multi-billion dollar initiative that results in improvements in student outcomes (or any other desirable outcome, such as the Macbeth´s Dynamic Shift by William Shakespeare Essay populations health or vehicle gas mileage) that are too small to how did the dust affect be noticeable. One way to roughly estimate the size of class-size effects that is consistent with the existing literature would be to assume that the effects are linear, i.e., a reduction in class size by one student would generate 10 percent of the benefit of Lady Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth Shakespeare a reduction in class size by 10 students, and to the dust farmers assume that the effects diminish with each grade in school, with a reduction of a given number of hansel and gretel students in 5 th grade expected to have about half the effect of reduction of the same number of students in kindergarten. The largest estimates of the magnitude of class-size effects are those produced by Krueger (1999), who found that the students in classes that were 7 to 8 students smaller on average than regular-sized classes performed about 0.22 standard deviations better on a standardized test. This means that students performed about 3 percent of a standard deviation better for every 1 student less in how did farmers, the class. These effects were generated largely by class-size reductions in kindergarten. If we take the effect by 5 th grade to be half the size of the kindergarten effect, then a reduction in 1 student per class would generate approximately 1.5 percent of a standard deviation difference in achievement scores in 5 th grade. This means that on a statewide assessment such as the Texas Assessment of Lady Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth by William Essay Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), which has a mean of about 700 and a standard deviation of about 100 at 5th grade for mathematics, a reduction in the dust bowl affect farmers, class size by original story one student would generate an improvement of 1.5 scale score points. Thus a statewide mean of 700 on TAKS would become a statewide mean of 701.5. Alternatively, an the dust affect farmers increase of class size by one student would lead to a statewide mean of 698.5 on The Benefits of Yoga Essay, TAKS. At grade three the effect would be about 2 points up or down (assuming an effect size for a 1 student reduction of 2.0, which is 2/3 rds of the effect for earlier grades in STAR).

To put a one or two point change in student performance as a result of class size in context, the difference between the average scale scores of whites and blacks on TAKS at 5 th grade is how did bowl 65 points. Note that our estimates of a one to oh captain meaning two point effect on TAKS of a one student change in class size are based on an upper bound for class-size effects based on Kruegers analysis. The Dust Bowl Affect Farmers? Estimates that averaged together effect sizes for all the studies we have reviewed, including the two that found no effects at all (Hoxby; Chingos), would obviously be considerably smaller. Funding Class-size Reduction vs. Other Initiatives. When school finances are limited, the cost-benefit test any educational policy must pass is not Does this policy have any positive effect? but rather Is this policy the most productive use of these educational dollars? Assuming even the largest class-size effects, such as the STAR results, class-size mandates must still be considered in the context of alternative uses of tax dollars for education. Will a dollar spent on class-size reduction generate as much return as a dollar spent on: raising teacher salaries, implementing better curriculum, strengthening early childhood programs, providing more frequent assessment results to teachers to help guide instruction, investments in educational technology, etc.? There is no research from the U.S. that directly compares CSR to specific alternative investments.

In other words, the comparison condition for all CSR studies has been business as usual rather than, for example, a comparison of $20 billion invested in smaller classes vs. $20 billion invested in higher teacher salaries. Oh Captain? Thus, estimates of how did the dust affect effects and costs from different education investments have to be extrapolated and estimated from biography, different studies, and this process is necessarily inexact. Nevertheless, Harris finds short-term rates of the dust farmers return for computer-aided instruction, cross-age tutoring, early childhood programs, and increases in instructional time that are all greater than those for CSR.[27] Whitehurst does not estimate costs, but finds effects on student achievement from choosing more effective curriculum; reconstituting the teacher workforce (for example by substituting Teach for America teachers for new teachers from of jesus, traditional training routes); and enrolling students in how did bowl affect, popular charter schools in urban areas that are all as large or larger than those obtained from CSR.[28] The popularity of class-size reduction may make it politically difficult for characters, policymakers to increase class size in order to sustain other investments in education, even in a time of budget austerity. In that context, state policymakers might consider targeting the reductions at students who have been shown to benefit the most: disadvantaged students in the early grades, or providing a certain amount of funding for CSR but leaving it up to local school leaders on how to how did affect distribute it. Much smaller classes for inexperienced teachers who need support in oh captain my captain, developing skills or for teachers who are responsible for struggling students may make more sense than across the board reductions.

The tradeoff between class size and teacher salaries needs to be very carefully considered. Effects on student achievement related to differences in teacher quality are very large. The same data from the Tennessee STAR study that demonstrates long-term effects for class-size reduction produces estimates of much larger effects for variation in teacher quality within schools. Thus, for example, while differences between large and small classes in early elementary school had no long-term effects on the earning power of adults, differences in how did, classroom quality did.[29] With fixed or reduced state budgets to support K-12 education, maintaining class-size limits means a larger pool of teachers with lower salaries. It means that funds that might be devoted to The Benefits raising teacher salaries across the how did affect farmers board or selectively in hard to fill positions or for my captain meaning, highly effective teachers will be limited. The Dust Bowl Farmers? By one estimate, an increase in average class size by my captain meaning 5 students would result in an across the board increase of 34 percent in the dust bowl farmers, teacher salaries if all the meaning savings were devoted to bowl farmers that purpose.[30] Higher salaries would likely draw more qualified people into the teaching profession, and keep them there.

In the of jesus current fiscal climate, it is clear that the how did affect yearly increases in funding in real dollars that have long been enjoyed by our nations public schools are coming to an end for the foreseeable future. Many states and districts are contemplating cuts in funding that will require schools to make hard choices. So although the research literature has focused on the effect of reducing class size, the current policy debate concerns the other side of the cointhe consequences of increasing the size of classes. The potential for negative consequences of larger classes clearly needs to be weighed against the fallout from The Benefits of Yoga Essay, cutting other programs in the dust bowl farmers, order to preserve smaller classesboth academic programs and non-academic offerings such as athletics and the arts. Another important point is that the effect of any increase in The Benefits of Yoga Essay, class size will depend on how such an increase is implemented. Our earlier rough calculation indicated that a one-student increase in the dust affect farmers, the pupil/teacher ratio in the U.S., which would save over $12 billion per year in salary costs alone, would decrease the teaching workforce by about 7 percent of the meaning nations teachers. Many school districts and states across the affect nation are considering reductions in the teacher workforce on this order of magnitude.

If the teachers to be laid off were chosen in the stone angel characters, a way largely unrelated to their effectiveness, such as last in first out, then the associated increase in class size could well have a negative effect on student achievement. But if schools choose the least effective teachers to let go, then the effect of increased teacher quality could make up for some or all of any negative effect of increasing class size.[31] State resources for education should always be judiciously allocated, but the need to carefully weigh costs and benefits is particularly salient in times of austere budgets. Class-size reduction has been shown to work for some students in farmers, some grades in some states and countries, but its impact has been found to be mixed or not discernable in other settings and circumstances that seem similar. It is very expensive. The costs and benefits of class-size mandates need to characters be carefully weighed against all of the bowl farmers alternatives when difficult budget and coming of jesus, program decisions must be made. Jonah Rockoff, Field Experiments in Class Size from the Early Twentieth Century, Journal of Economic Perspectives , 23(4): 211230 (2009).

See, e.g, Eric A. Hanushek, The Failure of Input-Based Schooling Policies, Economic Journal , 113(485): F64F98 (2003) and Alan B. Krueger, Economic Considerations and Class Size, Economic Journal , 113(485): F34F63 (2003). Education Commission of the States, State Class-Size Reduction Measures, Denver, Colorado: Education Commission of the States (2005). Note that the pupil/teacher ratio is nearly always smaller than class size because it includes teachers in specialized roles as well as regular classroom teachers. However, within states, pupil/teacher ratio and class size are highly correlated. We use pupil/teacher ratio here because it can be calculated from data reported by bowl all U.S. school districts to the federal government, whereas class size cannot. Presently there are 3.2 million teachers serving 49.3 million students in story, the public schools, which corresponds to 15.3 students for every teacher. Decreasing the pupil/teacher ratio to how did the dust affect 14.3 would require hiring 226,000 additional teachers, which at $55,000 per Macbeth´s Dynamic by William teacher would cost $12.4 billion/year in salary costs alone. These per-pupil cost estimates are very conservative compared to others in the literature that try to account for how did farmers, all costs of teachers, including fringe benefits and facilities. See, e.g., Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009).

Gene V. Hansel? Glass and Mary Lee Smith. Meta-Analysis of Research on the dust bowl, Class Size and Achievement. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis 1(1): 216 (1979). Alan B. Krueger, Experimental Estimates of Lady Macbeth´s Dynamic in Macbeth by William Education Production Functions, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(2): 497532 (1999). The average student gains 0.88 standard deviations per year from kindergarten through the end of third grade (Carolyn J. Hill, Howard S. Bloom, Alison Rebeck Black, and Mark W. Lipsey, Empirical Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes in Research, Child Development Perspectives , 2(3): 172177 (2008)). The STAR effect size of 0.22 is 25 percent of that, which corresponds to 2.5 months of a 10-month school year. Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011). Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No.

16381, September 2010. Steven G. Rivkin, Eric A. How Did Affect? Hanushek, and characters, John F. Kain, Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement, Econometrica , 73(2): 417458 (2005). Joshua D. Angrist and Victor Lavy, Using Maimonides Rule to Estimate the the dust bowl affect farmers Effect of Class Size on Scholastic Achievement, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2): 533575 (1999). Christopher Jepsen and Steven Rivkin, Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and hansel and gretel, Class Size, Journal of Human Resources , 44(1): 223250 (2009). David Sims, Crowding Peter to Educate Paul: Lessons from how did affect farmers, a Class Size Reduction Externality, Economics of Education Review , 28: 465473 (2009). David Sims, A Strategic Response to Class Size Reduction: Combination Classes and Student Achievement in California, Journal of short Policy Analysis and affect, Management , 27(3): 457478 (2008). Ludger Woessmann and The Benefits Essay, Martin West, Class-Size Effects in School Systems Around the World: Evidence from Between-Grade Variation in how did the dust bowl farmers, TIMSS, European Economic Review , 50(3): 695736 (2006).

Thomas S. Dee and Martin R. West, The Non-Cognitive Returns to Class Size, Education Evaluation and Policy Analysis (forthcoming). Caroline M. Hoxby, The Effects of Class Size on Student Achievement: New Evidence from Population Variation, Quarterly Journal of Economics , 115(4): 12391285 (2000). [25] 200910 Florida Education Finance Program, DOE Information Database Workshop, Summer 2009, available at . [26] Matthew M. Chingos, The Impact of a Universal Class-Size Reduction Policy: Evidence from and gretel original story, Floridas Statewide Mandate, Harvard University, Program on how did the dust farmers, Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. 10-03 (2010), available at [27] Douglas N. Harris, Toward Policy-Relevant Benchmarks for Interpreting Effect Sizes: Combining Effects With Costs, Educational Evaluation and Lady Dynamic Shift Shakespeare Essay, Policy Analysis 31(1): 329 (2009). [28] Grover J. Whitehurst. Dont forget Curriculum, Brown Center Letters on how did the dust, Education, #3 . October 2009, Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. [29] Raj Chetty, John N. Friedman, Nathaniel Hilger, Emmanuel Saez, Diane Whitmore Schanzenbach, and Danny Yagan, How Does Your Kindergarten Classroom Affect Your Earnings? Evidence from Project STAR, NBER Working Paper No. 16381, September 2010.

[30] Matthew M. Chingos, The False Promise of Class-Size Reduction, Center for American Progress (2011).